Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition

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Edited by: P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel and W.P. Heinrichs

The Encyclopaedia of Islam (Second Edition) Online sets out the present state of our knowledge of the Islamic World. It is a unique and invaluable reference tool, an essential key to understanding the world of Islam, and the authoritative source not only for the religion, but also for the believers and the countries in which they live. 

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Fāʾ

(167 words)

Author(s): Fleisch, H.
, 20th letter of the Arabic alphabet, transcribed f; numerical value 80, as in the Syriac (and Canaanite) alphabet [see abd̲j̲ad ]. Definition: fricative, labio-dental, unvoiced; according to the Arabic grammatical tradition: rik̲h̲wa , s̲h̲afawiyya (or s̲h̲afahiyya ), mahmūsa ; f is a continuation of a p in ancient Semitic and common Semitic. For the phonological oppositions of the phoneme f, see J. Cantineau, Esquisse , in BSL (no. 126), 94, 1°; for the incompatibilities, ibid., 134. Modifications: some examples exist of the passage of f to t̲h̲ , as in the doublet: nukāf and nukāt̲h̲

Fable

(9 words)

[see ḥikāya , ḳiṣṣa , mat̲h̲al ].

Faḍāʾil

(5 words)

[see faḍīla ]

Fadak

(2,417 words)

Author(s): Veccia Vaglieri, L.
, an ancient small town in the northern Ḥid̲j̲āz, near K̲h̲aybar and, according to Yāḳūt, two or three days’ journey from Medina. This place-name having disappeared, Ḥāfiẓ Wahba in his Ḏj̲azīrat al-ʿArab (Cairo 1956, 15) identified the ancient Fadak with the modern village of al-Ḥuwayyiṭ (pron. Ḥowēyaṭ), situated on the edge of the ḥarra of K̲h̲aybar. Inhabited, like K̲h̲aybar, by a colony of Jewish agriculturists, Fadak produced dates and cereals; handicrafts also flourished, with the weaving of blankets with palm-leaf borders. Fadak owes its fame in the history of Islam to…

Faḍāla

(390 words)

Author(s): Adam, A.
, town and port on the Atlantic coast of Morocco, 25 km. to the north-east of Casablanca, in the lands of the Zanāta tribe. The origin of the name is unknown; the etymology given by Graberg de Hemsö and by Godard ( fayḍ Allāh = “bounty of God”) is obviously fanciful. The name is perhaps to be compared with that of a section of the neighbouring Ziyāyda tribe, the Faḍḍāla. The toponym appears as early as al-Idrīsī and the Genoese and Venetian portulans. It appears that Christian merchants visited the anchorage in the …

al-Faḍālī

(101 words)

Author(s): Schacht, J.
, Muḥammad b. Muḥammad al-S̲h̲āfiʿī , a writer on Islamic dogmatics and teacher of al-Bād̲j̲ūrī [ q.v.], d. 1236/1821. Both of his works, Kifāyat al-ʿAwāmm fīmā yad̲j̲ib ʿalayhim min ʿilm al-kalām , and a commentary on the profession of monotheism, Risāla ʿalā lā ilāha illa ’llāh , have been commented upon by al-Bād̲j̲ūrī and have been often printed together with the commentaries. (J. Schacht) Bibliography Brockelmann, II, 641 S II, 744 D. B. Macdonald, in EI 1, s.v. translations of his Kifāya by Macdonald, Development of Muslim theology, etc., 1903, 315 ff., and by M. Horten, Muhammedanis…

Faddān

(5 words)

[see misāḥa ].

Fad̲h̲laka

(101 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, sum, total, from the Arabic fad̲h̲ālika , “and that [is]”, placed at the bottom of an addition to introduce the result. Besides its arithmetical use, the term was also employed for the summing up of a petition, report, or other document, as for example for the summarized statements of complaints presented at the Dīwān-i humāyūn [ q.v.]. By extension it acquired the meaning of compendium and is used, in this sense, in the titles of two well-known works on Ottoman history, written in the 17th century by Kātib Čelebi and in the 19th by Aḥmad Wefīḳ Pas̲h̲a [ qq.v.]. (Ed.)

