Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition

Get access Subject: Middle East and Islamic Studies
Edited by: P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel and W.P. Heinrichs

The Encyclopaedia of Islam (Second Edition) Online sets out the present state of our knowledge of the Islamic World. It is a unique and invaluable reference tool, an essential key to understanding the world of Islam, and the authoritative source not only for the religion, but also for the believers and the countries in which they live. 

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(477 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, the name for two towns of the eastern Iranian world. 1. Sabzawār in western Ḵh̲urāsān was, together with Ḵh̲usrūd̲j̲ird, one of the two townships making up the administrative district of Bayhaḳ [ q.v.], the name by which the whole district was generally known in mediaeval Islamic times. It lay in the cultivable zone on the northern rim of the Das̲h̲t-i Kawīr or Great Desert. Sabzawār itself is described in the Ḥudūd al-ʿālam , tr. 102, §23.2, as a small town and as the chef-lieu ( ḳaṣaba ) of a district; the Arabic geographers merely mention it as a stage along the roads of Ḵh̲urāsān and as a rūstāḳ…


(334 words)

Author(s): Newman, A.J.
, Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ Mullā Hādī b. Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ Mahdī (1212-95 or 1298/1797-1878 or 1881), Persian philosopher of the Ḳād̲j̲ār period, best-known for his commentary on, and revival of the ideas of Saḍr al-Dīn al-S̲h̲īrāzī, Mullā Ṣadrā (d. 1050/1640 [ q.v.]). Born in Sabzawār to a landowning merchant family, Mullā Hādī studied Arabic language and grammar in his home city and fīḳh , logic, mathematics and ḥikma in Mas̲h̲had. He then studied in Iṣfahān with such scholars as Mullā ʿAlī Nūrī (d. 1246/1830-1), the first of the Ḳād̲j̲ār-period scholars…


(9 words)

, Atabeg of Fārs [see salg̲h̲urids ].


(1,000 words)

Author(s): Troupeau, G.
, the fourteenth letter of the Arabic alphabet, transcribed /ṣ/, with the numerical value of 90, according to the eastern order [see abd̲j̲ad ]. In the Mag̲h̲ribī order /ṣ/ takes the place of /s/ (thus 60) and /ḍ/ the place of /ṣ/. For an explanation of this fact, similarly attested in a Thamudic abecedary, see M.C.A. Macdonald (in Bibl .). Definition: an alveolar sibilant, voiceless and velarised ("emphatic") in articulation. As a phoneme / / is defined by the oppositions / ṣ -s/, / ṣ -ṭ /; it is thus velarised and sibilant. In Ḳurʾānic recitation, or elevated style of recitation in g…


(529 words)

Author(s): Fahd, T.
(a.), a term with many meanings, including those of thirst, voice, echo, and screech-owl in the sense of hāma , which denotes a bird charged with taking shape in the skull of someone who has been murdered, etc. (see the lexica). It is this latter sense which interests us here. In effect, the pre-Islamic Arabs believed that after death, above all after a violent death, out of the blood of the skull ( hāma) and parts of the body there arose a bird called hāma (or hām , the male owl; see Yāḳūt, Buldān , iii, 376), which returned to the tomb of the dead man until vengea…


(1,078 words)

Author(s): Smith, G.R.
, a town approximately 240 km/150 miles to the north of the chief town of the Yemen, Ṣanʿāʾ [ q.v.], situated on the southern edge of the Ṣaʿda plain, and the administrative capital of the province ( muḥāfaẓa ) of the same name. The town is about 1,800 m/5,904 ft. above sea level and in the 1986 census in the Yemen had a reported population of 24,245 persons. The inhabitants of the province numbered 323,110. Although al-Hamdānī, 67, informs us that the town was called Ḏj̲umāʿ in pre-Islamic times, certain Sabaic inscriptions mention hgrn ṢʿDTm , "the town Ṣaʿda", tog…


(5 words)

[see saʿīda ].


