Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition

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Edited by: P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel and W.P. Heinrichs

The Encyclopaedia of Islam (Second Edition) Online sets out the present state of our knowledge of the Islamic World. It is a unique and invaluable reference tool, an essential key to understanding the world of Islam, and the authoritative source not only for the religion, but also for the believers and the countries in which they live. 

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(90 words)

Author(s): Ed.
means both the sacrifices of a victim and the victim itself. In addition to the religious sacrifices studied in the art. d̲h̲abīḥā , there exist a host of others, meant for special occasions ( dbīḥa in Mag̲h̲ribī Arabic; Berber taməg̲h̲rust ; etc.), which have been treated at length in the art. dam above. On the blood sacrifices practised before the advent of Islam, see in particular ʿatīra and nad̲h̲r , and also J. Chelhod, Le sacrifice chez les Arabes , Paris 1955, and the bibliography cited there. (Ed.)


(930 words)

Author(s): Bousquet, G.-H.
a victim destined for immolation according to Muslim law, in fulfilment of a vow, nad̲h̲r , for example, or for the sacrifice of ʿaḳiḳa , or on the occasion of the feast of the 10th day of D̲h̲u ’l-ḥid̲j̲d̲j̲a (then called ḍaḥiyya ), or in order to make atonement for certain transgressions committed during the ḥad̲j̲d̲j̲ (the victim in this case being known as hadī ). This d̲h̲abīḥa must be slaughtered according to a strict ritual known as d̲h̲akāʾa . Its form does not differ from the ritual slaughter of animals permitted as food: hence it is with thi…


(5 words)

[see Ẓafār ].


(714 words)

Author(s): Ehrenkreutz, A.S.
, gold, played an important part in various areas of the life of Muslim society. The main reason for the significance of the metal was its economic assets. These were referred to in the Ḳurʾān. Apart from implicitly alluding to the value aspect of gold ( Sūra III, 85), the Ḳurʾan alludes to the attraction of ‘hoarded ḳintārs of gold’ for people ( Sūra III, 12) and warns against hoarding since ‘those who treasure up gold and silver and do not expend them in the way of Allāh’ would meet with a painful punishment ( Sūra IX, 34). The problem of gold was also discussed by Muslim jurists who de…


(1,839 words)

Author(s): Ben Cheneb, Moh. | Somogyi, J. de
, S̲h̲ams al-Dīn Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad b. ʿUt̲h̲mān b. Ḳāymāẓ b. ʿAbd Allāh al-Turkumānī al-Fāriḳī al-Dimas̲h̲ḳī al-S̲h̲āfiʿī , an Arab historian and theologian, was born at Damascus or at Mayyāfariḳīn on 1 or 3 Rabīʿ II (according to al-Kutubī, in Rabīʿ I) 673/5 or 7 October 1274, and died at Damascus, according to al-Subkī and al-Suyūṭī, in the night of Sunday-Monday on 3 D̲h̲u ’l-Ḳaʿda 748/4 February 1348, or, according to Aḥmad b. ʿIyās, in 753/1352-3. He was buried at the Bāb al-Ṣag̲h̲īr. His Life. His main lines of study were Tradition and canon law. He began to study Tradition at …


(6 words)

[see aḥmad al-manṣūr ].


(14 words)

, Persian name of the Kubrāwiyya [ q.v.] order. See also Ţarīḳa .


(5 words)

[see Ẓahrān ].


(844 words)

Author(s): Dani, A.H.
( Dacca )—(literally ‘concealed’, but origin obscure) is the capital of East Pakistan. The city is situated at the head of the waterways about a hundred miles from the sea, in a region which has had throughout history a premier position in this province of rivers and flooded plains. The Hindū capital was at Vikramapura, then favourably situated on the Dhales̲h̲warī river, where the line of old fortification can still be seen, but more important are the tomb and mosque (built …


(500 words)

