Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition

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Edited by: P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel and W.P. Heinrichs

The Encyclopaedia of Islam (Second Edition) Online sets out the present state of our knowledge of the Islamic World. It is a unique and invaluable reference tool, an essential key to understanding the world of Islam, and the authoritative source not only for the religion, but also for the believers and the countries in which they live. 

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Saʿd b. ʿUbāda

(458 words)

Author(s): Watt, W. Montgomery
, chief of the clan of Sāʿida at Medina. The clan appears to have been small since it is not mentioned in the fighting leading to the battle of Buʿāth [ q.v.], but it may have been more influential than its size warranted, perhaps because it was wealthy. Only two members of the clan were at the second meeting with Muḥammad at al-ʿAḳaba [ q.v.], but both were included among the nuḳabāʾ or representatives. One of these was Saʿd b. ʿUbāda, who had become a Muslim at an early date. Saʿd was badly treated by some Meccans on his way back from al-ʿAḳ…

Saʿd b. Zayd Manāt al-Fizr

(768 words)

Author(s): Krenkow, F.
is the name by which a large section of the tribe of Tamīm is named. The curious cognomen Fizr or (according to al-Aṣmaʿī, Fazr ) has received no satisfactory explanation, and the philologist Abū Manṣūr al-Azharī asserts that he never met any person who could explain it. Some lexicographers explain it as meaning "more than one", others as "goats", but we may assume that Ibn Durayd is correct when he derives it from the verb fazara with the meaning "to split" and that fizr means “a chip or fragment”. The Arab genealogists give the name of the common ancest…

Saʿd al-Dawla

(6 words)

[see ḥamdānids ].

Saʿd al-Dawla

(804 words)

Author(s): Krawulsky, Dorothea
b. al-Ṣafī b. Hibat Allāh b. Muhad̲h̲d̲h̲ib al-Dawla al-Abharī, Jewish physician ¶ and wazīr of the Īlk̲h̲ān Arg̲h̲ūn [see īlk̲h̲āns ]. His tenure of office lasted from Ḏj̲umādā II 688/June 1289 until his murder in Rabīʿ I 690/March 1291. His ism and date of birth are unknown. His rise to power must be seen against the background of a radical change of the Mongol political élite in domestic and foreign policies; i.e. from the pro-Islamic policy of the Īlk̲h̲ān Aḥmad (680-3/1282-4) back to the anti-Islamic policy of the Īlk̲h̲āns after the defeat at ʿAyn Ḏj̲ālūt [ q.v.] on 25 Ramaḍān 658/3 …

Sadd al-Ḏh̲arāʾiʿ

(567 words)

Author(s): Izzi Dien, Mawil Y.
(a.), a term of Islamic law, literally, closing off the means that can lead to evil. The concept is based on the S̲h̲arīʿa’s tendency to ¶ prevent evil ( darʾ al-mafāsid ) and a legal maxim states that it has preference over achieving good ( d̲j̲alb al-maṣāliḥ ). Sadd al-d̲h̲arāʾiʿ is viewed as a continuation of maṣlaḥa mursala rather than an independent source. Despite this, sadd al-d̲h̲arāʾiʿ is often included in the books of law as an alternative legal source. Said to be based on the Ḳurʾān and sunna , it represents a mechanism devised by Mālikī jurists to r…

Saʿd al-Dīn

(7 words)

[see k̲h̲od̲j̲a efendi ].

Saʿd al-Dīn

(6 words)

[see saʿdiyya ].

