Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition

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Edited by: P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel and W.P. Heinrichs

The Encyclopaedia of Islam (Second Edition) Online sets out the present state of our knowledge of the Islamic World. It is a unique and invaluable reference tool, an essential key to understanding the world of Islam, and the authoritative source not only for the religion, but also for the believers and the countries in which they live. 

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Fak̲h̲d̲h̲, Fak̲h̲id̲h̲

(8 words)

[see ʿas̲h̲īra , ḳabīla ].


(619 words)

Author(s): Veccia Vaglieri, L.
, a locality near Mecca which is now called al-S̲h̲uhadaʾ “the Martyrs”. A very ancient tradition relates that certain Companions of the Prophet, in particular ʿAbd Allāh the son of the caliph ʿUmar, were buried there. It is in honour of this famous person, regarded as the local saint, that on 14 Ṣafar a ceremony is held there every year, and not because about a hundred ʿAlids and their partisans met their deaths at Fak̲h̲k̲h̲ in a battle ( yawm Fak̲h̲k̲h̲) on 8 Ḏh̲u ’l-Ḥid̲j̲d̲j̲a 169/11 June 786. ¶ The latter were, however, the “Martyrs”. The battle, which in the time of Snouck H…


(3,804 words)

Author(s): Marçais, G.
, earthenware vase, pottery, ceramics. Pottery is one of the glories of Islamic art and is produced by practically every country in the Islamic world. Ceramic wares have a place in architecture as inlays or as faience tiles, and they hold an important place in the field of the applied arts. In order to make a necessarily brief study of this vast subject clear, it would seem appropriate to give some idea of the different techniques employed, ¶ before proceeding to the naming of the principal centres of manufacture and the periods of their activity. The basic material for ceramic wares is b…


(5 words)

[see mufāk̲h̲ara ]

Fak̲h̲r al-Dawla

(1,158 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
, Abu ’l-Ḥasan ʿAlī b. al-Ḥasan , born in about 341/952, third son of the Buwayhid Rukn al-Dawla [ q.v.] and of a daughter of the Daylamī chief al-Ḥasan b. Fayzurān, a cousin of Mākān b. Kākī [ q.v.], received his laḳab in 364/975 and was summoned in 365/976, with his brothers ʿAḍud al-Dawla [ q.v.], the eldest, and Muʾayyid al-Dawla, to his father’s sick-bed, in order to agree what share each would receive of their father’s possessions, under the suzerainty of ʿAḍud al-Dawla; as his portion, Fak̲h̲r al-Dawla received the provinces of Hamad̲h̲ān and…

Fak̲h̲r al-Dīn

(2,113 words)

Author(s): Salibi, Kamal
, name of two Lebanese amīrs of the Druze house of Maʿn [ q.v.]. Fak̲h̲r al-Dīn I, amīr of the S̲h̲ūf (north-east of Sidon) at the time of the Ottoman conquest of Syria, was among the chieftains who offered submission to the conquering Sultan Selīm I in Damascus in 922/1516. The Sultan, impressed by his eloquence, is said to have sent him back with the title amīr al-barr (lord of the land), recognizing him as overlord of the chieftains of the Druze Mountain (the G̲h̲arb, the D̲j̲urd, and the S̲h̲ūf). Fak̲h̲r al-Dīn I was assassinated in c. 951/1544 under obscur…

Fak̲h̲r al-Dīn Mubāraks̲h̲āh

(246 words)

Author(s): Dani, A.H.
, originally known by the short name of Fak̲h̲rā and posted at Sonārgāwn in East Bengal as a Silāḥdār of Bahrām K̲h̲ān, the local governor in the time of the Dihlī Sultan Muḥammad b. Tug̲h̲luḳ. After the governor’s death Fak̲h̲rā revolted, assumed sovereignty at Sonārgāwn and maintained his position by defeating the imperial forces led by the eastern governors of the Tug̲h̲luḳ Sulṭān. He established the first independent dynasty in Bengal in 739/1338, conquered up to Čāt́gāwn in the south an…

Fak̲h̲r al-Dīn al-Rāzī

(4,605 words)

