Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition

Get access Subject: Middle East and Islamic Studies
Edited by: P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel and W.P. Heinrichs

The Encyclopaedia of Islam (Second Edition) Online sets out the present state of our knowledge of the Islamic World. It is a unique and invaluable reference tool, an essential key to understanding the world of Islam, and the authoritative source not only for the religion, but also for the believers and the countries in which they live. 

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Faḳīr of Ipi

(238 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C. E.
, the name given in popular parlance to Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ī Mīrzā ʿAlī K̲h̲ān, Pathan mullah and agitator along the Northwestern Frontier of the Indo-Pakistan subcontinent in both the later British Indian and the early Pakistani periods, d. 1960. A member of the Torī K̲h̲ēl group of the ʿUt̲h̲mānzay Wazīrs of North Wazīrīstān, probably one of the most unreconciled of the Pathan tribes of the Frontier in British times, he came to especial prominence in 1936-7, inflaming the Tōrī Ḵh̲ēls and the Mahsūds of the Tochi valley against the British…


(2,669 words)

Author(s): Fahd, T.
, ṭīra and zad̲j̲r are terms which merge into one another and together correspond to and express adequately the concept of “omen” and of οι̉ωνóς. Faʾl , a term peculiar to Arabic and equivalent to the Hebrew neḥas̲h̲īm and the Syriac neḥshē , originally meant natural omen, cledonism. It appears in very varied forms, ranging from simple sneezing (al-Ibs̲h̲īhī, Mustaṭraf , trans. Rat, ii 182), certain peculiarities of persons and things that one encounters (al-Nuwayrī, Nihāya , 133 ff., trans, in Arabica , viii/1 (1961), 34-7), to the interpretation of the…


(2,078 words)

Author(s): Hartner, W.
, Sphere, in particular the Celestial Sphere. a. Etymology and semantic evolution. The word falak (pl. aflāk ) occurs already in the Ḳurʾān with the specific significance “celestial sphere” (xxi, 34 “it is He who has created night and day, the Sun and the Moon, each of which moves in its own sphere”; similarly xxxvi, 40). Etymologically and semantically it has a long history: it can be traced back to Sumerian origins, where the stem bala (≷ * pilak ) already has the meaning “to be round” or also “to turn around”. In Akk. it appears as pilakku , which denotes the whorl o…


(665 words)

Author(s): Lecomte, G.
(Ar.), Turkish: falaḳa , falāḳa , falaḳ Persian: falaka , falak; Byzantine Greek: φάλαγγας; Moroccan: ḳarma , arma . One of the favourite punishments of the masters in the Ḳurʾānic schools (see kuttāb ) was to give the pupil a bastinado on the soles of the feet, more or less severe according to the offence. (There exist detailed scales; see Ibn Saḥnūn, op. cit. infra ). One or more assistants ( ʿarīf ) immobilized the victim’s feet with the help of an apparatus sometimes called miḳṭara , but more often falaḳa. It existed in three different forms: 1) a plank with two holes in it, of t…


(245 words)

Author(s): Jomier, J.
, Maḥmūd Pas̲h̲a , was born in 1230/ 1815 at al-Ḥiṣṣa (province of al-G̲h̲arbiyya), and received his early schooling in Alexandria. He subsequently attended, firstly as a pupil, and then as an officer-instructor, the polytechnic school at Būlāḳ (Muhandisk̲h̲āne) founded by Muḥammad ʿAlī. In 1850-1 he was sent to Paris, to specialize in astronomy under Arago. He returned to Cairo in 1859. Afterwards he directed the team which, on the orders of the Khedive Saʿīd, mapped Egypt. H…

Falakī S̲h̲irwānī

(361 words)

Author(s): Hasan, Hadi
, Muḥammad Falakī, poetastronomer of S̲h̲irwān and pupil of K̲h̲āḳānī, is the author of a lost dīwān of Persian poetry, of which 1512 verses have been recovered and published. Falakī lived 49 years, ca. 501/1108 - ca. 550/1155 and like Abu ’l-ʿAlāʾ and K̲h̲āḳānī was a courtpoet of the S̲h̲irwāns̲h̲āh Abu ’l-Hayd̲j̲ā Fak̲h̲r al-Dīn Minūčihr II, who succeeded his father Farīdūn I on the throne of S̲h̲irwān in 514/1120 and ruled for 37 years until c. 551/1156. The statement of his contemporary K̲h̲āḳānī, that Falakī’s life was short-lived and that Manūčihr II ruled for 30…


(3,341 words)

Author(s): Arnaldez, R.
, pl. of faylasūf , formed from the Greek φιλόσοφος. By its origin this word primarily denotes the Greek thinkers. Al-S̲h̲ahrastānī gives a list of them: the seven Sages who are “the fount of philosophy ( falsafa ) and the beginning of wisdom ( ḥikma ) , then Thales, Anaxagoras, Anaximenes, Empedocles, Pythagoras, Socrates, Plato, Plutarch, Xenophanes, Zeno the elder, Democritus, the philosophers of the Academy, Heraclitus, Epicurus, Homer (the poet whose wisdom inspired Greece for, with the Greeks, poetry preceded ph…