Saʿd al-Dīn al-Ḥammūʾī

(1,009 words)

Author(s): Landolt, H.
(or al-Ḥamūʾī or al-Ḥamawī), Muḥammad b. al-Muʾayyad ... b. Ḥam(m)ūy(a) (or Ḥamawayh or Ḥamawiyya) al-Ḏj̲uwaynī , famous Ṣūfī s̲h̲ayk̲h̲ of the first half of the 7th/13th century; second cousin of the influential Awlād al-S̲h̲ayk̲h̲ [ q.v.] and of another Saʿd al-Dīn (b. Tād̲j̲ al-Dīn, d. 674/1276); father of Ṣadr al-Dīn Ibrāhīm (644-722/1247-1322). Saʿd al-Dīn b. al-Muʾayyad’s contemporary Sibṭ Ibn al-Ḏj̲awzī mentions ( Mirʾāt al-zamān , Chicago 1907, 525) that news of the S̲h̲ayk̲h̲’s death in Ḵh̲urāsān had reached him during the year…

Saʿd al-Dīn Kas̲h̲g̲h̲arī

(1,066 words)

Author(s): Algar, Hamid
(d. 860/1456), s̲h̲ayk̲h̲ of the Naḳs̲h̲bandī Ṣūfī order in Harāt, best known as the preceptor of the poet and mystic ʿAbd al-Raḥmān Ḏj̲āmī (d. 898/1492 [ q.v.]). Kās̲h̲g̲h̲arī’s piety first showed itself, it is said, during the journeys on which as a child he used to accompany his father, a merchant of Kās̲h̲g̲h̲ar with sayyid ancestry. Thus when he was twelve years of age, he wept uncontrollably after listening to his father and his associates passionately haggling over the price of some goods for a whole morning. After completing the madrasa curriculum (the s…

Saʿd al-Dīn Köpek

(408 words)

Author(s): Hillenbrand, Carole
b. Muḥammad, an important ¶ court official of two Sald̲j̲ūḳ sultans of Rūm, Kayḳubād I and Kayk̲h̲usraw II. Köpek’s place and date of birth are unknown. He is first mentioned as a tard̲j̲umān (Ibn Bībī, 146). Late in Kayḳubād’s reign, Köpek had risen to become amīr-i s̲h̲ikār (master of the hunt) and miʿmār (minister of works), entrusted with overseeing the construction of Kayḳubād’s new palace at Ḳubādābād [ q.v.] ( ibid., 147). Köpek himself erected in 633/1235 a large caravanserai, known as the Zazadin or Sadeddin Han, between Konya and Aksaray. Two extant insc…

Saʿd al-Dīn Taftāzānī

(7 words)

[see al-taftāzānī ].


(455 words)

Author(s): Hunwick, J.O.
, ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. ʿAbd Allāh b. ʿImrān, chronicler of Timbuktu, b. 30 Ramaḍan 1004/28 May 1594, d. after 1065/1655-56. His father’s male line was traced to the Banū Saʿd, though the family had been settled in Timbuktu for several generations. Nothing is known of his youth, but in 1036/1626-7 he became imām of the Sankore mosque of Bena near Jenne. In mid-life he was employed by the administration of the Bās̲h̲alik of Timbuktu (an ¶ institution which owed its origins to the occupation of the area by the forces of the Saʿdian sultan al-Manṣūr al-Ḏh̲ahabī in 999/1591), …


(4,562 words)

Author(s): Davis, R.
, Abū ʿAbd Allāh Mus̲h̲arrif al-Dīn b. Muṣlih Saʿdī, known as S̲h̲ayk̲h̲ Saʿdi, poet and prose writer of the 7th/13th century, is one of the most renowned authors of Persia. He was born in S̲h̲īrāz early in the 7th/13th century, probably between 610-15/1213-19, and died in the same city on 27 Ḏh̲u ’l-Hid̲j̲d̲j̲a 691/9 December 1292. More perhaps than any other Persian writer who preceeded him, or of his own period, Saʿdī refers to himself constantly and in highly specific terms throughout the course of his writings; from sho…

Saʿd (I) b. Zangī

(478 words)

Author(s): Haig, T.W. | Bosworth, C.E.
, Abū S̲h̲ud̲j̲āʿ ʿIzz al-Dīn , Turkish Atabeg in Fārs of the Salg̲h̲urid line [ q.v.], reigned in S̲h̲īrāz from 599/1202-3 until most probably 623/1226. On the death of his elder brother Takla/Tekele (Degele, etc.?) b. Zangī in 594/1198, Saʿd claimed power in Fārs, but his claim was contested by his ¶ cousin Ṭog̲h̲ri̊l, the son of his father’s elder brother Sunḳur, who had founded the dynasty. Ṭog̲h̲ri̊l retained the royal title for nine years, but throughout that period warfare between him and his cousin continued without a decisive result for…


