Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition

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Edited by: P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel and W.P. Heinrichs

The Encyclopaedia of Islam (Second Edition) Online sets out the present state of our knowledge of the Islamic World. It is a unique and invaluable reference tool, an essential key to understanding the world of Islam, and the authoritative source not only for the religion, but also for the believers and the countries in which they live. 

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(540 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl. | Massé, H.
, Abū Manṣūr Muḥammad b. Aḥmad (or Muḥammad b. Muḥammad b. Aḥmad), the poet to whom we owe the oldest known text of the national epic in the Persian language. His place of birth is uncertain (Ṭūs, Buk̲h̲ārā, Balk̲h̲ or Samarḳand); he was born between 318 and 329/930 and 940, for he was at least twenty years old when he became panegyrist to the amīrs of Čag̲h̲āniyān, then of the Sāmānid amīr Manṣūr b. Nūḥ (350-366/961-976); further, Firdawsī, who continued after him the composition of The Book of the Kings ( S̲h̲āhnāma ), assures us that Daḳīḳī was a young man when…


(334 words)

Author(s): Faure, A.
, Abū ʿAbd Allāh , Moroccan saint born at Sid̲j̲ilmāsa. He and a certain Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad b. ʿUmar al-Aṣamm who was assassinated in 542/1147-8 belonged to one of the small circles of Ṣūfīs generally disapproved of by authority. This Abū ʿAbd Allāh had already been imprisoned at Fez at the same time as some of his companions, among whom one was al-Daḳḳaḳ, who on the orders of Tās̲h̲ufīn b. ʿAlī the Almoravid was afterwards released. No one knows the date of birth of this saint, nor that of his death. All the same, one can be sure that towards the middle of the 6th/…


(207 words)

Author(s): Longrigg, S.H.
(or Daḳūḳ ), a small town in the D̲j̲azīra province of the ʿAbbāsid empire, some 25 miles S.E. of Kirkūk on the Mosul-Bag̲h̲dād trunkroad, was known to the later Arab geographers and perhaps emerged into urban status, though never eminence, in the 5th/11th century. Some medieval brickwork and a minaret survive. The later and present name (from 9th/15th century, or earlier) was Ṭāwūḳ or Ṭāʾūḳ. The town, on flat ground immediately west of the foothills, stands healthy and well-…


(521 words)

Author(s): Fleisch, H. | Burton-Page, J.
, 8th letter of the Arabic alphabet, transcribed d; numerical value 4, in accordance with the order of the letters in the Syriac (and Canaanite) alphabet, where d is the fourth letter [see abd̲j̲ad ]. It continues a d of common Semitic. Definition: voiced dental occlusive; according to the Arab grammatical tradition: s̲h̲adīda , mad̲j̲hūra . For the mak̲h̲rad̲j̲ : niṭʿiyya according to al-K̲h̲alīl (al-Zamak̲h̲s̲h̲arī, Mufaṣṣal , 2nd ed. J. P. Broch, 191, line 1), who places the point of articulation at the niṭʿ (or niṭaʿ ), the anterior part of the hard pala…


(200 words)

Author(s): Neubauer, E.
, Abū Zayd Nāḳid , mawlā of the Fahm tribe, musician and ẓarīf in Medina, born about 70/690, died about 145/762. Like his teacher Ṭuways (d. 92/710) he was a muk̲h̲annat̲h̲ —hence the proverb “more effeminate than al-Dalāl”—and is said to have been castrated by order of one of the caliphs, either Sulaymān or His̲h̲ām [but see K̲h̲aṣī ]. His musical gifts and ready wits he used as an entertainer of Qurays̲h̲ women and a singer at weddings, accompanying himself on a tambourine ( duff ). He composed highly artistic ( kat̲h̲īr al-ʿamal ) melodies in a style called g̲h̲ināʾ muḍʿaf


(1,245 words)

Author(s): Bergh, S. van den
(Gr. σημεῖον) is an ambiguous term; it can mean sign or indication, every proof through the inference of a cause from its effect or the inference of the universal from the particular in opposition to the proof from a strictly deductive syllogism in which the particular is deduced from the universal; and finally it is used as synonymous with proof, ἀπόδειξις, burhān generally.. Aristotle treats the “proof from a sign” in the last chapter of his Analytica Prior a. According to him “proof from a sign” is an enthymeme, i.e., a syllogism in which one premiss is suppressed (ἐνθύμημα, ḳiyās iḍmārī or ḳ…


