Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition

Get access Subject: Middle East and Islamic Studies
Edited by: P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel and W.P. Heinrichs

The Encyclopaedia of Islam (Second Edition) Online sets out the present state of our knowledge of the Islamic World. It is a unique and invaluable reference tool, an essential key to understanding the world of Islam, and the authoritative source not only for the religion, but also for the believers and the countries in which they live. 

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(1,145 words)

Author(s): Seybold, C.F. | Huici Miranda, A.
, Span. Denia , capital of the northeastern district of the province of Alicante, the most southerly of the three present-day provinces which used to make up the ancient kingdom of Valencia (Castellon de la Plana, Valencia, Alicante). This town of 50,000 inhabitants is situated at the southeast tip of the Gulf of Valencia (Sinus Sucronensis), north of the mountain Mongó (in Arabic Ḏj̲abal Ḳāʿūn) which is 2,190 feet high. Because of its good harbour, north-west of the ancient P…


(121 words)

Author(s): Burton-Page, J.
, called Sulṭān Dāniyāl in the histories, the youngest and favourite son of the Mug̲h̲al emperor Akbar, born Ad̲j̲mēr 2 D̲j̲umāda I 979/22 September 1571. In 1008/1599 he was appointed military governor of the Deccan, and after his conquest of the city of Aḥmadnagar (1009/1601) he was honoured by Akbar and given the province of K̲h̲āndēs̲h̲, fancifully named Dāndēs̲h̲ after him. He is described as well-built, good-looking, fond of horses, and skilful in the composition of Hindūstānī poems. He figures in Abu ’l-Faḍl’s lists of the grandees of the empire ( Āʾīn-i Akbarī


(649 words)

Author(s): Vajda, G.
Muslim tradition has retained only a weak and rather confused record of the two biblical characters bearing the name Daniel, the sage of ancient times mentioned by Ezekiel (xiv, 14, 20 and xxviii, 3) and the visionary who lived at the time of the captivity in Babylon, who himself sometimes appears as two different people. Furthermore, the faint trace of a figure from the antiquity of fable combining with the apocalyptic tone of the book handed down in the Bible under the name Daniel, makes Dāniy…


(420 words)

Author(s): Longrigg, S.H.
, (plural Danāḳil), a tribe occupying the western Red Sea coast from the neighbourhood of Zūla (39° 15′ E, 15° 10′ N) to French Somaliland, and spreading inland over territory of extreme heat and desolation to the foot of the main escarpment of Ethiopia and astride the Dessié—ʿAṣṣāb road. Mainly but no longer exclusively nomadic, with some cattle-owning sections, they have formed many semi-permanent hamlets and a few larger villages on the coast and in…


(2,651 words)

Author(s): Marçais, G.
, (dwelling place), house. The two words most commonly used to designate a dwelling place, bayt and dār , have, etymologically, quite different meanings. Bayt is, properly speaking, the covered shelter where one may spend the night; dār (from dāra , to surround) is a space surrounded by walls, buildings, or nomadic tents, placed more or less in a circle. Dārat un is the tribal encampment known in North Africa as the duwwār . From the earliest times there has been in Muslim dwellings a tendency to arrange around a central space: the park, where t…


(71 words)

Author(s): Frye, R.N.
, a Persian word meaning “door” or “gate”, found in many Iranian and Turkic languages. It is synonymous with Arabic bāb and is used similarly, e.g., dar-i ʿaliyya , dar-i dawlat, and in India dar-bār (durbar). In a special sense it refers to the ruler’s court, or in extension, to a government bureau, already in pre-Islamic Iran. In Pahlavi it was usually written with the heterogram BB′ (R.N. Frye)


(807 words)

Author(s): Tourneau, R. le
This is the name both of a river of south Morocco which rises on the southern slope of the High Atlas and flows into the Atlantic south of the D̲j̲ebel Bānī, and of a Moroccan province which stretches along the two cultivated banks of this water-course from Agdz as far as the elbow of the river Darʿa, for a distance of about 120 miles in a generally north-west to south-east direction. This province is traditionally divided into eight districts corresponding with the wider parts of the valley which are separated by mountain barriers forming narrows. From north to so…


(5 words)

[see ad̲h̲riʿāt ].