Author(s): Brands, H.W.
, Kāṣīm Bey , the foremost Ād̲h̲arbāyd̲j̲ānī poet and satirist in the first half of the 19th century. He was born probably in 1786, at Penāhābād in the K̲h̲ānate of Ḳarabāg̲h̲ (now S̲h̲ūs̲h̲a, Nagorno-Karabak̲h̲skay̲a̲ Avtonom. Oblast). He belonged to the clan of Ḏj̲awāns̲h̲īr, a renowned family of beys . In his satirical poetry he relentlessly castigated the religious fanaticism of the Mollās as well as corruption and all kinds of abuses by the beyzāde —the local aristocracy—and the Czarist administration officials. His criticism of the latter r…


(502 words)

Author(s): Fleisch, H. | Burton-Page, J.
, 9th letter of the Arabic alphabet, here transcribed d̲h̲ ; numerical value 700, in the Eastern system [see abd̲j̲ad ]. Definition: voiced interdental fricative; according to the Arabic grammatical tradition: rik̲h̲wa mad̲j̲hūra . For the mak̲h̲rad̲j̲ : lit̲h̲awiyya in al-K̲h̲alīl (al-Zamak̲h̲s̲h̲ari, Muf ., 191, line 2, 2nd ed. J. P. Broch) indicates a position of the tongue on the lit̲h̲a “gum”, therefore gingival . Ibn Yaʿīs̲h̲ (1460, line 21, ed. G. Jahn) records a position quite close to this, “the base of the central incisors”, and therefore alveolar . S…


(396 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J. | Löfgren, O.
(or D̲h̲imār , see Yāḳūt s.v.), a district ( mik̲h̲lāf ) and town in South Arabia, south of Ṣanʿā, on the Ṣanʿā-ʿAdan road, near the fortress of Hirrān. The district of D̲h̲amār was very fertile and had rich cornfields, splendid gardens, and many ancient citadels and palaces. On account of its fertility it was called the Miṣr of Yaman. The horses of D̲h̲amār were famed throughout Yaman for their noble pedigree. Amongst places which are mentioned as belonging to the district of D̲h̲amār are the following: Aḍraʿa, Balad ʿAns, Baraddūn, al-Darb, Dalān and D̲h̲amūrān (…


(246 words)

Author(s): Hodgson, M.G.S.
, “the people of the blame”, is a name given by heresiographers to those who held certain disapproved doctrines. S̲h̲ahrastānī (134) and Maḳrīzī ( K̲h̲iṭaṭ , Būlāḳ 1270 A.H., ii, 353) apply it to S̲h̲īʿīs who claimed that Muḥammad was originally an agent of ʿAlī (the real prophet) but blameably summoned men to himself instead—a position noted (without a name) by As̲h̲ʿarī ( Maḳālāt al-Islāmiyyīn , ed. Md. Muḥyī al-Dīn ʿAbd al-Ḥamīd, Cairo 1950, 82), and ascribed also to al-S̲h̲almag̲h̲ānī [ q.v.]. Maḳrīzī explains that ʿAlī was silenced by being given Fāṭima. S̲h̲ahrastānī s…


(5 words)

[see nud̲j̲ūm ].


(1,274 words)

Author(s): Harrison, J.B. | Burton-Page, J.
, an ancient town on the scarp of the Vindhyas overlooking the Narbadā valley, and since 1956 the headquarters of Dhār district, Madhya Pradesh, India. It stood on the main routes from Dihlī to the Dakhan and to Gud̲j̲arāt. From the 3rd/9th to the end of the 7th/13th centuries it was a capital of the Paramāras who ruled Mālwā first as Rās̲h̲t́rakūt́a feudatories and then as independent monarchs. The most powerful of these, Vākpati II (or Muñd̲j̲a) and Bhod̲j̲adeva I, receive mention in many Musl…


(395 words)

Author(s): Gardet, L.
, a term denoting, in the Ḳurʾān or ḥadīt̲h̲s , the smallest possible appreciable quantity. The Ḳurʾān uses it five times, in the expression mit̲h̲ḳāl al-d̲h̲arra , “the weight of a d̲h̲arra” ,—to extol the Omniscience of God (X, 61; XXXIV, 3), or His absolute Omnipotence (XXXIV, 20), or His supreme Justice in retribution: IV, 40 and the celebrated text XCIX, 7-8 “He who shall have done the weight of one d̲h̲arra of good shall see it; he who shall have done the weight of one d̲h̲arra of evil shall see it”. Commentators on the Ḳurʾān and interpreters of ḥadīt̲h̲s have explained d̲h̲arra by two im…