(817 words)

Author(s): Becker, C.H. | Colin, G.S.
(ar.) “broker”, “agent”. Dallāl , literally “guide”; is the popular Arabic word for simsār , sensal . In the Tād̲j̲ al-ʿArūs we find, on the word simsār: “This is the man known as a dallāl ; he shows the purchaser where to find the goods he requires, and the seller how to exact his price”. Very little is known from the Arabic sources about the origins of these brokers, who have been of such great importance in economic affairs. The dallāl corresponded to the Byzantine μεδίτης. In the absence of any systematic earlier studies, only certain items of information collected at r…


(5,971 words)

Author(s): Popovic, A.
(Dalmacija in Serbocroat), a historic province of Yugoslavia, formerly covering parts of the Federal Republics of Croatia (the territory of contemporary Dalmatia), of Montenegro and a very small section of Bosnia-Herzegovina. I. Generalities Skirted by the Adriatic Sea, Dalmatia stretches in a north-west-south-east direction at the foot of the Dinaric mountain ranges (Velebit, Svilaja, Biokovo) from the peninsula of Istria (according to some authors, only from the island of Pag) to the Albanian frontier, marked by the river Bojana. But in fact, the territory designated by …


(175 words)

Author(s): Longrigg, S.H.
, the headquarter town of the Ḳaḍā of K̲h̲āliṣ in the liwā of Diyālā, central ʿIrāḳ (44° 30′ E, 33° 50′ N). The population of the town —all settled ʿIrāḳī Arabs, with S̲h̲īʿī predominance over Sunnī—was some 10,000 in 1367/1947, and that of the ḳaḍā 70,000; the two dependent nāḥiyas are those of K̲h̲ān Banī Saʿd and Manṣūriyya (formerly Dalī ʿAbbās). The name Daltāwa is said by ʿIrāḳī scholars to be a corruption of an original Dawlatābād. Surrounded by date-gardens, the town is watered from the K̲h̲āliṣ canal, an important offtake from the Diyālā, right bank. Though stil…


(5 words)

[see Nud̲j̲ūm ].


(3,960 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
(A.), pl. dimāʾ “blood”, also “blood-guilt” [see diya , ḳatl ]. In the present article it will be appropriate to mention the numerous blood sacrifices offered by the Muslims, but we will not concern ourselves with the theory, nor is it our intention to list them [see d̲h̲abīḥa , [see ḥad̲j̲d̲j̲ , ʿīd al-aḍḥā ]. We will confine ourselves to a brief survey of the beliefs relative to blood and the uses to which it is put or to which it may be put by Muslims in the various circumstances where the sacrifice of an animal is required, and the role attributed to it in magic and therapy. Arabic texts of the Mi…


(5 words)

[see sikka ].


(952 words)

Author(s): Bazmee Ansari, A.S.
, “son-in-law”, an honorific title given to mīr muḥammad bāḳir b. s̲h̲ams al-dīn muḥammad al-Ḥusaynī al-astarābadī , Called also al-Muʿallim al-T̲h̲ālit̲h̲ , the “third teacher” in philosophy ¶ after al-Fārābī. This title properly belongs to his father who was the son-in-law of the famous S̲h̲īʿī theologian ʿAlī b. al-Ḥusayn b. ʿAbd al-ʿĀlī al-Karakī, called al-Muḥaḳḳiḳ al-T̲h̲ānī (Brockelmann, S II, 574), but it was extended to the son, who is more correctly called Dāmādī or Ibn al-Dāmād. Born at Astarābād, Mīr-i Dāmād spent h…


(493 words)

Author(s): Mordtmann, J.H.
, a Persian word meaning son-in-law, used as a title by sons-in-law of the Ottoman Sultans. Under the early Sultans, princesses ( sulṭān ) of the reigning house were occasionally given in marriage to the vassal princes of Asia Minor, for example, to the Ḳaramānog̲h̲lu, and even to the vezirs and generals of the sovereign; the case of the saint Amīr Sulṭān of Bursa, who married a daughter of Bāyazīd I is, however, unique not only for that but also for later periods. We afterwards find Grand Vezirs…