(213 words)

Author(s): Wilber, D.N.
(modern Dārāb), a t own in the province of Fārs in the district of Fasā, situated 280 kilometres east of S̲h̲īrāz at an altitude of 1188 metres and with a population of 6,400 people (1950). In Iranian legend the foundation of this town is ascribed to Dārāb, father of Dārā (Darius III Codomannus). The Sāsānīd ruler Ardashīr rose to power by revolt from his post as military commander at Dārābd̲j̲ird. The stone-strewn remains of the Sāsānid town lie 8 kilometres south-west of the modern village. Th…


(376 words)

Author(s): Farmer, H.G.
, a vase-shaped drum, the wider aperture being covered by a membrane, with the lower aperture open. The body is usually of painted or incised earthenware, but carved and inlaid wood, as well as engraved metal are also used. In performance it is carried under the arm horizontally and played with the fingers. The name has regional variants: darābukka (or ḍarābukka ), dirbakki and darbūka . Dozy and Brockelmann derive the word from the Syriac ardabkā , but the Persian dunbak is the more likely, although the lexicographers mistakenly dub the latter a bagpipe. The name darabukka

Dārā, Dārāb

(1,080 words)

Author(s): Carra de Vaux, B. | Massé, H.
, Persian forms (adopted by Arab writers) of the name of the Achaemenian king familiarly known under the hellenized form Dareios (Darius). Dārāb, and its abbreviation Dārā, are directly derived from the ancient Persian Darayahvahav-(Bartholomae, Altiranisches Wörterbuch , 738; the different grammatical cases attested by Persian inscriptions, in Tolman, Ancient Persian Lexicon and Texts , 1908, s.v. darayavau ; for the ancient historians of these kings, Gr. I. Ph., ii, index, s.v. Dareios). The sources of information about these princes collected by Arab and Persian w…

Dār al-ʿAhd

(697 words)

Author(s): İnalcık, Halil
, “the Land of the Covenant”, was considered as a temporary and often intermediate territory between the Dār al-Islām [ q.v.] and the Dār al-Ḥarb [ q.v.] by some Muslim jurists (see Al-S̲h̲āfiʿī, Kitāb al-Umm , Cairo 1321, iv, 103-104; Yaḥyā b. Ādam, Kitāb al-K̲h̲arād̲j̲ , trans. A. ben Shemesh, Leiden 1958, 58). Al-Māwardī ( Kitāb al-Aḥkām al-Sulṭāniyya , trans. E. Fagnan, Algiers 1915, 291) states that of the lands which pass into the hands of the Muslims by agreement, that called Dār al-ʿAhd is the one the proprietorship of whi…


(620 words)

Author(s): Wakin, J. A.
(A.), ḍamān al-darak , in Islamic law the guarantee against a fault in ownership. As the most important of the various guarantees aimed at protecting the new legal status brought about by the conclusion of a contract of sale, the ḍamān al-darak ensures that the seller will make good should the buyer’s title be contested by a third party. It is possible, for instance, that prior to the conclusion of the contract and without the knowledge of the two contracting parties, a third party had inherited all or part of the property sold, it had been given in waḳf a neighbour had…


(588 words)

Author(s): Robson, J.
, Abu ’l-Ḥasan ʿAlī b. ʿUmar b. Aḥmad b. Mahdī b. Masʿūd b. al-Nuʿmān b. Dīnār b. ʿAbdallāh , was born in Dār al-Ḳuṭn, a large quarter of Baghdad, whence he got his nisba , in 306/918. He was a man of wide learning who studied under many scholars. His studies included the various branches of Ḥadīt̲h̲ learning, the recitation of the Ḳurʾān, fiḳh and belles-lettres. He is said to have known by heart the dīwāns of a number of poets, and because of his knowing the dīwān of al-Sayyid al-Ḥimyarī he was accused of being a S̲h̲īʿī. His learning was so wide that many …


(8 words)

(deren) [see the article atlas ].

Dārā S̲h̲ukōh

(1,349 words)

Author(s): Satish Chandra
, eldest son of S̲h̲āh D̲j̲ahān and Mumtāz Maḥall, was born near Ad̲j̲mēr on 19 Ṣafar 1024/20 March 1615. He received his first manṣab [ q.v.] of 12,000 d̲h̲āt /6000 sawār in 1042/1633, as also the d̲j̲āgīr of Ḥisār-Fīrūza, regarded as the appendage of the heir-apparent. The same year he was given the nominal command of an army despatched to defend Ḳandahār which was threatened by the Persians, and again in 105 2/1642 when the threat was ¶ renewed. The attack, however, did not materialize. In 1055/1645, he was given the governorship of the ṣūba of Ilahābād to which were added the ṣūbas


(849 words)

Author(s): Hodgson, M.G.S.
, Muḥammad b. Ismāʿīl , was one of a circle of men who founded the Druze religion [see durūz ]. He was not an Arab, and is called Nas̲h̲takīn in the Druze scriptures; according to Nuwayrī (who calls him Anūs̲h̲takīn), he was part Turkish and came from Buk̲h̲ārā. He is said to have come to Egypt in 407 or 408/1017-18 and to have been an Ismāʿīlī dāʿī [see dāʿī and ismāʿīliyya ], in high favour with the Caliph al-Ḥākim, allegedly to the point that high officials had to seek his good graces. He may have held a post in the mint (Ḥamza accuses him of malpractices with coinage). He is said to have been the …


(8 words)

[see dār al-Ḍarb and sikka ].


(5 words)

[see madīna ].


(5 words)

[see derbend ].
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