(9 words)

[see bayzara , čaki̊rd̲j̲i̊-bas̲h̲i̊ , dog̲h̲and̲j̲i̊ ]


(5 words)

[see filāḥa ]


(5 words)

[see dawraḳ ]


(462 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
, an Arabic word used particularly in the Beduin dialect form fəllāg , pl. fəllāga (in the western press principally in the pl., with the spelling: fellagar fellagah, fellagha ), and denoting in the first place the brigands and subsequently the rebels who appeared in Tunisia and Algeria. A connexion with falaḳa [ q.v.] “instrument of torture”, of which the etymology is, in any case, obscure (see Arabica , 1954/3, 325-36), is certainly tobe ruled out. On the other hand, the Arabic root FLḲ (comp. FLD̲J̲, FLḤ, etc.) seems worthy of retention; Tunisian rural and nomadic dialects make use of fləg


(279 words)

Author(s): Holt, P.M.
, although strictly signifying the Fulānī [ q.v.], is used in the Nilotic Sudan generally for Muslim immigrants from the western Bilād al-Sūdān , and in particular for those from northern Nigeria. The term has largely superseded the older Takārīr or Takārna (which had a similarly loose application), presumably after the Fulānī conquests under ʿUt̲h̲mān dan Fodio. The Takārīr/Fallāta immigrants are primarily pilgrims en route to Mecca: their first appearance in the Nilotic Sudan can hardly have been before the establishment of ¶ Muslim sultanates in Dār Fūr [ q.v.] and Waddāī during …


(117 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, name of two districts ( ṭassūd̲j̲ ) of ʿIrāḳ, Upper and Lower Fallūd̲j̲a, which occupied the angle formed by the two arms of the lower Euphrates which flow finally into the Baṭīḥa [ q.v.], the Euphrates proper to the west (this arm is given various names by the geographers and is now called S̲h̲aṭṭ al-Hindiyya) and the nahr Sūrā (now S̲h̲aṭṭ al-Ḥilla) to the east. (Ed.) Bibliography Suhrāb, K. ʿAd̲j̲āʾib al-aḳālīm al-sabʿa, ed. H. von Mžik, Leipzig 1930, 124-5 Ṭabarī, index Balād̲h̲urī, Futūḥ, 245, 254, 265, 457 Bakrī, index Yāḳūt, s.v. Yaʿḳūbī-Wiet, 140 Masʿūdī, Murūd̲j̲, v, 337 A. Musil, T…


(94 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, name of an ancient locality, still existing, of ʿIrāḳ; it is situated on the Euphrates down-stream from al-Anbār [ q.v.] and near Dimmimā, from where the nahr ʿĪsā branched off towards Bag̲h̲dād. At al-Fallūd̲j̲a nowadays the main road from Bag̲h̲dād crosses the Euphrates. (Ed.) Bibliography Muḳaddasī, 115 Suhrāb, 123 Iṣṭak̲h̲rī, 84 Ibn Ḥawḳal, 165 Musil, The middle Euphrates, 269-71 Le Strange, 66, 68 (distinguishing two villages of the same name, the second at the point where the nahr al-Malik branches off; but there seems to be some confusion here) M. Canard, H’amdânides, 147.


(1,166 words)

Author(s): Massé, H.
, book of divination. In the Muslim East (especially in Iranian and Turkish countries), in order to know if not the future, at least the signs or circumstances that are auspicious for some decision, recourse is still sometimes made to certain procedures (cf. Massé, Croyances , ch. XI: divination), among others to two kinds of books: 1. collections of poems ( dīwān of Ḥāfiẓ); 2. special works ( fāl-nāma). Consulting the dīwān, an act within the reach of everyone, consists in opening the book at random and interpreting the text which first strikes the eye (for details, see Massé, op. cit., 244-5…


(1,596 words)

Author(s): Udovitch, A.L.
(pl. fulūs ), the designation of the copper or bronze coin current in the early centuries of the Islamic era. The term fals for copper coinage, like those of dīnār and dirham for gold and silver, is of Greek origin, deriving from φόλλις, the name of the Byzantine copper coin. Fals denotes any and all copper or bronze coins, regardless of size or weight. The system of varying denominations in which Byzantine copper coinage was originally issued seems already to have disintegrated prior to the Arab conquests. By the time the…


(6,538 words)

Author(s): Arnaldez, R.
1.—Origins. The origins of falsafa are purely Greek; the activity of the falāsifa [ q.v.] begins with Arabic translations of the Greek philosophical texts (whether direct or through a Syriac intermediary). Thus falsafa\appears first as the continuation of φιλοσοφία in Muslim surroundings. But this definition leads at once to a more precise formulation: since strictly orthodox Sunnī Islam has never welcomed philosophic thought, falsafa developed from the first especially among thinkers influenced by the sects, and particularly by the S̲h̲īʿa; and this arose …


(5 words)

[see mag̲h̲os̲h̲a ].


(5 words)

[see ʿāʾila ].


(5 words)

[see mirwāḥa ].
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