Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition

Get access Subject: Middle East and Islamic Studies
Edited by: P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel and W.P. Heinrichs

The Encyclopaedia of Islam (Second Edition) Online sets out the present state of our knowledge of the Islamic World. It is a unique and invaluable reference tool, an essential key to understanding the world of Islam, and the authoritative source not only for the religion, but also for the believers and the countries in which they live. 

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Darb al-Arbaʿīn

(367 words)

Author(s): Holt, P.M.
, one of the principal routes linking bilād al-Sūdān with the north, obtained its name from the forty days’ travelling-time required to traverse it. W. G. Browne, the only European to have gone the whole way (in 1793) took 58 days from Asyūṭ to “Sweini” (al-Suwayna) near the southern terminus. Muḥammad ʿUmar al-Tūnusī in 1803 covered the same distance in 60 days. Starting from Asyūṭ, the route ran to the K̲h̲ārd̲j̲a oasis, an outpost of Ottoman Egypt. Thence it proceded across the …

(al-)Dār al-Bayḍāʾ

(1,071 words)

Author(s): Adam, A.
, the Arab name for Casablanca, the principal city in Morocco. In Arab dialect Dār l-Bēḍa, formerly Anfā [ q.v.]. After the Portuguese had destroyed Anfā in the 15th century, the town remained in ruins, sheltering but a few Bedouins and being occasionally used by ships as a watering-place. The Portuguese named the locality Casabranca, after a white house, overlooking the ruins, which served as a landmark for their ships. The Spanish transformed the name into Casablanca, the present European name of the city. The Arab name is its literal translation. The ʿAlawid Sulṭān Sīdī Muḥammad b.…


(6 words)

[see dār al-ḍarb ].


(5 words)

[see darabukka ].

Darb Zubayda

(1,225 words)

Author(s): al-Rashid, Saad A. | Young, M. J. L.
, the pilgrim highway running from al-ʿIrāḳ to the Holy Cities of the Ḥid̲j̲āz, named after Zubayda bint D̲j̲aʿfar [ q.v.], the wife of Hārūn al-Ras̲h̲īd. The main section of the Darb Zubayda, from Kūfa to Mecca, is something over 1,400 km. in length. The branch to Medina leaves the main road at Maʿdin al-Naḳira, which is also the point at which the road from Baṣra joins it. From Maʿdin al-Naḳira to Mecca the distance is about 500 km., and from the same point to Medina it is about 250 km. Between Maʿdin al-Naḳira and Mec…


(786 words)

Author(s): Bazmee Ansari, A.S.
, one of the four pillars of Urdū literature and one of the greatest of Urdū poets, K̲h̲wād̲j̲a Mīr (with the tak̲h̲alluṣ of Dard) b. K̲h̲wād̲j̲a Muḥammad Nāṣir “ʿAndalīb” al-Ḥusaynī al-Buk̲h̲ārī al-Dihlawī, claimed descent from K̲h̲wādia Bahāʾ al-Dīn Naḳs̲h̲band and in the 25th step from the Imām Haṣan al-ʿAskarī [ q.v.]. Born in 1133/1720-21 in the decadent Imperial Dihlī, Dard received his education at home, mostly from his father, a very well-read man and the author of Nāla-i ʿAndalīb , a voluminous Persian allegory dealing with metaphysical and a…


(7 words)

[see čanaḳ ḳalʿe bog̲h̲azi̊ ].

Dār al-Ḍarb

(4,784 words)

Author(s): Ehrenkreutz, A.S. | İnalcık, Halil | Burton-Page, J.
, the mint, was an indispensable institution in the life of mediaeval Middle Eastern society because of the highly developed monetary character of its economy, particularly during the early centuries of Muslim domination. The primary function of the mint was to supply coins for the needs of government and of the general public. At times of monetary reforms the mints served also as a place where obliterated coins could be exchanged for the new issues. The large quantities of precious metals which were stored in the mints helped to make them serve as ancillary treasuries. Soon after their c…

Dardic and Kāfir Languages

(1,819 words)

Author(s): Morgenstierne, G.
, the description now generally applied to a number of what are in many respects very archaic languages and dialects, spoken in the mountainous N.W. corner of the Indo-Aryan (IA) linguistic area, in Afg̲h̲ānistān, Pākistān and Kas̲h̲mīr. With the exception of Kas̲h̲mīrī, they are numerically insignificant, and have no written history. The others are known only from vocabularies and grammatical sketches, etc., the oldest dating from about 1830. There is still a great lack of adequate grammars, vocabularies, and collections of texts. ¶ In the following account there is a departu…


(17 words)

, name of the Egyptian branch of the K̲h̲alwatiyya [ q.v.] order. See also ṭarīḳa . ¶


(740 words)

Author(s): Bazmee Ansari, A.S.
, the name given to the area, lying between the Hindū Kus̲h̲ and Kāg̲h̲ān, between lat. 37° N. and long. 73° E., and lat. 35° N. and long. 74° 30ʹ E., the country of the Dardas of Hindū mythology. In the narrowest sense it embraces the S̲h̲inā-speaking territories, i.e., Gilgit, Astor, Gurayz, Čilās, Hōdur, Darēl, Tangir etc., or what is now known as Yāg̲h̲istān. In a wider sense the feudatory states of Hunza, Nāgar and Chitrāl [ q.v.] (including the part known as Yāsīn), now forming the northern regions of Pakistan, comprise Dardistān; in the widest sense parts of what …