(309 words)

Author(s): Davies, C. Collin
, a district in the Belgaum division of the Indian State of Mysore. It has an area of 5,305 square miles and a population of 1,575,386 of whom 15% are Muslims (1951 Census). Until the 7th/13th century it remained free from the Muslim invader. In the following century it formed part of Muḥammad b. Tug̲h̲luḳ’s extensive empire. After the decline of Tug̲h̲luḳ power its geographical position, especially its proximity to the Rāyčūr Dōʾāb, made it a bone of contention between the Bahmanī kingdom of th…


(591 words)

Author(s): Rahman, F.
In Muslim philosophy this term is used in several senses. As a general term it can mean “thing”, like the words s̲h̲ayʾ and maʿnā ; next, it signifies the “being” or “self” or even “ego”: thus bi-d̲h̲ātihī means “by itself” or “by his self”; but most commonly d̲h̲āt is employed in the two different meanings of “substance” and “essence”, and is a translation of the Greek οὐσία. In its former usage as “substance” it is the equivalent of the subject or substratum (‘υποκείμενον) and is contrasted with qualities or predicate…

Ḏh̲āt al-Himma

(7 words)

[see d̲h̲u ʾl-himma ].


(283 words)

Author(s): İz, Fahīr
, Turkish poet, b. 875/1471 in Balıkesir. The son of a modest bootmaker, as a boy he practised his father’s craft but soon gave it up, moving to the capital during the reign of Bāyezīd I where, following his natural inclinations, he devoted his life to poetry. An easy and prolific versifier, he made a living from the gifts of the notables of the day, to whom he dedicated ḳaṣīdas (among others, to the sultans Selīm I, Suleymān I, to D̲j̲aʿfer Čelebi and Ibn Kemāl). In his old age he practised geomancy in a shop which soon became a sort of lit…

D̲h̲āt al-Ṣawārī

(482 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C. E.
, Dhū ’l-Ṣawārī , G̲h̲azwat al-Ṣawārī , “the Battle of the Masts”, the names given in the Arabic sources to a naval battle between the Arabs and Byzantines in the latter part of ʿut̲h̲mān’s caliphate. The locale of the engagement is not wholly certain, but was probably off the coast of Lycia in southern Anatolia near the place Phoenix (modern Turkish Finike, chef-lieu of the kaza of that name in the vilayet of Antalya). As governor of Syria, Muʿāwiya [ q.v.] seems to have inaugurated a policy of building up Arab naval power in order to counter Byzantine control of the Easte…


(1,450 words)

Author(s): S̲h̲afīʿ, Muḥammad
, Muḥammad Ibrāhīm S̲h̲ayk̲h̲ , Urdū poet b. Dihlī 11 D̲h̲u ’l-Ḥid̲j̲d̲j̲a 1204/18 December 1790 (so Āzād; in 1203 according to a contemporary Calcutta newspaper, cf. Nawā-i Adab , 45), the only son of S̲h̲. Muḥammad Ramaḍān, a trusted servant of Nawwāb Luṭf ʿAlī K̲h̲ān of Dihlī. His early schooling in Persian and Arabic was in the mosque-school of Ḥāfiẓ G̲h̲ulām Rasūl S̲h̲awḳ, a poet and a pupil of S̲h̲āh Naṣīr (S̲h̲eftā, 150), who inspired the young learner with a love for reading and writing poetry…


(532 words)

Author(s): Rahman, F.
, “taste”, is a technical term used in philosophy, in aesthetics (especially literature), and in Ṣūfism. 1. In philosophy [see falsafa ] d̲h̲awḳ is the name for the gustatory sense-perception. Following Aristotle, it is defined as a kind of sub-species of the tactual sense, localized in the gustatory organ, the tongue. It differs from tactual sense, however, in that mere contact with skin is not sufficient for gustation to occur: besides contact, it needs a medium of transmission, viz. the saliv…


(5 words)

[see čas̲h̲nagīr ].


