Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition

Get access Subject: Middle East and Islamic Studies
Edited by: P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel and W.P. Heinrichs

The Encyclopaedia of Islam (Second Edition) Online sets out the present state of our knowledge of the Islamic World. It is a unique and invaluable reference tool, an essential key to understanding the world of Islam, and the authoritative source not only for the religion, but also for the believers and the countries in which they live. 

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(995 words)

Author(s): Lewis, B.
, an Ottoman title of Greek origin, from αὐθέντης, Lord, Master, (cf. authentic), probably via a Byzantine colloquial vocative form, afendi (G. Meyer, Türkische Studien , i, in SBAk . Wien (1893), 37; K. Foy in MSOS, i/2 (1898), 44 n. 3; Psichari, 408). The term was already in use in Turkish Anatolia in the 13th and 14th centuries. Eflākī indicates that the daughter of Ḏj̲alāl al-Dīn Rūmī was known as Efendipoulo—the master’s daughter (Cl. Huart, Les saints des derviches tourneurs , Paris 1922, ii, 429; on the later Karaite family name Afendopoulo or Efendipoulo see Z. Ankori, Karaites in Byza…


(1,321 words)

Author(s): Beldiceanu, N.
, the Turkish form of the word Wallach, originally applied by Germanic tribes to Latin populations. The Slavs, the Byzantines and, later, the Ottomans used it to denote the Balkan Rumanians and those north of the Danube. It is probable that it lost its ethnic meaning in certain parts of ¶ the peninsula, and was applied simply to a pastoral population. Under the Turks, the Wallachians who were incorporated in the organization of the voynūḳ [ q.v.] provided light cavalry units. The first mention of Rumanian political institutions south of the Carpathians occurs in the diploma …


(5 words)

[see eǧri ].


(5 words)

[see eǧridir ].


(946 words)

Author(s): Darkot, Besim
, now known as Kemāliye, a town in E. Anatolia on the right (west) bank of the Euphrates (Ḳara-Su), 40 kms. from ʿArapkīr [ q.v.], 130 kms. from El-ʿAzīz and Malaṭya via ʿArapkīr, and 150 kms. from Erzind̲j̲ān [ q.v.] (under which it comes administratively as the centre of a ḳaḍā ) via the station of Ilič on the Sivas [ q.v.]—Erzurum [ q.v.] railway. It is near Eǧin that the valley of the Euphrates narrows, pressed in by the outposts of the Monzur mountains of Dersim to the east and the Sari̊-Čiček mountains to the west. The valley which is situated here, a…


(1,492 words)

Author(s): Parry, V.J.
(Turk., Eǧri; Hung., Eger; Ger., Erlau; Lat. and Ital., Agria), an old Hungarian town, 110 km. to the north-east of Buda, situated close to the massif of Bükk, i.e., to the eastern foot-hills of the Matrá mountains, and on the river Eger, which flows into the Tisza (Theiss). Eǧri was subject to Ottoman rule from 1005/1596 to 1099/1687. The Ottomans, in 959/1552, captured Temesvár and Szolnok (important in the future as a base for ¶ the concentration of the men and supplies needed for the conquest and thereafter for the retention of Eǧri) and then laid siege to Eǧri it…


(541 words)

Author(s): Ménage, V.L.
(also Ig̲h̲ribos/z , Āg̲h̲ribos/z , Egribos ), Turkish name for the island of Euboea and its chief town, the classical Chalkis. Originally the name of the narrow strait separating Chalkis from the mainland, Εὔριπος (vulg. ῎Εγριπος) was already by the 12th century currently used for the town; a supposed connexion with the bridge over the strait produced from the ace. [εἰς τò]ν ῎Εγριπον ‘Negroponte’, the regular Western name for both town and island. In Byzantine times Euboea forme…

Eǧri Dag̲h̲

(7 words)

[see ag̲h̲ri̊ dag̲h̲ ].


(633 words)

Author(s): Mordtmann, J.H. | Taeschner, F.
, earlier spellings Egirdir or Egerdir in Ibn Baṭṭūṭa, ii, 267, and Ibn Faḍl Allāh al-ʿUmarī, Masālik al-Abṣār , report on Anatolia, ed. Taeschner, Leipzig 1929, 39 1-5, (middle of the 14th century), Akridūr, Greek Akrotiri; possibly—though there is no proof for this—from the name ’ Aκρωτήριον; a small town in south-western Anatolia on a penin sula at the southern end of the Eǧridir lake, which has no visible outlet but which may have a subterranean outlet to the Mediterranean, thus keeping …


(5 words)

[see miṣr ].
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