Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition

Get access Subject: Middle East and Islamic Studies
Edited by: P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel and W.P. Heinrichs

The Encyclopaedia of Islam (Second Edition) Online sets out the present state of our knowledge of the Islamic World. It is a unique and invaluable reference tool, an essential key to understanding the world of Islam, and the authoritative source not only for the religion, but also for the believers and the countries in which they live. 

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Eagle

(5 words)

[see ʿuḳāb ].

East Africa

(34 words)

[see baḥr al-hind , baḥr al-zanḏj̲ , dar-es-salaam , eritrea , gedi , habas̲h̲ , kilwa , malindi , mogadis̲h̲u , mombasa , somali , swahili , tanganyika, zanḏj̲ibār , etc.].

Eblis

(5 words)

[see iblīs ].

Ebony

(5 words)

[see abanūs ].

Ebro

(5 words)

[see ibruh ].

Ebüzzi̇ya Tevfi̇k

(995 words)

Author(s): Abdullah, Fevziye
(Ebu ’l-Ḍiyāʾ Tewfīḳ) (1848-1913), a well-known Ottoman journalist. Born in Istanbul, he had only a sketchy education, and was largely self taught. At the age of sixteen or seventeen he met Nāmik Kemāl, and, through him, S̲h̲ināsī, and became a frequent caller at the offices of the newspaper Taṣwīr-i Efkār , where the literary avant-garde used to meet; he claimed to have been the sixth to register as a member of the Society of New Ottomans ( Yeñi ʿOt̲h̲manli̊lar Ḏj̲emʿiyyeti ), founded in 1865, but this claim is questionable. Tewfīḳ started his journalistic career in 1868-9 by writ…

Ecija

(5 words)

[see istid̲j̲aʾ ].

Eclipse

(5 words)

[see kusūf ].

Economic Life

(14 words)

[see filāḥa , māl , ṣināʿa , ti d̲j̲āra , etc.].

Economy

(6 words)

[see tadbīr al-manzil ]

Ecstasy

(10 words)

[see s̲h̲aṭh , also darwīs̲h̲ , d̲h̲ikr ].

Edebiyyāt-i Ḏj̲edīde

(46 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, “new literature”, the name given to a Turkish literary movement associated with the review T̲h̲erwet -i Funūn [ q.v.] during the years 1895-1901—that is, during the editorship of Tewfīḳ Fikret [ q.v.]. See further turks, literature, and the articles on the individual authors. (Ed.)

Edessa

(5 words)

[see al-ruha ].

Edhem, Čerkes

(8 words)

[see Čerkes , edhem ].

Edhem, K̲h̲ali̇l

(9 words)

[see eldem , k̲h̲alīl edhem ].

Edict

(5 words)

[see farmān ].

Edirne

(4,120 words)

Author(s): Gökbilgin, M. Tayyib
, Adrianople —a city lying at the confluence of the Tund̲j̲a and Arda with the Merič (Maritsa); the capital of the Ottomans after Bursa (Brusa), and now the administrative centre of the vilâyet (province) of the same name and, traditionally, the centre of Turkis̲h̲ (now Eastern) Thrace (Trakya or Pas̲h̲a-eli). Its historical importance derives from the fact that it lies on the main road from Asia Minor to the Balkans, where it is the first important staging point after Istanbul. It guards the eastern entr…

Edremit

(388 words)

Author(s): Mordtmann, J.H. | Ménage, V.L.
, town of western Turkey, situated 8 km. from the head of the Gulf of Edremit (on the site of Homer’s Thebe) on the lower slopes of Pas̲h̲adag̲h̲ (a spur of Mt. Ida) overlooking the fertile alluvial plain to the south (39°35′ N., 27° 02′ E.). The ancient Adramyttion was on the coast at Karatas̲h̲ (4 km. west of Burhaniye [formerly Kemer] and 13 km. south-west of Edremit), where remains of quays, etc., are to be found. The evidence of coins indicates that the city was transf…

Education

(14 words)

[see tadrīs , also d̲j̲āmiʿa , maʿārif , madrasa and tarbiya ].

Efe

(5 words)

(see zeybek ).