(227 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J. | Löfgren, O.
, “the wolves”, a South Arabian tribe whose lands lie between the territory of the Lower ʿAwāliḳ [ q.v.] and the Lower Wāḥidī [ q.v.]. There are also considerable settlements of the D̲h̲iʾāb in the country of the Lower Wāḥidī itself, the villages of which are largely occupied by them. The soil is unfertile and mostly prairie-like pasture land. In the east of the distict is a mountain of some size, the D̲j̲abal Ḥamrā, over 4000 ft. high. The chief place is the fishing village of Ḥawra (al-Ulyā) with an important harbour. The D̲h̲iʾāb are a very wild, warlike tribe of ¶ robbers, and are therefore…


(661 words)

Author(s): Kopf, L.
, the wolf. Most of the cognate forms in other Semitic languages have the same significance. Numerous synonyms and sobriquets are found in Arabic, such as sirḥān , uways , sīd , abū d̲j̲aʿda , etc. In local usage, d̲h̲iʾb may also denote the jackal (Jayakar, Malouf), yet Hommel’s assumption (303, n. 1) that this was the only meaning of the word in ancient Arabic (so also Jacob) is inconsistent with its use in the Sūra of Joseph (Ḳurʾān, XII, 13, 14, 17), where it stands for the biblical ‘evil beast’ (Gen. xxxvii 20, 33). Ample mention of the d̲h̲iʾb is made in ancient Arabic poems, proverbs, …


(246 words)

Author(s): İz, Fahīr
, Bayburtlu , Turkish folk-poet, b. towards the end of the 12th/18th century in Bayburt. Educated in Erzurum and Trabzon, he spent ten years in Istanbul and later travelled in the provinces on minor governmental duties; he was for a short time in the service of Muṣṭafā Res̲h̲īd Pas̲h̲a. He spent the last four years of his life in Trabzon and died in a village nearby while on his way to his home town (1275/1859). His background, somewhat different from that of the usual folk poet, led him to imitate classical poets, and he even composed a complete dīwān of traditional poetry in ʿarūḍ


(3,743 words)

Author(s): Gardet, L.
, reminding oneself. “Remind thyself of ( ud̲h̲kur ) thy Lord when thou forgettest” ( Ḳurʾān , XVIII, 24). Thus: the act of reminding, then oral mention of the memory, especially the tireless repetition of an ejaculatory litany, finally the very technique of this mention. In taṣawwuf the d̲h̲ikr is possibly the most frequent form of prayer, its muḳābal (“opposite correlative”) being fikr [ q.v.], (discursive) reflection, meditation. In his Ṭawāsīn , in connexion with Muḥammad’s “nocturnal ascension”, al-Ḥallad̲j̲ declares that the road which passes through “the garden of d̲h̲ikr”


(508 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C. E.
, Zikrīs , a Muslim sect of southern Balūčistān, especially strong amongst the Balūč of Makrān [ q.v.], but also with some representation amongst the Brahūīs of further north. The sect’s name derives from the fact that its adherents exalted the liturgical recitations of formulae including the name and titles of God, sc. d̲h̲ikr [ q.v.], above the formal Muslim worship, the ṣalāt or namāz . The D̲h̲ikrīs were believed by Hughes-Buller to stem from the North Indian heterodox movement of the Mahdawiyya, the followers of Sayyid Muḥammad Mahdī of D̲j̲awnpūr (847-91…


(4,693 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
, the term used to designate the sort of indefinitely renewed contract through which the Muslim community accords hospitality and protection to members of other revealed religions, on condition of their acknowledging the domination of Islam. The beneficiaries of the d̲h̲imma are called d̲h̲immīs , and are collectively referred to as ahl al-d̲h̲imma or simply d̲h̲imma. An account of the doctrinal position of Islam vis-à-vis the religions in question, and of the polemics between the two sides, is given in the article ahl al-kitāb ; for a detailed account of …