Faḍīla

(1,628 words)

Author(s): Sellheim, R.
(Arab., pl. faḍāʾil ) an excellence or excellent quality, a high degree in (or of) excellence. The plural faḍāʾil indicates a definite category of literature, related to but distinct from the so-called “disputes for precedence”. Faḍāʾil literature exposes the excellences of things, individuals, groups, places, regions and such for the purpose of a laudatio . The polemical comparison or dialogue, characteristic of the “disputes for precedence”, is lacking. Faḍāʾil literature, the opposite to which is mat̲h̲ālib literature, may be divided into various branches: Ḳurʾān. Faḍāʾil li…

Fāḍil Bey

(344 words)

Author(s): Mordtmann, J.H.
, Ḥüseyn (ca. 1170/1757-1225/1810) also known as Fāḍil-i Enderūnī , Ottoman poet celebrated for his erotic works, was a grandson of Ẓāhir Āl ʿUmar [ q.v.] of ʿAkkā, who rebelled against the Porte in the seventies of the 18th century. Taken to Istanbul in 1190/1776 by the ḳapudān pas̲h̲a G̲h̲āzī Ḥasan after his grandfather and father had been slain in battle, he was brought up in the Palace. An amatory intrigue led to his expulsion in 1198/1783-4, and for twelve years he led a vagabond life in poverty in Istanbul. Ḳaṣīde s addressed to Selīm III and the statesmen …

Fad̲j̲r

(5 words)

[see ṣalāt ].

Fad̲j̲r-i Ātī

(7 words)

[see fed̲j̲r-i ātī ].

Faḍl Allāh

(746 words)

Author(s): Salibi, K.S.
, a family of Mamlūk state officials who traced their descent from the Caliph ʿUmar I, hence their nisba al-ʿUmarī, al-ʿAdawī al-Ḳuras̲h̲ī. The family received its name from its founder Faḍl Allāh b. Mud̲j̲allī b. Daʿd̲j̲ān, who was living in al-Karak (Transjordan) in 645/1247. S̲h̲araf al-Dīn ʿAbd al-Wahhāb, a son of Faḍl Allāh, held office as kātib al-sirr (head of the chancery) in Damascus, and was transferred to the same office in Cairo by the Sultan al-As̲h̲raf K̲h̲alīl in 692/1293. ʿAbd al-Wahhāb continued to head the central chancery of the Mamlūk state until 711/1311, when he …

Faḍl Allāh

(7 words)

[see ras̲h̲īd al-dīn ].

Faḍl Allāh Ḥurūfī

(3,079 words)

Author(s): Gölpinarli, Abdülbâkî
, the founder of the sect, or more properly, the religion of the Ḥurūfīyya [ q.v.]. The information given about Faḍl Allāh in the histories closest to his period in no way conforms to the information about him given by those who belonged to his sect and were contemporary with him and those who were inspired by his teachings. While the sources are agreed that he lived in the 8th/14th century, the reports that his name was D̲j̲alāl al-Dīn, that he was put to death in 804/1401-2, and especially the statement of later sources like the Riyāḍ al-ʿārifīn of Riḍā Kulik̲h̲ān Hi…

Faḍlawayh

(438 words)

Author(s): Spuler, B.
, Banū , a Kurdish dynasty which ruled in S̲h̲abānkāra [ q.v.] from 448/1056 to 718/1318-9. Very little is known about them except for the founder of the dynasty Faḍlawayh (in Ibn al-At̲h̲īr, x, 48: Faḍlūn) and for members of the family during the Ilk̲h̲ān period [ q.v.]. Faḍlawayh, son of the chief ʿAlī b. al-Ḥasan b. Ayyūb of the Kurdish tribe Rāmānī in S̲h̲abānkāra, was originally a general (Sipāh-Sālār) under the Buwayhids [ q.v.] and closely connected with their vizier Ṣāḥib ʿĀdil. When the latter was executed after a change of government, Faḍlawayh eliminated th…

Faḍl, Bā

(501 words)

Author(s): Ghūl, M.A.
, a family of mas̲h̲āyik̲h̲ of Tarīm in Ḥaḍramawt claiming descent from the Saʿd al-ʿas̲h̲ira clan of Mad̲h̲ḥid̲j̲. The name Bā Faḍl seems to derive from an ancestor called al-faḳīh Faḍl b. Muḥammad b. ʿAbd al-Karīm b. Muḥammad, whose genealogy cannot be traced beyond that. They seem to have had supreme authority in religious matters in ¶ Tarīm until superseded by the Bā ʿAlawī sayyid s around the 9th/15th century. They have long been prominent as ṣūfī s and faḳīh s, jurists. In the 10-11th/16th-17th centuries one branch existed in Aden. The most famou…

al-Faḍl b. Aḥmad al-Isfarāʾinī

(201 words)

