Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition

Get access Subject: Middle East and Islamic Studies
Edited by: P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel and W.P. Heinrichs

The Encyclopaedia of Islam (Second Edition) Online sets out the present state of our knowledge of the Islamic World. It is a unique and invaluable reference tool, an essential key to understanding the world of Islam, and the authoritative source not only for the religion, but also for the believers and the countries in which they live. 

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(4,559 words)

Author(s): Schlegell, Barbara von
, a Ṣūfi tarīḳa [ q.v.] and family lineage particularly Syrian and S̲h̲āfiʿī in identity, still active today, that grew to prominence also in Ottoman Egypt, Turkey and the Balkans. Notable aspects of the Saʿdiyya are their distinctive rituals and their role in the social history of Damascus. The eponymous founder is Saʿd al-Dīn al-S̲h̲aybānī al-Ḏj̲ibāwī (hereafter "Saʿd"). His dates remain uncertain, but most probably fall in the 7-8th/13th-14th centuries. To the extent to which any ṭarīḳa may be characterised, the Saʿdiyya is marked by the practice of k̲h̲awāriḳ al-ʿādāt


(475 words)

Author(s): Dietrich, A.
(a.) (Aramaic s̲h̲āg̲h̲ā , from Skr. saka-) is the teak tree, Tectona grandis L., of the family of the Verbenaceae . This tree, indigenous to the Indian subcontinent and to South-East Asia, is above all coveted for its hard and extraordinarily durable wood and is of particular importance for ship-building and furniture industry. The tree and its qualities are described in detail by the Arabic authors. Sād̲j̲ . is the highest tree in the world; it towers high into the air ( yaʿlū fi ’l-hawāʾ [var. ’l-samāʾ ]) and has such a width that a multitude of people fin…


(6,970 words)

Author(s): Fahd, T. | Heinrichs, W.P. | Ben Abdesselem, A.
(a.), originally, the formal expression of the oracular pronouncement. 1. As magical utterances in pre-Islamic Arabian usage. Here, sad̲j̲ʿ was the rhythmical style practised by the Arab kāhin s [ q.v.] and kāhina s [see al-kāhina ], a style intermediate between that of the versified oracular utterances of the Sibylls and Pythians and that of the prose utterances of Apollo (see P. Amandry, La mantique apollinienne à Delphes . Essai sur le fonctionnement de l’oracle, diss. Paris 1950, 15). These utterances are "formulated in short, rhymed phrases, with rhythmical caden…


(891 words)

Author(s): Vacca, V.
(i.e. Sad̲j̲āḥi ), Umm Ṣādir bint Aws b. Ḥiḳḳ b. Usāma, or bint al-Ḥārit̲h̲ b. Suwayd b. ʿUḳfān, prophetess and soothsayer, one of several prophets and tribal leaders who sprang up in Arabia shortly before and during the Ridda [ q.v. in Suppl.], the risings undertaken after the Prophet’s death to throw off the political and military supremacy in Arabia of Medina. The genealogy, which her history proves to be the true one, shows that she belonged to the Banū Tamīm. On her mother’s side she was related to the Tag̲h̲lib, a tribe which co…


(221 words)

Author(s): Sellheim, R.
, Sirād̲j̲ al-Dīn Abū Ṭāhir Muḥammad b. Muḥammad (Maḥmūd) b. ʿAbd al-Ras̲h̲īd, Ḥanafījurist, flor . ca. 600/1023. Nothing is known about his life. His K. al-Farāʾiḍ , known as al-Farāʾiḍ al-Sirād̲j̲iyya or simply al-Sirād̲j̲iyya , on the law of inheritance, was and still is regarded as the standard work in this field. It has been commented upon, glossed, excerpted, shortened and augmented, also in Persian and Turkish, versified (most recently in Cairo 1386/1949; Mus̲h̲ār, 793), repeatedly printed, also in E…


(416 words)

Author(s): Sellheim, R.
, Abū ʿAbd Allāh (Abu ’l-Faḍl, Abū Ḏj̲aʿfar) Muḥammad (Aḥmad) b. Abī Yazīd Ṭayfūr al-Sad̲j̲āwandī al-G̲h̲aznawī al-Muḳriʾ al-Mufassir al-Naḥwī al-Lug̲h̲awī, an innovative Ḳurʾān reader and philologist, died 560/1165 (?) He lived and worked in Sad̲j̲/g/kāwand, a small ¶ village half-way to the east of the route from Kābul to G̲h̲aznī in the vicinity of Sayyidābād, dominated by a high-lying citadel, now in ruins, called Tak̲h̲t-i or S̲h̲ār-i (S̲h̲ahr-i) Ḏj̲ams̲h̲īd. On the foot of this mount is placed the mausoleum of Ḵh̲wād̲j̲a Aḥmad (Muḥammad). Here, even today, the S̲h̲ayk…