(767 words)

Author(s): Chehata, Chafik
, The term d̲h̲imma , in its legal sense, bears two meanings, the first of which, that of the works on Uṣūl (legal theory), is equivalent to the notion of capacity, and such is the definition of it given by the classical doctrine. The d̲h̲imma is the legal quality which makes the individual a proper subject of law, that is, a proper addressee of the rule which provides him with rights or charges him with obligations. In this sense the d̲h̲imma may be identified with the legal personality. It is for this reason that every person is endowed with a d̲h̲imma from the moment of birth. Eaually it fo…


(6 words)

[see ahl al-d̲h̲imma ].


(1,013 words)

Author(s): Hinz, W.
, originally the part of the arm from the elbow to the tip of the middle finger, then the measure of the cubit, and at the same time the name given to the instrument for measuring it. The legal cubit is four handsbreadths ( ḳabḍa = index finger, middle finger, ring finger, and little finger put together), each of six fingerbreadths ( aṣbaʿ = middle joint of the middle finger) each the width of six barley corns ( s̲h̲aʿīra ) laid side by side. A considerable number of different cubits were in common use in Islam. Roughly speaking they can be grouped ar…


(5 words)

[see gud̲j̲arāt ].


(529 words)

Author(s): Kopf, L.
, the fly. Some authors state that word is used also for other insects, such as bees, hornets, butterflies or moths ( farās̲h̲ ), etc. According to Arab lexicographers, it is either a singular or else a collective noun, in which case d̲h̲ubāba is used for the singular. Cognate synonyms are found in other Semitic languages, e.g., Hebrew , Aramaic . The fly is often mentioned and described in ancient Arabic poems and proverbs. A ḥadīt̲h̲ has it that there are flies in hell to torture the condemned. Numerous kinds are mentioned by Arab zoologists, so…


(5 words)

[see g̲h̲aṭafān ].

D̲h̲ū, D̲h̲ī, D̲h̲ā

(462 words)

Author(s): Fleisch, H.
, demonstrative forms based on the demonstrative element d̲h̲ . The variety of their uses precludes these forms from being regarded as a single declined word; thus: D̲h̲ū was the relative pronoun, invariable, of the Ṭayyiʾ; corresponding to the Hebrew , the poetic form of the relative pronoun. Ḏh̲ī forms part of the masc. relative pronoun allad̲h̲ī ; but allatī in the feminine. The opposition d̲h̲/ t marks the gender. Corresponding to d̲h̲ī are the Aramaic biblical relative, invariable, ( de in syr.), the Geez masc. demonstrative ze, acc. za. D̲h̲ā masc. sin…

D̲h̲ū Ḳār

(822 words)

Author(s): Veccia Vaglieri, L.
, name of a watering-place near Kūfa, in the direction of Wāsiṭ (Yāḳūt, iv, 10), where one of the most famous Arab ayyām [ q.v.] took place. In contrast with most other clashes between Arabian tribes, this one had a historical importance because the Bakr b. Wāʾil tribe (a coalition of all its clans except the Banū Ḥanīfa) put other Arabs to flight (Tag̲h̲lib, Iyād, etc.) among whom, significantly, were regular Persian troops. Even if the battle was no more than a skirmish (though sources speak of several thousand comba…

D̲h̲u ’l-Faḳār

(268 words)

Author(s): Mittwoch, E.
, the name of the famous sword which Muḥammad obtained as booty in the battle of Badr; it previously belonged to a heathen named al-ʿĀṣ b. Munabbih, killed in the battle. It is mentioned in the Sīra (ed. Saḳḳā, etc., 1375/1955), ii, 100, and in several ḥadīt̲h̲s (see for example Ibn Saʿd, ii, 2, section: fī suyūf al-Nabī . The expression D̲h̲u ’l-Faḳār is explained by the presence on this sword of notches ( fuḳra ) or grooves (cf. the expression sayf mufaḳḳar ). According to a tradition, the sword bore an inscription referring to blood-money which ended with the words lā yuḳtal Muslim bi-kāfir