Author(s): Nazim, M.
Abu’l-ʿAbbās , the first wazīr of Sulṭān Maḥmūd of G̲h̲azna, was formerly the ṣāḥib-i barīd (see barīd ) of Marw under the Sāmānids. At the request of Subuktigīn, Amīr Nuḥ b. Manṣūr the Samānid sent Faḍl to Nīs̲h̲āpūr in 385/995 as the wazīr of Maḥmūd, who had been appointed to the command of the troops in K̲h̲urāsān the previous year. Faḍl managed the affairs of the expanding empire of Sulṭān Maḥmūd with great tact and ability until 404/1013, when he was accused of extorting money from the subjects of the Sultan. Instead of answering t…

al-Faḍl b. al-Ḥubāb

(457 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
b. Abi K̲h̲alīfa Muḥammad b. S̲h̲uʿayd b. Ṣak̲h̲r al-D̲j̲umaḥī , (d. 305/917-18), littérateur, poet, traditionist and ḳaḍī of Baṣra. He was a mawlā of D̲j̲umaḥ of Ḳurays̲h̲ and the nephew, on his mother’s side, of Ibn Sallām [ q.v.]. He was born in and died at Baṣra, where he made himself the transmitter of a fairly extensive number of religious, historical, literary and genealogical traditions. He also received a legal training sufficient for him to act as the ḳāḍī of Baṣra towards 294/907 with functions delegated by the Mālikī ḳāḍī Abū Muḥammad Yūsuf b. Yaʿḳū…

al-Faḍl b. Marwān

(276 words)

Author(s): Sourdel, D.
, vizier to the ʿAbbāsid al-Muʿtaṣim, and an ʿIrāḳi of Christian origin. He began his career modestly as a retainer of Hart̲h̲ama, the commander of Hārūn al-Ras̲h̲īd’s guard. Later, as a result of his particular talents, he became a secretary in the Land Tax office under the same caliph and subsequently he retired to ʿIrāḳ to the estates he had acquired during the civil war. It was there, in the region of al-Baradān, that he had an opportunity, during the reign of al-Maʾmūn, to gain the attentio…

al-Faḍl b. al-Rabīʿ

(444 words)

Author(s): Sourdel, D.
, vizier to the ʿAbbāsid caliphs al-Ras̲h̲īd and al-Amīn, was the son of al-Manṣūr’s chamberlain al-Rabīʿ b. Yūnus [ q.v.]. Born in 138/757-8, he very soon won the esteem of Hārūn al-Ras̲h̲īd, who in 173/789-90 placed him in charge of the Expenditure Office and then in 179/795-6 made him chamberlain. After the disgrace of the Barāmika [ q.v.] in 187/803, he succeeded Yaḥyā as vizier, though without being granted such wide powers; his part was confined to keeping check on public expenditure and in presenting letters and petitions ( ʿarḍ ), while another secretary…

al-Faḍl b. Sahl b. Zad̲h̲ānfarūk̲h̲

(1,032 words)

Author(s): Sourdel, D.
, vizier to the ʿAbbāsid caliph al-Maʾmūn, had originally been in the service of the Barāmika [ q.v.]. His father, of Iranian origin and Zoroastrian by religion, had been converted to Islam and had entrusted the Barāmika with his two sons, al-Faḍl and al-Ḥasan [ q.v.]. Al-Faḍl, who immediately attracted attention on account of his intelligence, was taken into the service of D̲j̲aʿfar al-Barmakī, then tutor to prince al-Maʾmūn, and took over this position from him after the fall of the Barāmika; it was in the presence of al-Maʾmūn that he i…

al-Faḍl b. Yaḥyā al-Barmakī

(171 words)

Author(s): Sourdel, D.
, the eldest son of Yaḥyā al-Barmakī, played an important part during the reign of Hārūn al-Ras̲h̲īd, in the first years of the domination of the Barāmika [ q.v.]. As tutor to the crown prince al-Amīn, on whose behalf he caused the customary oath of loyalty to be sworn by the notables, he was particularly distinguished by the benevolence he showed towards the inhabitants of the eastern provinces and by his policy of conciliation with regard to the ʿAlids, perhaps going so far as to support the establishment of an independe…

Faḍlī

(722 words)