(965 words)

Author(s): Rippin, A.
(a.) "bowing down", the name of two Ḳurʾānic sūras (XXXII, also called tanzīl al-sad̲j̲da , and XLI, more commonly called fuṣṣilat or ḥā-mīm ) and within the technical phrase sad̲j̲dat (or sid̲j̲dat , or plural sud̲j̲ūd ) al-tilāwa , in reference to the 14 Ḳurʾānic passages (variant traditions suggest 16, 15, 11, 10, or 4 passages) which require a ritual of bowing to be performed at the end of their recitation. The passages are marked in the margin of the Ḳurʾān text, usually with the word al-sad̲j̲da . The practice is generally considered wād̲j̲ib "required", in the Ḥanafī mad̲h̲hab


(5,401 words)

Author(s): Wensinck, A.J. | Hall, Margaret | Knysh, A.
(a., pl. sad̲j̲ād̲j̲id , sad̲j̲ād̲j̲īd , sawād̲j̲id ), the carpet on which the ṣalāt [ q.v.] is performed. The word is found neither in the Ḳurʾān nor in the canonical Ḥadīt̲h̲; the occasional use of a floor-covering of some kind was, however, known at quite an early period. 1. Early tradition. In the Ḥadīt̲h̲ [ q.v.] we are often told how Muḥammad and his followers performed the ṣalāt on the floor of the mosque in Medina after a heavy shower of rain, so that their noses and heads came in contact with the mud (e.g. al-Buk̲h̲ārī, Ad̲h̲ān , bāb s 135, 151; Muslim, Ṣiyām , trads…

Sad̲jd̲j̲ād Ḥusayn, Sayyid

(9 words)

[see hid̲j̲āʾ . iv. Urdu].


(1,278 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, a line of military commanders who governed the northwestern provinces of the caliphate (Ād̲h̲arbāyd̲j̲ān. Arrān and Armenia) in the later 3rd/9th and early 4th/10th centuries on behalf of the ʿAbbāsids. The Sād̲j̲ids were just some of several commanders, originally from the Iranian East and Central Asia, who came westwards to serve in the early ʿAbbāsid armies. The family seems to have originated in Us̲h̲rūsana [ q.v.] on the middle Syr Darya in Transoxania, the region where the Afs̲h̲īns [ q.v.] were hereditary princes until at least the end of the 3rd/9th century, and w…


(9 words)

[see afg̲h̲ānistān , v. 3. a ].


(2,515 words)

Author(s): Heinrichs, W.P.
(a.), “chest, breast, bosom” (pl. ṣudūr ), a peculiarly Arabic word, not attested in other Semitic languages, except as a borrowing from Arabic. Its semantic connection with other derivatives of the root ṣ-d-r within Arabic is unclear; it may be derived from the basic notion of the verb ṣadara , i.e. “to come up, move upward and outward, from the waterhole” (opposite: warada ). Most concretely, it refers to the chest as part of the body, and as such is dealt with in the ¶ lexicographical monographs on the human body called Ḵh̲alḳ al-insān (al-Aṣmaʿī, 214-18; T̲h̲āb…


(3,868 words)

Author(s): Calmard, J. | Bosworth, C.E. | Turner, C.P. | M. Athar Ali
(a.), used in a personal sense, with an extended ¶ meaning from Arabic “breast” > “foremost, leading part of a thing”, denotes an eminent or superior person or primus inter pares, whence its use for a chief, president or minister; cf. the Ottoman Turkish Grand Vizier’s title ṣadr-i aʿẓam [ q.v.]. The title was especially used in the Persian world for a high religious dignitary whose function ( ṣadārat , ṣidārat ) was concerned essentially with the administration of religious affairs. In the first mentions of the title and in the structural evo…


(143 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, a place in Algeria, founded in 296/908 at 8 km/5 miles to the south-west of Ward̲j̲ilān (Ouargla) in the territory of the confederation of ḳṣūr of the Isedrāten, by the last Rustamid Imām, after the destruction of the principality of Tāhart [ q.v.] by the Fāṭimids. Its fame is linked with the history of the Ibāḍī communities of the Mag̲h̲rib. An Ibādī scholar, Abū Yaʿḳūb Yūsuf b. Ibrāhīm al-Sadrātī al-Ward̲j̲ilānī (d. 570/1174-5) compiled there the musnad of al-Rabīʿ b. Ḥabīb, based essentially on the tradition of Abū ʿUbayda (ed. Masḳaṭ 1325/1908 under the title of al-D̲j̲āmiʿ al-ṣaḥīḥ

Ṣadr al-Dīn

(8 words)

[see mullā ṣadrā s̲h̲īrāzī ].