D̲h̲u ’l-Faḳāriyya

(627 words)

Author(s): Holt, P.M.
, (alternatively Faḳāriyya , Zulfaḳāriyya ); a Mamlūk household and political faction in Egypt during the 17th and 18th centuries. (1) Origin and first ascendancy. The eponymous founder of the household, D̲h̲u ’l-Faḳār Bey, is a shadowy figure, who seems to have flourished in the first third of the 17th century, but is not mentioned by contemporary chroniclers. The account (in Ḏj̲abartī, ʿAd̲j̲āʾib al-Āt̲h̲ār , i, 21-3) which makes D̲h̲u ’l-Faḳār and the rival eponym, Ḳāsim, contemporaries of sultan Selīm I is legendary. The political importance of the Faḳāriyya began with the amīr al-…

D̲h̲u ’l-Himma

(6,332 words)

Author(s): Canard, M.
or d̲h̲āt al-himma , name of the principal heroine of a romance of Arab chivalry entitled, in the 1327/1909 edition, Sīrat al-amīra D̲h̲āt al-Himma wa-waladihā ʿAbd al-Wahhāb wa ’l-amīr Abū ( sic) Muḥammad al-Baṭṭāl wa-ʿUḳba s̲h̲ayk̲h̲ al-ḍalāl wa-S̲h̲ūmadris al-muḥtāl , which, in the subtitle, describes itself as “the greatest history of the Arabs, and the Umayyad and ʿAbbāsid caliphs, comprising the history of the Arabs and their wars ..... and including their amazing conquests”. Also known is the title Sīrat al-mud̲j̲āhidīn wa-abṭāl al-muwaḥḥidīn al-amīra D̲h̲ū ( sic) ’l-Himma w…

D̲h̲u ’l-Ḳaʿda

(7 words)

[see taʾrīk̲h̲ , i].

Ḏh̲u ’l-Ḳadr

(1,542 words)

Author(s): Mordtmann, J.H. | Ménage, V.L.
, Turkmen dynasty, which ruled for nearly two centuries (738/1337-928/1522) from Elbistan over the region Marʿas̲h̲-Malatya, as clients first of the Mamlūk and later of the Ottoman Sultans. Name: The use in Arabic sources of the spellings Dulg̲h̲ādir and Tulg̲h̲ādir and in one of the dynasty’s inscriptions of Dulḳādīr (see R. Hartmann, Zur Wiedergabe türkischer Namen ..., Berlin 1952, 7; this spelling occurs also in Bazm u Razm , Istanbul 1918, 456) indicates that the Arabicized forms D̲h̲u ’l-Ḳadr and D̲h̲u ’l-Ḳādir, usual in the later Ott…

D̲h̲u ’l K̲h̲alaṣa

(469 words)

Author(s): Fahd, T.
(or K̲h̲ulaṣa ). D̲h̲u ’l-K̲h̲alaṣa refers to the sacred stone (and the holy place where it was to be found) which was worshipped by the tribes of Daws, K̲h̲at̲h̲ʿam, Bad̲j̲īla, the Azd of the Sarāt mountains and the Arabs of Tabāla. “It was a white quartziferous rock, bearing the sculpture of something like a crown. It was in Tabāla at the place called al-ʿAblāʾ, i.e., White Rock ( TʿA , viii, 3) between Mecca and the Yemen and seven nights’ march from the former ( i.e., approximately 192 kilometres or 119 miles). The guardians of the sanctuary were the Banū Umāma of the Bāhila…

D̲h̲u ’l-Kifl

(414 words)

Author(s): Vajda, G.
, a personage twice mentioned in the Ḳurʾān (XXI, 85 and XXXVIII, 48, probably second Meccan period), about whom neither Ḳurʾānic contexts nor Muslim exegesis provides any certain information. John Walker ( Who is D̲h̲u ’l-Kifl ?, in MW, xvi (1926), 399-401) would like the name to be understood in the sense of “the man with the double recompense” or rather “the man who received recompense twice over”, that is to say Job (Ayyūb [ q.v.]; cf. Job xlii, 10). Without being certain, this explanation does not lack probability; in any case, no better suggestion has been put fo…