Efendi

(995 words)

Author(s): Lewis, B.
, an Ottoman title of Greek origin, from αὐθέντης, Lord, Master, (cf. authentic), probably via a Byzantine colloquial vocative form, afendi (G. Meyer, Türkische Studien , i, in SBAk . Wien (1893), 37; K. Foy in MSOS, i/2 (1898), 44 n. 3; Psichari, 408). The term was already in use in Turkish Anatolia in the 13th and 14th centuries. Eflākī indicates that the daughter of Ḏj̲alāl al-Dīn Rūmī was known as Efendipoulo—the master’s daughter (Cl. Huart, Les saints des derviches tourneurs , Paris 1922, ii, 429; on the later Karaite family name Afendopoulo or Efendipoulo see Z. Ankori, Karaites in Byza…

Eflāḳ

(1,321 words)

Author(s): Beldiceanu, N.
, the Turkish form of the word Wallach, originally applied by Germanic tribes to Latin populations. The Slavs, the Byzantines and, later, the Ottomans used it to denote the Balkan Rumanians and those north of the Danube. It is probable that it lost its ethnic meaning in certain parts of ¶ the peninsula, and was applied simply to a pastoral population. Under the Turks, the Wallachians who were incorporated in the organization of the voynūḳ [ q.v.] provided light cavalry units. The first mention of Rumanian political institutions south of the Carpathians occurs in the diploma …

Eger

(5 words)

[see eǧri ].

Egerdir

(5 words)

[see eǧridir ].

Eǧin

(946 words)

Author(s): Darkot, Besim
, now known as Kemāliye, a town in E. Anatolia on the right (west) bank of the Euphrates (Ḳara-Su), 40 kms. from ʿArapkīr [ q.v.], 130 kms. from El-ʿAzīz and Malaṭya via ʿArapkīr, and 150 kms. from Erzind̲j̲ān [ q.v.] (under which it comes administratively as the centre of a ḳaḍā ) via the station of Ilič on the Sivas [ q.v.]—Erzurum [ q.v.] railway. It is near Eǧin that the valley of the Euphrates narrows, pressed in by the outposts of the Monzur mountains of Dersim to the east and the Sari̊-Čiček mountains to the west. The valley which is situated here, a…

Eǧri

(1,492 words)

Author(s): Parry, V.J.
(Turk., Eǧri; Hung., Eger; Ger., Erlau; Lat. and Ital., Agria), an old Hungarian town, 110 km. to the north-east of Buda, situated close to the massif of Bükk, i.e., to the eastern foot-hills of the Matrá mountains, and on the river Eger, which flows into the Tisza (Theiss). Eǧri was subject to Ottoman rule from 1005/1596 to 1099/1687. The Ottomans, in 959/1552, captured Temesvár and Szolnok (important in the future as a base for ¶ the concentration of the men and supplies needed for the conquest and thereafter for the retention of Eǧri) and then laid siege to Eǧri it…

Eğriboz

(541 words)

Author(s): Ménage, V.L.
(also Ig̲h̲ribos/z , Āg̲h̲ribos/z , Egribos ), Turkish name for the island of Euboea and its chief town, the classical Chalkis. Originally the name of the narrow strait separating Chalkis from the mainland, Εὔριπος (vulg. ῎Εγριπος) was already by the 12th century currently used for the town; a supposed connexion with the bridge over the strait produced from the ace. [εἰς τò]ν ῎Εγριπον ‘Negroponte’, the regular Western name for both town and island. In Byzantine times Euboea forme…

Eǧri Dag̲h̲

(7 words)

[see ag̲h̲ri̊ dag̲h̲ ].

Eǧridir

(633 words)

Author(s): Mordtmann, J.H. | Taeschner, F.
, earlier spellings Egirdir or Egerdir in Ibn Baṭṭūṭa, ii, 267, and Ibn Faḍl Allāh al-ʿUmarī, Masālik al-Abṣār , report on Anatolia, ed. Taeschner, Leipzig 1929, 39 1-5, (middle of the 14th century), Akridūr, Greek Akrotiri; possibly—though there is no proof for this—from the name ’ Aκρωτήριον; a small town in south-western Anatolia on a penin sula at the southern end of the Eǧridir lake, which has no visible outlet but which may have a subterranean outlet to the Mediterranean, thus keeping …

Egypt

(5 words)

[see miṣr ].
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