Author(s): Anawati, G.C.
, Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad b. ʿUmar b. al-Ḥusayn, one of the most celebrated theologians and exegetists of Islam, born in 543/1149 (or perhaps 544) at Rayy. His father, Ḍiyāʾ al-Dīn Abu ’l-Ḳāsim, was a preacher ( k̲h̲aṭīb ) in his native town, from whose name comes his son’s appellation, Ibn al-K̲h̲aṭīb. He was also conversant with kalām and, among other works, wrote the G̲h̲āyat al-marām , in which he showed himself a warm partisan of al-As̲h̲ʿarī. Al-Subkī who gives him a brief review ( Ṭabaḳāt al-S̲h̲āfiʿiyya , iv, 285-6) names among the list of his masters…


(155 words)

Author(s): Jacob, G.
(d. ca. 1027/1618), a native of Bursa, the most celebrated silhouette-cutter in Turkey. This art ( ṣanʿat-i ḳaṭʿ ) was brought from Persia to Turkey in the 10th/16th century, and to the west in the 11th/17th century, where at first, as in the east, light paper on a dark ground was always used. There are specimens of Fak̲h̲rī’s work—he cut principally examples of calligraphy, flowers and gardens— in the album prepared for Murād III, now in the Vienna Hofbibliothek; for Aḥmed I he cut out a Gu…


(348 words)

Author(s): Massé, H.
, S̲h̲ams al-Dīn Muḥammad b. Fak̲h̲r al-Dīn Saʿīd Iṣfāhānī, an Iranian philologist, author of the Miʿyār-i D̲j̲amālī va-miftāḥ-i Bū Isḥāḳī (“The bird-trap offered to D̲j̲amāl and the key entrusted to Abu Isḥāḳ”), written in Iṣfahān, after residing in S̲h̲īrāz, and dedicated in 745/1344 to D̲j̲amāl al-Dīn Abū Isḥāḳ Muḥammad, the last prince of the Ind̲j̲ū dynasty [ q.v.]. The work consists of four sections: prosody ( ʿarūḍ ), knowledge of rhyme ( ḳawāfī ), rhetorical devices ( badāʾiʿ al-sanāʾiʿ ), a lexicon intermingled with verses in praise of the pr…

Fak̲h̲r-i Mudabbir

(637 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C. E.
, the s̲h̲uhra of Fak̲h̲r al-Dīn Muḥammad b. Manṣūr Mubārak S̲h̲āh al-Ḳuras̲h̲ī , Persian author in India during the time of the last G̲h̲aznawids, the G̲h̲ūrids and the first Slave Kings of Dihlī (later 6th/12th century-early 7th/13th century). His birth date and place are both unknown, but he was a descendant, so he says, on his father’s side from the caliph Abū Bakr and on his mother’s from the Turkish amīr Bilgetigin, the immediate predecessor in G̲h̲azna of Sebüktigin and father-in-law of Maḥmūd of G̲h̲azna; he may …

Fak̲h̲r al-Mulk

(9 words)

b. niẓām al-mulk [see niẓāmids ].

Fak̲h̲r al-Mulk

(8 words)

[see ʿammār , banū ].


(217 words)

Author(s): MacDonald, D.B.
(a.), plur. fuḳahāʾ , in its non-technical meaning [denotes anyone possessing knowledge ( fiḳh ) of a thing (syn. ʿālim , plur. ʿulamāʾ [ q.v.]). Then, as fiḳh passed from denoting any branch of knowledge and became a technical term for the science of religious law ( sharīʿa [ q.v.]) and in particular for the science of its derivative details ( furūʿ ), faḳīh became the technical term for a specialist in religious law and in particular its furūʿ. This development is parallel to that of the term ( iuris ) prudens in Roman law. In older terminology, however, faḳīh as opposed to ʿālim denotes the sp…

Faḳīh, Bā

(672 words)

Author(s): Ghūl, M.A.
, a family of Bā ʿAlawī sayyids of Tarīm in Ḥaḍramawt descended from Muḥammad b. ʿAlī (d. 862/1458), called mawlā ʿAydīd or ṣāḥib ʿ Aydīd , after ʿAydīd, now a suburb of Tarīm, to which he moved from Tarīm. His father, ʿAlī b. Muḥammad (d. 838/1434) was called ṣāḥib al-ḥawṭa , after an estate he had near Tarīm which he developed as a plantation and which became a sacrosanct enclosure ( ḥawṭa ). The name Bā Faḳīh apparently refers to ṣāḥib al-ḥawṭa’s great-grandfather, al-Faḳīh Aḥmad b. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. ʿAlī b. Muḥammad (d. 726/1326), whose great-grandfather was Muḥammad ṣaḥib Mirbāt