Author(s): Ghūl, M.A.
(commonly written Fadhlī ), a tribal territory now one of the states of the Federation of South Arabia, area about 1600 square miles with an estimated population of 55,000. Its western bounds touch on the Aden Colony and then run northwest bordering on Laḥd̲j̲ (ʿAbdalī), Ḥaws̲h̲abī and Lower Yāfiʿ territories; in the northeast it is bounded by ʿAwd̲h̲alī and Dat̲h̲īna, in the east by the Lower ʿAwlaḳī, and on the south by the Arabian Sea. The country consists of two main parts…

Faḍli

(435 words)

Author(s): İz, Fahīr
, Meḥmed , better known as Ḳara Faḍlī (?-971/1563-4), Turkish poet, born in Istanbul, son of a saddler. Little is known of his early life. He does not seem to have had a regular education, but acquired knowledge in the company of learned people, particularly the poet D̲h̲ātī [ q.v.], whose shop of geomancy had become a sort of a literary club for men of letters, where the old poet helped and encouraged young talents. On D̲h̲ātī’s suggestion he composed a ḳaṣīda on the occasion of the circumcision festivities of prince Meḥmed. When D̲h̲ātī had finished r…

Faḍl-i Ḥaḳḳ

(596 words)

Author(s): Bazmee Ansari, A.S.
al-ʿUmarī , al-Ḥanafī , al-Māturīdī , al-Čīs̲h̲tī (not al-Ḥabas̲h̲ī as misread by Brockelmann, S II, 458), al-K̲h̲ayrābādī b. Faḍl-i Imām [ q.v.] was born at K̲h̲ayrābād [ q.v.] in 1211/1796-7. Having studied first at home with his father, he later studied ḥadīt̲h̲ with S̲h̲āh ʿAbd al-Ḳādir al-Dihlawī [ q.v.] and at the age of thirteen completed his studies. He entered service as a pīs̲h̲kār to the Commissioner of Delhi under the East India Company and later served with the Chiefs of Ḏj̲had̲j̲d̲j̲ar, Alwar, Tonk and Rāmpur. He was a le…

Faḍl-i Imām

(598 words)

Author(s): Bazmee Ansari, A.S.
b. Muḥammad Ars̲h̲ad al-ʿUmarī al-Hargāmī , b. Muḥ. Ṣālih b. ʿAbd al-Wād̲j̲id b. ʿAbd al-Mād̲j̲id b. Ḳāḍī Ṣadr al-Dīn al-Ḥanafī , was a contemporary of S̲h̲āh ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz al-Dihlawī, and the first Indian Muslim scholar to have accepted the post of muftī and ṣadr al-ṣudūr of Delhi under the East India Company, the highest office, equivalent to the modern sub-judge in the Indo-Pakistan sub-continent; which the Company could confer on its native employees. His duties, as ṣadr al-ṣudūr, included examining candidates for the posts of ḳāḍī s, scrutiny of request…

Faḍl al-S̲h̲āʿira

(167 words)

Author(s): Neubauer, E.
, al-Yamāmiyya al-ʿAbdiyya , Mawlāt al-Mutawakkil , Arab poetess, died in 257/871 (or 260/874). Born probably as a muwallada and brought up in Baṣra, she was presented to and later on freed by al-Mutawakkil. She was called the “most gifted poetess of her time” by Ibn al-Sāʿī and, being a good songstress and lute player too, held a famous literary circle in Bag̲h̲dād. Amongst her admirers were the poet Ṣaʿīd b. Ḥumayd and the musician Bunān b. ʿAmr al-Ḍārib. Ibn al-D̲j̲arrāḥ (quoted by Ibn al…

Fag̲h̲fūr

(11 words)

, in the sense of ‘porcelain’ [see ṣīnī ].

Fag̲h̲fūr

(555 words)

Author(s): Ed.
or Bag̲h̲būr , title of the Emperor of China in the Muslim sources. The Sanskrit * bhagaputra and the Old Iranian * bag̲h̲aput̲h̲ra , with which attempts have been made to connect this compound, are not attested, but a form bg̲h̲pwhr (= * bag̲h̲puhr ), signifying etymologically “son of God”, is attested in Parthian Pahlavī to designate Jesus, whence Sogdian bag̲h̲pūr , Arabicized as bag̲h̲būr and fag̲h̲fūr ; these forms were felt by the Arab authors as the translation of the Chinese T’ien tzŭ “son of heaven” (cf. Relation de la Chine et de l’Inde , ed. and tr. J. Sau…

Fahd

(6,072 words)