(654 words)

Author(s): Dietrich, A.
(a.) (sing, ṣadafa ) denotes two classes of molluscs: 1. Mussels ( Lamellibranchiata ); 2. Snails ( Gastropoda ), both including the mother-of-pearl. Pearls [see al-durr ; luʾluʾ ], originating from the excrescences in the interior of the pearl mussel ( ṣadaf al-durr , al-ṣadaf al-luʾluʾī ), are of great economic importance. To the edible mussels belong the oysters ( aṣṭūrū < ὄστρειον) and, as a popular foodstuff, the common mussel, Mytilus edulis L., Gr. μύαχες, which, from the ancient pharmacology of Dioscurides, came into the Arabic pharmacopoeias as miyāḳis


(1,295 words)

Author(s): Fierro, Maribel
, Abū ʿAlī Ḥusayn b. Muḥammad b. Fīrruh (from the Romance word fiero , i.e. al-ḥadīd ) b. Muḥammad b. Ḥayyūn b. Sukkara/Sukkaruh al-Ṣadafī al-Saraḳusṭī, known commonly as Abū ʿAlī al-Ṣadafī or Ibn Sukkara, Muslim Spanish scholar and traditionist. According to ʿIyāḍ, he was born in Saragossa around the year 454/1062. He studied in that town, among others, with Abu ’l-Walīd al-Bād̲j̲ī [ q.v.], in Valencia with al-ʿUd̲h̲rī and in Almería with Ibn Saʿdūn al-Ḳarawī and Ibn al-Murābiṭ. He travelled to the East on 1 Muḥarram 481/1088, performing the pilgrimage and…


(241 words)

Author(s): Alami, D.S. el-
, the equivalent of mahr [ q.v.], dowry. Lane gives ṣadāḳ , with the alternative ṣidāḳ (noting that the former is more common but the latter more "chaste"), plurals ṣuduḳ , ṣudḳ , and aṣdiḳa as "the mahr of a woman". Amongst the other alternative forms given by Lane the most commonly found is ṣaduḳa (pl. ṣaduḳāt ) and the form IV verb of the same root, aṣdaḳa , means to name or give a ṣadāḳ upon taking a woman in marriage. Al-Ḏj̲azīrī says that it is derived from ṣidḳ truth, honesty, sincerity as it is an indication of the husband’s desire to marry by the givin…


(9,142 words)

Author(s): Weir, T.H. | Zysow, A.
(a.) has among its meanings that of voluntary alms, often referred to in Islamic literature as ṣadaḳat al-taṭawwuʿ "alms of spontaneity", or ṣadaḳat al-nafl "alms of supererogation", in distinction to obligatory alms, frequently also termed ṣadaḳa , but more commonly known as zakāt [ q.v.]. Both ṣadaḳa and zakāt are considered by Muslim writers to be of purely Arabic derivation; alms being called ṣadaḳa as indicating the sincerity ( ṣidḳ) of the almgiver’s religious belief (e.g. Ibn al-ʿArabi, Aḥkām al-Ḳurʾān , ed. al-Bid̲j̲āwī, Cairo 1387/1967, ii, 946-7; al-S̲h̲irbīnī, al-Iḳnāʿ


(50 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Banū , a name sometimes given in the mediaeval Arabic sources to the princes of the Mazyadids or Banū Mazyad [ q.v.] in central ʿIrāḳ. The name derives from the most famous member of the line, Ṣadaḳa (I) b. Manṣūr (479-501/1086-1108 [ q.v.]). (Ed.) Bibliography See that to mazyad, banū.


(838 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K.V.
b. Manṣūr b. Dubays b. ʿAlī b. Mazyad , Sayf al-Dawla Abu ’l-Ḥasan al-Asadī , ruler of al-Ḥilla of the Arab line of Mazyadids [see mazyad , banū ]. After the death of his father in 479/1086-7, Ṣadaḳa was recognised by the Sald̲j̲ūḳ sultan Malik S̲h̲āh as lord of the territory on the left bank of the Tigris. During the fighting between sultan Berk-yaruḳ and his brother Muḥammad, Ṣadaḳa was at first on the side of the former, but when Berkyaruḳ’s vizier, al-Aʿazz Abu ’l-Maḥāsin al-Dihistānī, demanded a large sum of money fro…


(207 words)