Faḳīh, Bal

(417 words)

Author(s): Ghūl, M.A.
, a family of Bā ʿAlawī sayyids of Tarīm in Ḥaḍramawt descended from al-Faḳīh Muḥammad b. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān, called al-asḳaʿ , a prominent scholar who, after studying in his native Tarīm, Aden, Zabīd, Mecca and Medina, settled in Tarīm, where he died in 917/1512. A kind of historical work by him was used as a source of the Taʾrīk̲h̲ of Bā Faḳīh al-S̲h̲iḥrī, where it is referred to as K̲h̲aṭṭ cf. R. B. Serjeant in BSOAS, xxv (1962), 246. His great ancestor was Muḥammad b. ʿAlī b. Muḥammad ¶ ṣāḥib Mirbāṭ , commonly called al-ustād̲h̲ al-aʿẓam wa ’l-faḳīh al-muḳaddam (d. 653/1255). The Bal Faḳīh sayyids…


(426 words)

Author(s): Rosenthal, F.
, Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad b. Isḥāḳ b. al-ʿAbbās , 3rd/9th-century historian of Mecca. No information on him was available to later Muslim scholars, or is to us, except what can be learned from his History of Mecca , of which the second half is preserved in a single manuscript in Leiden (cod. or. 463). A small portion of the work has been edited by F. Wüstenfeld, Die Chroniken der Stadt Mekka , Leipzig 1857-61, ii, 3-51. Al-Fākihī was alive and, it seems, quite young during the judgeship of ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. Yazīd b. Muḥammad b. Hanzala b. Muḥam…


(466 words)

Author(s): Nizami, K.A.
, The word faḳīr has four different connotations—etymological, Ḳurʾānic, mystical and popular. Etymologically it means ( a) one whose backbone is broken (see Ḳurʾān, lxxvii, 25); ( b) poor or destitute; ( c) canal, aqueduct or mouth of a canal; ( d) hollow dug for planting or watering palm-trees. When used in the sense of a pauper its plural form is fuḳarāʾ , but when used in the sense of an aqueduct, fuḳur is its plural form. The word faḳīr (or fuḳarāʾ) occurs 12 times in the Ḳurʾān. It is sometimes used as opposed to g̲h̲anī (one who is self-sufficient and independ…


(658 words)

Author(s): İz, Fahīr
, Kalkandelenli̇ , Turkish poet of the mid-10th/16th century. Very little is known about his life. From the scanty information provided by ted̲h̲kire- writers, we learn only that he was from Ḳalḳandelen (Tatova) near Üsküb (Skopje); of a modest family, cheerful and easy-going, he was unambitious and died young, while still a student. Faḳīrī is the author of a s̲h̲ehrengīz , a sāḳī-nāme and a number of g̲h̲azels scattered in med̲j̲mūʿas and naẓīre collections, all of which are of rather mediocre quality. He owes his reputation to his original Risāle-i taʿrīfāt (B…

Faḳīr Muḥammad K̲h̲ān

(129 words)

Author(s): Bausani, A.
, an Urdu writer (Faḳīr is a tak̲h̲alluṣ , nom de plume). He is chiefly known as the author of a translation of the Anwār-i Suhaylī of Ḥusayn Wāʿiẓ Kās̲h̲ifī [ q.v.], an adaptation in elaborate Persian prose of the stories from Kalīla wa-Dimna [ q.v.]. The title of the Urdu translation by Faḳīr Muḥammad K̲h̲ān, for which he appears to have been helped by the celebrated Urdu poet Mīr Ḥasan (d. 1200/1786), is Bustān-i ḥikmat (Garden of wisdom). The first edition is a lithograph, Lucknow 1845. As a lyric poet, Faḳīr belongs to the Lucknow school and to the silsila (poetic sc…
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