Author(s): Viré, F.
(Ar.), (fem. fahda , pl. fuhūd , afhād , afhud , fuhūda ), is the name of the Cheetah (Urdū čītā < Sanskrit čitraka , “spotted”), Acinonyx jubatus, also called “Hunting-leopard and Hunting-cat”, (French: “ guépard ”, Persian: “ yūz ”), the subspecies Acin . jub . venaticus being found from Balūčistān to ʿIrāḳ and Jordan and the subspecies Acin. jub. hecki or guttatus in northern Africa, from the borders of the Sahara. The noun fahd , the form to be preferred to fahid which was recommended by al-Ḳalḳas̲h̲andī ( Ṣubḥ al-aʿs̲h̲ā , ii, 39 ff.), is connected with the root FHD which contains the idea…

Faḥl

(307 words)

Author(s): Buhl, Fr. | Sourdel, D.
or Fiḥl , an ancient town in Transjordania situated 12 km. south-east of Baysān [ q.v.], was known in earliest antiquity, at the time of el-Amarna, under the name Bik̲h̲il , corresponding to a Semitic p l. Macedonian colonists settled there in about 310 B.C., giving it the name of the Macedonian town of Pella, which resembled the native name. After the Roman conquest, Pella was one of the towns of the Decapolis, and the Christians took refuge there during the disturbances which followed the destruction of Je…

Fahrasa

(695 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
, the name given in Muslim Spain to kinds of catalogues in which scholars enumerated, in one form or another, their masters and the subjects or works studied under their direction. The word fahrasa is an Arabicization of the Persian fihrist by means of a double vocalization -a- and the closing of the final tāʾ , a fairly frequent modification. In al-Andalus, it is completely synonymous with barnāmad̲j̲ , which is also Persian, while in the east it corresponds with t̲h̲abat , mas̲h̲īk̲h̲a ( mas̲h̲yak̲h̲a ) or muʿd̲j̲am (this last word is also used in the west)…

Faḥṣ al-Ballūṭ

(739 words)

Author(s): Huici Miranda, A.
, “Plain of the oaktrees” or, more accurately, “of the acorns” ( ballūṭ ) whose present name Los Pedroches is applied to the wide valley situated to the south-west of Oreto, three days’ journey north of Cordova. It stretches as far as the mountains of Almadén and has always been characterized by the great mass of evergreen oaks covering the mountains and the high plateau. Pedroche is synonymous with pedregal , the designation of the whole region, and the Latin name petra , transcribed into Arabic as biṭra , has, with the suffix che , given Biṭraws̲h̲. In common with…

Fāʿil

(8 words)

[see ʿilla ]. [see naḥw ].

Fair

(6 words)

[see panāyir, sūḳ ].

Faith

(5 words)

[see īmān ].

Faith, Belief

(8 words)

(in God) [see ʿaḳīda ].

Fak̲h̲d̲h̲, Fak̲h̲id̲h̲

(8 words)

[see ʿas̲h̲īra , ḳabīla ].

Fak̲h̲k̲h̲

(619 words)

Author(s): Veccia Vaglieri, L.
, a locality near Mecca which is now called al-S̲h̲uhadaʾ “the Martyrs”. A very ancient tradition relates that certain Companions of the Prophet, in particular ʿAbd Allāh the son of the caliph ʿUmar, were buried there. It is in honour of this famous person, regarded as the local saint, that on 14 Ṣafar a ceremony is held there every year, and not because about a hundred ʿAlids and their partisans met their deaths at Fak̲h̲k̲h̲ in a battle ( yawm Fak̲h̲k̲h̲) on 8 Ḏh̲u ’l-Ḥid̲j̲d̲j̲a 169/11 June 786. ¶ The latter were, however, the “Martyrs”. The battle, which in the time of Snouck H…

Fak̲h̲k̲h̲ār

(3,804 words)

Author(s): Marçais, G.
, earthenware vase, pottery, ceramics. Pottery is one of the glories of Islamic art and is produced by practically every country in the Islamic world. Ceramic wares have a place in architecture as inlays or as faience tiles, and they hold an important place in the field of the applied arts. In order to make a necessarily brief study of this vast subject clear, it would seem appropriate to give some idea of the different techniques employed, ¶ before proceeding to the naming of the principal centres of manufacture and the periods of their activity. The basic material for ceramic wares is b…

Fak̲h̲r

(5 words)

[see mufāk̲h̲ara ]