(3,090 words)

Author(s): Véronne, Chantal de la
, Saʿdians , a S̲h̲arīfian dynasty which ruled in Morocco from the mid-10th/16th century to ca. 1070/1659. The Saʿdids or Saʿdians or Banū Saʿd, make their appearance in the history of Morocco at the beginning of the 10/16th century, at the time when the last ruling dynasty of Berber origin, the Banū Waṭṭās [see waṭṭāsids ], was in decline. The Banū Saʿd claimed to have come originally from Yanbuʿ in the Tihāma of the Ḥid̲j̲āz and to be descendants of the Prophet; whatever their origin, they bore the title of s̲h̲arīf Since the 8th/14th century, they had lived in the central valley of…

Ṣādiḳ Hidāyat

(7 words)

[see hidāyat, ṣādiḳ ].


(133 words)

Author(s): Allan, J.
(the transcription often used by Indian numismatists of what s̲h̲ould correctly be Ṣiddīḳī ), the name given by Tīpū Sulṭān of Mysore [see mahisur ] to a gold coin of the value of two pagodas (Port, pardao , the name of a gold coin long current in South India in pre-modern times and for which various etymologies have been propounded; see Yule-Burnell, Hobson-Jobson , a glossary of Anglo-Indian colloquial words and phrases, 652-7, 672-8), weighing 106 grains ( = 6.87 gr). The name Ṣiddīḳī derives from the epithet borne by the first caliph Abū Bakr [ q.v.] al-Ṣiddīḳ, in accordance with Tīpū’…


(1,647 words)

Author(s): Souissi, M.
, al-Madrasa , in Tunisian Arabic eṣ-Ṣādḳiyya, in French, le Collège Sadiki, a prestigious educational establis̲h̲ment, founded by a decree of Muḥammad al-Ṣādiḳ Bey [ q.v.] of Tunis on 5 Dhu ’l-Hid̲j̲d̲j̲a 1291/13 January 1875 on the advice of the reforming minister Ḵh̲ayr al-Dīn [ q.v.]. Its foundation marked the culmination of a period of reflection by the reforming élite in Tunisia which, from the middle of the 19th century, opened its eyes to the modern world, was disturbed at the social, cultural and economic backwardness of the countr…

Ṣādi̊ḳ Rifʿat Pas̲h̲a

(691 words)

Author(s): Zürcher, E.J.
Meḥmed , Ottoman statesman and diplomat (1807-57). He was born in Istanbul, the only son of a very wealthy family. His father was Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ī ʿAlī Bey, the governor of the Ottoman cannon foundries ( Ṭopk̲h̲āne ). Ṣādi̊ḳ Rifʿat received an education in the palace school, serving his final year in the Enderūn-i Humāyūn Ḵh̲azīne Odasi̊ (the imperial treasury). Thereafter, he was placed in the correspondence department ( Mektūbī Ḳalemi ) of the Grand Vizierate, as an assistant clerk. In 1824 he was promoted to the rank of k̲h̲wād̲j̲a (master) and in 1828 he becam…


(371 words)

Author(s): Fahd, T.
(a.), in early Arabia, the guardian of a shrine (abstract noun, sidāna ). The root s - d - n contains the sense of "veil, curtain", which puts sādin on a level with ḥād̲j̲ib , the first term denoting the guardian of a shrine, and the second, the "door-keeper" of a palace, hence "chamberlain". The ḥād̲j̲ib acts under the orders of someone else, whereas the sādin acts on his own initiative ( LʿA , xvii, 69, citing Ibn Barrī). However, the two terms may be found juxtaposed, e.g. in Ibn His̲h̲ām, who says, "The Arabs possessed, as well as the Kaʿba, tawāg̲h̲īṭ which were shrines ( buyūt : cf. Fahd, La divin…
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