Ṣadr al-Dīn Ardabīlī

(324 words)

Author(s): Savory, R.M.
(S̲h̲aykh Ṣadr al-Milla wa ’l-Dīn Mūsā), second son of Ṣafī al-Dīn Ardabīlī [ q.v.], born 1 S̲h̲awwāl 704/26 April 1305 (S̲h̲aykh Ḥusayn b. Abdāl Zāhidī, Silsilat al-nasab-i Ṣafawiyya , Iranschähr Publications no. 6, Berlin 1924-5, 39). Designated by his father as his successor and vicegerent ( k̲h̲alīfa wa nāʾib-munāb ), Ṣadr al-Dīn assumed the leadership of the Ṣafawid Order in 735/1334. He expanded the Ṣafawid mausoleum complex at Ardabīl, adding rooms for private meditation ( k̲h̲alwat-k̲h̲āna ), a residence for Ḳurʾān-readers ( dār al-ḥuffāẓ ), and a room ( čīnī-k̲h̲āna

Ṣadr al-Dīn ʿAynī

(261 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Russian form Sadriddin Ayni , one of the leading figures in the 20th century cultural life of Central Asia and in Tad̲j̲ik literature (1878-1954). He began as a representative of the reform movement amongst the Muslims of Imperial Russia, that of the Ḏj̲adīdīds [see d̲j̲adīd ]. A formal education at the traditional madrasa s of Buk̲h̲ārā left him intellectually unsatisfied. In the early part of his career he was a talented poet in both Tad̲j̲ik and Uzbek, but after 1905 he became increasingly involved in the social and educa…

Ṣadr al-Dīn Muḥammad b. Isḥāḳ b. Muḥammad b. Yūnus al-Ḳūnawī

(2,255 words)

Author(s): Chittick, W.C.
(b. 605/1207, d. 16 Muḥarram 673/22 July 1274), disciple of Ibn al-ʿArabī [ q.v.] and author of influential works on theoretical Ṣūfism. Ibn al-ʿArabī met Mad̲j̲d al-Dīn Isḥāḳ al-Rūmī, Ḳūnawī’s father, in Mecca in 600/1203 and subsequently travelled with him to Anatolia. A source from the late 7th/13th century tells us that after Mad̲j̲d al-Dīn’s death, Ibn al-ʿArabī married his widow and ¶ adopted his son Ṣadr al-Dīn (B. Furūzānfar, Manāḳib-i Awḥad al-Dīn . . . Kirmānī , Tehran 1347/1968, 84); the fact that Ḳūnawī himself never mentions this is not…

Ṣadr al-Dīn Mūsā

(1,208 words)

Author(s): Calmard, J.
, the son and successor of S̲h̲ayk̲h̲ Ṣafī al-Dīn Ardabīlī [ q.v.] and the founder at Ardabīl of the Ṣafawī order which stemmed from S̲h̲ayk̲h̲ Zāhid Gīlānī (d. 700/1301). S̲h̲ayk̲h̲ Ṣadr al-Dīn was born in 704/1305 from Ṣafī al-Dīn’s second marriage with Bībī Fāṭima, daughter of S̲h̲ayk̲h̲ Zāhid, and died in 794/1391-2, according to the Silsilat al-nasab-i ṣafawiyya , hence dying aged 90 having directed the Ṣafawī order for 59 years. Although the hagio-biographical and historical sources concerning him have to be treated with cau…

Ṣadr-i Aʿẓam

(1,387 words)

Author(s): Kunt, M.
(t.) (commonly ṣadr aʿẓam ), strictly “the greatest of the high dignitaries”, that is, the Grand Vizier, a title which, in the Ottoman Empire, was used synonymously with wezīr-i aʿẓam from the mid-10th/16th century; its first use in this sense occurs in the Āṣāf-nāme of Lütfī Pas̲h̲a [ q.v.], himself a holder of the office 946-8/1539-41. Earlier, in the late 8th/14th century, ṣadr had been used to refer to the highest official ʿulemāʾ , the ḳāḍī ʿasker s [ q.v.], who were promoted to serve as viziers. Later, because the vizier came to operate as military commander in the a…
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