Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition, Glossary and Index of Terms

Get access Subject: Middle East and Islamic Studies
Edited by: P.J. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel and W.P. Heinrichs
Assisted by C. Ott, under the patronage of the International Union of Acadamies

Glossary and Index of Terms treats the technical terms in Arabic, Persian, Turkish, Urdu and other languages or dialects of the Islamic world. As an index, it is of immeasurable importance, in particular for the many terms which are not given an entry but are discussed in the course of an article; and as glossary it is an invaluable source of information for both non-specialist, who is given an insight into the varied and rich vocabulary of Islam, and the specialist, who may discover surprising new contexts in which a term is used.

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(31 words)

yāʾ (A) : the twenty-eighth letter of the Arabic alphabet, with the numerical value 10. It stands for the semivowel y an…


(14 words)

yābānī (A) : in modern Arabic, a person of Japanese descent. Yāʾ


(43 words)

yabg̲h̲u (T) : an ancient Turkish title, found in the Ork̲h̲on inscriptions to denote an office or r…


(74 words)

yabrūḥ (A) : in botany, the Mandragora or mandrake ( Mandragora officinarum, Solanaceae, also called Atropa mandrag…


(46 words)

yad (A) : lit. hand, ~ covers a vast semantic range: power, help, strength, sufficiency, ability to …

yada tas̲h̲

(85 words)

yada tas̲h̲ (T) : lit. rain stone, appearing in Arabic texts as ḥad̲j̲ar al-maṭar, a magical stone by means of wh…


(23 words)

yādgār (P) : lit. souvenir, keepsake; in numismatics, any special issue of coins struck for a variet…


(21 words)

yāfiʿ (A) : in the terminology of childhood, ‘a boy grown up . . . grown tall’ (Lane). Ṣag̲h̲īr


(7 words)

yag̲h̲mā (P) : plunder. Yag̲h̲ma


(24 words)

yahūd (A, < Ar, s. yahūdī) : the common collective singular for ‘Jews’. A less common plural hūd is also used. Yag̲h̲…


(19 words)

yak̲h̲čāl (P) : in architecture, a mud-brick structure built in Iran to make and store ice. Iran


(10 words)

yak̲h̲s̲h̲a (Pah) : a pearl. Ṣīr Banī Yās


(10 words)

yaḳīn (A) : in law, a certainty. Wuḍūʾ


(19 words)

yaḳṭīn (A) : a plant mentioned in the Qurʾān, probably a kind of Cucurbitacea. Masd̲j̲id; al-Mawṣil; Naʿām


(53 words)

yaʿḳūbī (A, pl. yaʿḳūbiyyūn, yaʿāḳiba, yaʿḳūbiyya) : a Jacobite Christian, the designation for a member o…


(119 words)

yāḳūt (A, < Gk) : in mineralogy, corundum, a crystallised form of alumina [A1sub:2Osub:3] which occurs in many co…


(27 words)

yali̊ (T, < Gk) : lit. bank, shore; in Ottoman times, a residence, villa built on the edge of the wa…


(39 words)

yaltuma (T) : a musical instrument of the pandore type, but smaller with three strings and a waisted…


(101 words)

yām (A, P; < Mon ḳam) : the effective network of communications established by the Mongols to control the…


(36 words)

yamaḳ (T) : ‘adjunct’; in the Ottoman army, an assistant to an auxiliary soldier, Es̲h̲kind̲j̲i. Esʿ…


(17 words)

yamāma (A) : in zoology, wild pigeon, as opposed to the domesticated pigeon, Ḥamām. Yām


(152 words)

yamīn (A, pl. aymān, aymun) : lit. the right hand, but often used in Arabic with the transferred sense o…


(13 words)

yamk̲h̲ūr (A, pl. yamāk̲h̲īr) : in zoology, the drone bee. Naḥl


(9 words)

yanbūʿ (A) : well. Yamūt b. al-Muzarraʿ


(15 words)

yār (T) : eroded, vertical bank or gorge of a river, cliff. Yārkand


(26 words)

yarāʿ (A) : in music, a flute, blown into from a hole as distinct from the Mizmār, a reed pipe. Malā…


(67 words)

yarbūʿ (A, < Ar) : in zoology, the jerboa. jumping mouse or jumping hare ( Jaculus) of the class of rodents and fam…


(39 words)

yarg̲h̲u (T) : trial, interrogation, the Mongolian tribunal or court of justice, hence yarg̲h̲uči, a judge. Accor…


(32 words)

yarıcılık (T) : a land-leasing system in Turkey, in which the peasant uses his own tools, plough and…


(37 words)

yarli̊g̲h̲ (T), or yarli̊ḳ : under the Mongols and their successor states, a decree, edict, command, co…


(31 words)

yāsā (Mon) : law, decree, order; in the phrase ‘the Great ~ of Čingiz Ḵh̲ān’, a comprehensive legal …


(103 words)

yasaḳ : a tribute. Temes̲h̲wār yasaḳ-ḳulu (T) : under the Ottomans, a special …


(58 words)

yāsamīn (A), yāsimīn, yāsamūn : in botany, the jasmine shrub. Several sub-species are found in the Arab…


(24 words)

yasar (A, pl. aysār) : a player of Maysir; those who presided over the division of the parts were called al-yāsirūn. al-…


(22 words)

yas̲h̲m (P) : in mineralogy, jade, known to Eastern Turkic peoples as kas̲h̲ and to the Mongols as k̲h̲as. Yasawiyya


(19 words)

yāsid̲j̲ (T ?) : an arrow with a flat-edged head, recommended for hunting the wild boar. K̲h̲inzīr


(62 words)

yatīm (A, yatāmā) : a child, below the age of puberty, who has lost his father (after puberty ~ is not…


(31 words)

yatīma (A) : known as al-yatīma, a large white gem, weighing seven dirhams, one of the many gems in the t…


(19 words)

yattūʿ (A) : in botany, wolfs’ milk, of the class of Euphorbia, a gum resin. Sambas; Summ


(26 words)

yawa (T), or ḳačḳun : one of the occasional (Bād-I Hawā) taxes paid in the Ottoman empire while recover…


(352 words)

yawm (A, pl. ayyām) : day, the whole 24-hour cycle making up a day, with Nahār meaning ‘the daylight pe…


(45 words)

yaya (T) : lit. pedestrian; in the Ottoman military of the 14th-16th centuries, infantryman. Sand̲j̲…


(121 words)

yaylaḳ (T, < yay ‘spring’, later ‘summer’) : summer quarters, the upland pastures favoured by the nomad…


(14 words)

yazak (P) : in military science, an advanced guard (syn. Ṭalīʿa). Ṭalīʿa


(50 words)

yazīdī (A, K ēzdī, ēzdīdī) : member of a mainly Kurdish-speaking group, yazīdiyya, whose communal identity is de…


(39 words)

yazi̊d̲j̲i̊ (T) : lit. writer, secretary, used in Ottoman times for the clerks in the various govern…


(40 words)

yelek (T, A) : a woman’s long coat, tightly fitting, worn in the Arab East; a long vest worn by both…


(21 words)

yemeni (T) : light shoes worn by the Zeybek in Western Anatolia as part of their folk costume. Zeybek

yeni čeri

(71 words)

yeni čeri (T) : lit. new troop; the Janissary corps, a body of professional, that is, salaried, infan…


(26 words)

yerliyya (T, A, < T yerlü ‘local’) : during the Ottoman empire, term used by Damascene sources for the lo…
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