Fak̲h̲r al-Dawla

(1,158 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
, Abu ’l-Ḥasan ʿAlī b. al-Ḥasan , born in about 341/952, third son of the Buwayhid Rukn al-Dawla [ q.v.] and of a daughter of the Daylamī chief al-Ḥasan b. Fayzurān, a cousin of Mākān b. Kākī [ q.v.], received his laḳab in 364/975 and was summoned in 365/976, with his brothers ʿAḍud al-Dawla [ q.v.], the eldest, and Muʾayyid al-Dawla, to his father’s sick-bed, in order to agree what share each would receive of their father’s possessions, under the suzerainty of ʿAḍud al-Dawla; as his portion, Fak̲h̲r al-Dawla received the provinces of Hamad̲h̲ān and…

Fak̲h̲r al-Dīn

(2,113 words)

Author(s): Salibi, Kamal
, name of two Lebanese amīrs of the Druze house of Maʿn [ q.v.]. Fak̲h̲r al-Dīn I, amīr of the S̲h̲ūf (north-east of Sidon) at the time of the Ottoman conquest of Syria, was among the chieftains who offered submission to the conquering Sultan Selīm I in Damascus in 922/1516. The Sultan, impressed by his eloquence, is said to have sent him back with the title amīr al-barr (lord of the land), recognizing him as overlord of the chieftains of the Druze Mountain (the G̲h̲arb, the D̲j̲urd, and the S̲h̲ūf). Fak̲h̲r al-Dīn I was assassinated in c. 951/1544 under obscur…

Fak̲h̲r al-Dīn Mubāraks̲h̲āh

(246 words)

Author(s): Dani, A.H.
, originally known by the short name of Fak̲h̲rā and posted at Sonārgāwn in East Bengal as a Silāḥdār of Bahrām K̲h̲ān, the local governor in the time of the Dihlī Sultan Muḥammad b. Tug̲h̲luḳ. After the governor’s death Fak̲h̲rā revolted, assumed sovereignty at Sonārgāwn and maintained his position by defeating the imperial forces led by the eastern governors of the Tug̲h̲luḳ Sulṭān. He established the first independent dynasty in Bengal in 739/1338, conquered up to Čāt́gāwn in the south an…

Fak̲h̲r al-Dīn al-Rāzī

(4,605 words)

Author(s): Anawati, G.C.
, Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad b. ʿUmar b. al-Ḥusayn, one of the most celebrated theologians and exegetists of Islam, born in 543/1149 (or perhaps 544) at Rayy. His father, Ḍiyāʾ al-Dīn Abu ’l-Ḳāsim, was a preacher ( k̲h̲aṭīb ) in his native town, from whose name comes his son’s appellation, Ibn al-K̲h̲aṭīb. He was also conversant with kalām and, among other works, wrote the G̲h̲āyat al-marām , in which he showed himself a warm partisan of al-As̲h̲ʿarī. Al-Subkī who gives him a brief review ( Ṭabaḳāt al-S̲h̲āfiʿiyya , iv, 285-6) names among the list of his masters…

Fak̲h̲rī

(155 words)

Author(s): Jacob, G.
(d. ca. 1027/1618), a native of Bursa, the most celebrated silhouette-cutter in Turkey. This art ( ṣanʿat-i ḳaṭʿ ) was brought from Persia to Turkey in the 10th/16th century, and to the west in the 11th/17th century, where at first, as in the east, light paper on a dark ground was always used. There are specimens of Fak̲h̲rī’s work—he cut principally examples of calligraphy, flowers and gardens— in the album prepared for Murād III, now in the Vienna Hofbibliothek; for Aḥmed I he cut out a Gu…

Fak̲h̲rī

(348 words)

Author(s): Massé, H.
, S̲h̲ams al-Dīn Muḥammad b. Fak̲h̲r al-Dīn Saʿīd Iṣfāhānī, an Iranian philologist, author of the Miʿyār-i D̲j̲amālī va-miftāḥ-i Bū Isḥāḳī (“The bird-trap offered to D̲j̲amāl and the key entrusted to Abu Isḥāḳ”), written in Iṣfahān, after residing in S̲h̲īrāz, and dedicated in 745/1344 to D̲j̲amāl al-Dīn Abū Isḥāḳ Muḥammad, the last prince of the Ind̲j̲ū dynasty [ q.v.]. The work consists of four sections: prosody ( ʿarūḍ ), knowledge of rhyme ( ḳawāfī ), rhetorical devices ( badāʾiʿ al-sanāʾiʿ ), a lexicon intermingled with verses in praise of the pr…
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