(1,028 words)

Author(s): Lewicki, T.
Abu ’l-ʿAbbās Aḥmad b. Saʿīd b. Sulaymān b. ʿAlī b. Īk̲h̲laf , an Ibāḍi jurist, poet and historian of the 7th/13th century, author of a historical and biographical work on the Ibāḍīs, the Kitāb Ṭabaḳāt al-Mas̲h̲āyik̲h̲ . He belonged to a pious and learned Berber-Ibāḍī family from Tamīd̲j̲ār, a place in the D̲j̲abal Nafūsa in Tripolitania. His ancestor, al-Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ Īk̲h̲laf b. Īk̲h̲laf al-Nafūsī al-Tamīd̲j̲ārī, an eminent faḳīh , lived in the neighbourhood of Nefṭa in the D̲j̲arīd [ q.v.]. Son of Īk̲h̲laf, the pious ʿAlī, who lived in the second half of the 6th/12th cent…


(602 words)

Author(s): Freeman-Greenville, G.S.P.
, capital of the British administered United Nations Trusteeship Territory of Tanganyika, formerly German East Africa, lies in Lat. 6° 49ʹ S. and Long. 39° 16ʹ E. The settlement of ¶ Mzizima (Swahili: the healthy town) was first made in the 17th century A.D. by Wabarawa, of mixed Arab-Swahili stock from Barawa, south of Mogadishu. The present name, a contraction of Bandar al-Salām (“haven of welfare”) at least dates from 1862, when Sayyid Mad̲j̲īd, Sultan of Zanzibar, built a palace and other buildings there, of which a few survive. So does his main street, “Barra-rasta” (Hind, baŕā rāstā

Dār al-Funūn

(6 words)

[see d̲j̲āmiʿa ].

Dār Fūr

(4,079 words)

Author(s): Holt, P.M.
, “the land of the Fūr”, a province of the Republic of the Sudan, formerly a Muslim sultanate. Geography and inhabitants. Dār Fūr was one of the chain of Muslim states composing bilād al-Sūdān . Its eastern neighbour was Kordofān, from which it was separated by a tract of sand-hills. To the west lay Waddāī. The Libyan desert formed a natural boundary on the north, while the marshes of the Baḥr al-G̲h̲azāl [ q.v.] marked the southern limits. Dār Fūr comprises three main zones: a northern zone, the steppe fringe of the Sahara, providing grazing for camel-owning tribes …


(33 words)

, Pers., lit. “place of a door” [see dar ], usually “royal court, palace” in Persia, but in India with the additional specialized sense “tomb or shrine of a pīr ”.


(978 words)

Author(s): Quelquejay, Ch.
name of a Muslim Ibero-Caucasian people in Dāg̲h̲istān formerly inhabiting the pre-Caspian plains and then, in the 12th century, driven back towards the mountains by the Ḳumi̊ḳs who had come from the North. The Soviet census of 1926 gives the number of 126,272 Darg̲h̲ins who, in 1954, had increased to 158,000. The Darg̲h̲ins are grouped in the sub-alpine and mid-alpine zones of central Dāg̲h̲istān, and they form the greater part of the population in the districts of Sergo-Ḳalʿa, Akūs̲h̲a and Dak…

Dār al-Ḥadīt̲h̲

(1,194 words)

Author(s): Ory, S.
I. Architecture. The first dār al-ḥadīt̲h̲ [ q.v.] founded by Nūr al-Dīn in Damascus served as a prototype for similar ¶ establishments set up in Syria, ʿIrāḳ, Egypt and Palestine during the Zangid, Ayyūbid and Mamlūk periods. Unfortunately, this particular building is now virtually a ruin. The façade is completely disfigured by little shops built on the site of the rooms situated to the north of the courtyard. Of the building as a whole, some traces still exist: the walls of a prayer room with some vestiges of the miḥrāb decoration; the façade of this prayer r…

Dār al-Ḥadit̲h̲

(903 words)

Author(s): Sezgin, Fuat
I. Architecture [see supplement]. II. Historical development. The name Dār al-ḥadit̲h̲ was first applied to institutions reserved for the teaching of ḥadīt̲h̲s in the sixth century of the Hid̲j̲ra. The conclusion that until that time ḥadīt̲h̲s were learned through the journeys called ṭalab al-ʿilm , there being no special schools for the science of ḥadīt̲h̲ (cf. Goldziher, Muh . Stud , ii, 186), is not consonant with the results of the study of materials now available. Hence, among other matters connected with ḥadīt̲h̲, the effects of the misunderstanding of the nature and object of the ṭ…

Dār al-Ḥarb

(638 words)

Author(s): Abel, A.
(‘the Land of War’). This conventional formula derived from the logical development of the idea of the d̲j̲ihād [ q.v.] when it ceased to be the struggle for survival of a small community, becoming instead the basis of the “law of nations” in the Muslim State. The Ḳurʾān, in its latest texts on the holy war, IX, 38-58, 87, makes this “holy war” a major duty, a test of the sincerity of believers, to be waged against unbelievers wherever they are to be found (IX, 5). This war must be just, not oppressive, its aim being peace under the rule of Islam. The Ḳurʾān does not as yet divide the world into…
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