Author(s): Kunitzsch, P.
, "the two lucky (planets)", a technical term in astrology referring to the two beneficent planets Jupiter and Venus. On the opposite, Saturn and Mars are al-naḥsāni , "the two unlucky, maleficent (planets)"; cf. al-Ḵh̲wārazmī, Mafātīḥ al-ʿulūm , ed. van Vloten, 228-9. In more detail, al-Bīrūnī, K. al-Tafhīm li-awāʾil ṣināʿat al-tand̲j̲īm , ed. and tr. R.R. Wright, London 1934, §§ 381-2, in the explanation of the "natures" ( ṭibāʿ ) of the planets, describes Saturn as al-naḥs al-akbar , and Mars as al-naḥs al-aṣg̲h̲ar , i.e. the greater and the lesser evil…


(1,815 words)

Author(s): Hopwood, D.
, Anwar , Egyptian statesman (1918-81). He was born into a poor family in the Egyptian village of Mīt Abū Kōm, 60 km/40 miles north of Cairo. His father was a civil servant who had to support his wife and thirteen children. Sādāt spent his first seven years in his village, where he was left in the ¶ care of his grandmother while his parents were working in Sūdān (his mother was Sudanese). He went to the village school and thoroughly enjoyed his life amongst the local peasants. He later claimed that his early experiences gave him a deep understanding o…

Saʿd b. Abī Waḳḳāṣ

(1,505 words)

Author(s): Hawting, G.R.
(d. during Muʿāwiya’s caliphate), a leading Companion of the Prophet and commander of the Arab armies during the conquest of ʿIrāḳ. His clan was the Banū Zuhra b. Kilāb of Ḳuraysh. His own kunya is given as Abū Is̲ḥāḳ but he is also known as (and sometimes listed in biographical dictionaries under) Saʿd b. Mālik since his father’s name was Mālik b. Wuhayb (or Uhayb) b. ʿAbd Manāf b. Zuhra. There does not seem to be any explanation why Malīk should have had the kunya Abū Waḳḳās. A tradition says that Saʿd asked the Prophet who he was and received the answer…

Saʿd b. Bakr

(191 words)

Author(s): Watt, W. Montgomery
, Banū , a small Arab tribe, usually reckoned as part of the tribe or tribal group of Hawāzin [ q.v.]. To a section of this tribe belonged Ḥalīma bint Abī Ḏh̲uʾayb, Muḥammad’s wet-nurse. After the battle of Ḥunayn [ q.v.] her daughter S̲h̲aymāʾ, who had been taken prisoner, obtained her release by proving to Muḥammad that she was his milk-sister [see also raḍāʿ. 2]; and some of the men of the tribe, because they were Muḥammad’s milk-brothers, were able to facilitate various negotiations. The tribe was apparently divided into several small sections. The grou…

Saʿd b. Ibrāhīm Zag̲h̲lūl

(3,649 words)

Author(s): Schulze, R.
, Egyptian jurist and politician, from 1918 to his death in 1927 president of the Egyptian Wafd party and in 1924 Prime Minister. Saʿd Zag̲h̲lūl was born as the second son of Ibrāhīm Zag̲h̲lūl and his second wife Maryam in July 1858 (others say 1857, 1859 or 1860, discussed by Ramaḍān, Mud̲h̲akkirāt , i, 48 ff.). His father was a landowner in Abyāna near Fuwwa in the Lower Egyptian province of al-G̲h̲arbiyya. Besides the resident notable families Zayd and Ḥusām ad-Dīn, the Zag̲h̲ālila belonged to the most prestigious and wealthy families of the village. Ibrāhīm Zag̲h̲lūl owned about 250 faddā…

Saʿd b. Muʿād̲h̲

(401 words)

Author(s): Watt, W. Montgomery
, chief of the clan of ʿAbd al-As̲h̲hal in Medina in succession to his father. At the time of the Hid̲j̲ra he seems to have been the strongest man in the tribe of al-Aws, of which his clan was a part. He had taken part in the fighting prior to the battle of Buʿāt̲h̲ [ q.v.] and been wounded. The leader of al-Aws at Buʿāt̲h̲, Ḥuḍayr b. Simāk, is reckoned to another clan, but his son, Usayd b. Ḥuḍayr, seems to have been second-in-command to Saʿd in ʿAbd al-As̲h̲hal. Saʿd and Usayd were both for a time opposed to Islam and wanted to stop its spread, bu…

Saʿd b. Muḥammad

(8 words)

[see ḥayṣa bayṣa ].
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