Dāmād Ferīd Pas̲h̲a

(275 words)

Author(s): Rustow, D.A.
, one of the last Grand Vezirs of the Ottoman Empire. Meḥmed Ferīd, son of Ḥasan ʿIzzet, a member of the Council of State (S̲h̲ūrā-yi Dewlet), was born in Istanbul in 1853, served in minor diplomatic posts, and, upon his marriage (1886) to ʿAbd al-Ḥamīd II’s sister Medīḥa, was made member of the Council of State and senator, and given the rank of Pas̲h̲a. In 1911 he became co-founder and chairman of the Ḥürriyet we Iʾtilāf Fi̊rḳasi̊ [ q.v.]. After the Ottoman defeat he served his brother-in-law Meḥmed VI as Grand Vezir (4 March to 2 October 1919 and 5 April to 21 October …

Dāmād Ḥasan Pas̲h̲a

(551 words)

Author(s): Parry, V.J.
, (? -1125/1713), Ottoman Grand Vizier. The sources refer to him sometimes as “Moralī”, i.e., “from the Morea” and sometimes as “Enis̲h̲te”, i.e., “brother-in-law” (of the sultan, in this instance). He became a čokadār and then, in 1095/1683-4, rose to the rank of silāḥdār . On the accession to the throne of Süleymān II in Muḥarrem 1099/November 1687 he was made governor of Egypt (with the status of vizier)—an appointment that he held until 1101/1689-90, when, according to the Sid̲j̲ill-i ʿOt̲h̲mānī, he became mutaṣarri̊f of Brusa and Nicomedia (Izmid). Ḥ…

al-Dāmag̲h̲ānī, Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad b. ʿAlī

(2,287 words)

Author(s): Makdisi, G.
b. Muḥammad b. ʿAlī b. Muḥammad b. al-Ḥusayn b. ʿAbd al-Malik b. ʿAbd al-Wahhāb b. Ḥammūya b. Ḥasanawayh , Ḥanafī jurist who, as Chief Ḳāḍī of Bag̲h̲dād, stands at the head of a family dynasty holding the positions of ḳāḍī or ḳāḍī ’l-ḳuḍāt down through the years. The following sketch is based mostly on al-Ḏj̲awāhir al-muḍiyya fī ṭabaḳāt al-Ḥanafiyya by ʿAbd al-Ḳādir b. Abi ’l-Wafāʾ al-Ḳuras̲h̲ī (d. 775/1373). The best way to distinguish between them is ¶ by the use of their patronymic ( kunya ) and first name ( ism ). Among the eighteen identifiable members of th…

al-Dāmag̲h̲ānī, Abū ’l-Ḥasan ʿAlī b. Muḥammad

(1,041 words)

Author(s): Makdisi, G.
b. ʿAlī b. Muḥammad b. al-Ḥasan b. ʿAbd al-Malik b. Hammūya , son of Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad al-Dāmag̲h̲ānī [ q.v.]. He was born in 449/1057, studied law, and was accepted as s̲h̲āhid-notary by his father in 466/1073-4, and was appointed by him ḳāḍī of the East Side quarter of Bāb al-Ṭāḳ in Bag̲h̲dād and of a part of the countryside, a jurisdiction which was that of his maternal grand-father Abu ’l-Ḥasan Aḥmad al-Simnānī, who had just died in 466/1074 (see D̲j̲awāhir, ii, 95-6). In the year of these two appointments, Abu ’l-Ḥasan al-Dāmag̲h̲ānī was only 16 years of age; such…


(481 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(a.), in Islamic law, the civil liability in the widest meaning of the term, whether it arises from the non-performance of a contract or from tort or negligence ( taʿaddī , literally “transgression”). Prominent particular cases are the liability for the loss of an object sold before the buyer has taken possession ( ḍamān al-mabīʿ ), for eviction ( ḍamān al-darak ), for the loss of a pledge in the possession of the pledgee ( ḍamān al-rahn), for the loss of an object that has been taken by usurpation ( ḍamān al-g̲h̲aṣb ), and for loss or damage caused by artisans ( ḍamān al-ad̲j̲īr , . al-ṣunnāʿ


(14 words)

, in the financial sense, ‘farming’ (of taxes). See bayt al-māl .
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