D̲h̲u ’l-Nūn, Abu ’l-Fayḍ

(599 words)

Author(s): Smith, M.
T̲h̲awbān b. Ibrāhīm al-Miṣrī . This early Ṣūfī was born at Ik̲h̲mīm, in Upper Egypt, about 180/796. His father was a Nubian and D̲h̲u ’l-Nūn was said to have been a freedman. He made some study of medicine and also of alchemy and magic and he must ¶ have been influenced by Hellenistic teaching. Saʿdūn of Cairo is mentioned as his teacher and spiritual director. He travelled to Mecca and Damascus and visited the ascetics at Lubbān, S. of Antioch; it was on his travels that he learnt to become a master of asceticism and self-discipline. He met with hostility from the Muʿtazila [ q.v.] because he up…

D̲h̲u ’l-Nūnids

(1,095 words)

Author(s): Dunlop, D.M.
, in Arabic Bānū D̲h̲i ’l-Nūn, a prominent family of al-Andalus, originally Berbers of the tribe of Hawwāra. Their name appears to be the Arabicization of an earlier Zannūn (cf. Ibn ʿId̲h̲ārī, Bayān , iii, 276) which would explain the alternative spelling D̲h̲unnūn (ad̲j̲ D̲h̲unnūnī). In the 5th/11th century, during the first period of the Tarty Kings’ ( Mulūk al-Ṭawāʾif ), the D̲h̲u ’l-Nūnids ¶ ruled, with Ṭulayṭula (Toledo) as their capital, from Wādi ’l-Ḥid̲j̲āra (Guadalajara) and Ṭalabīra (Talavera) in the N. to Murcia in the S. The original territory of the Banū D̲h̲i ’l-Nūn …

D̲h̲u ’l-Rumma

(1,428 words)

Author(s): Blachère, R.
, lit. ‘he who wears a piece of cord’, nickname given to the famous Arab poet G̲h̲aylān b. ʿUḳba, who died in 117/735-36. He earned the name on account of a small charm which he hung around his neck by a piece of string. He was from the Saʿb b. Milkān clan, an offshoot of the ʿAdī tribe which originated from the ʿAbd Manāt peoples of Central Arabia. On his mother’s side he was related to the Asad tribe. If we accept that he died at the age of forty, his date of birth would be 77/696. This information is however open t…

D̲h̲u ’l-S̲h̲arā

(1,756 words)

Author(s): Ryckmans, G.
is the soubriquet of a god borrowed from the Nabataeans, known in Aramaic as ds̲h̲r , Dusares (E. Littmann, T̲h̲amūd und Ṣafā , 30). These soubriquets for gods formed from the pronoun d̲h̲ū (feminine d̲h̲āt ) were of frequent use in Southern Arabia (G. Ryckmans, Les religions arabes préislamiques 2, 44-5; W. Caskel, Die alten semitischen Gottheiten , 108-9). According to Ibn al-Kalbī, D̲h̲u ’l-S̲h̲arā was a divinity of the Banu ’l-Hārit̲h̲ of the tribe of the Azd ( Kitāb al-Aṣnām , ed. Aḥmad Zakī 2, 37). Ibn His̲h̲ām records that D̲h̲u ’l-S̲h̲arā “was an image belonging to Daus and the ḥimā


(5 words)

[see d̲h̲u’l-nūnids ].

al-D̲h̲unūb, Dafn

(257 words)

Author(s): Chelhod, J.
, burial of offences, a nomadic practice which consists of a make-believe burial of the offences or crimes of which an Arab is accused. According to S̲h̲ihāb al-Dīn al-ʿUmarī ( al-Taʿrīf bi ’l-muṣṭalaḥ al-sharīf , Cairo 1312, 165 ff.), almost the only source, this curious ceremony was practised as follows. A delegation consisting of men who had the full confidence of the culprit appeared before an assembly of notables belonging to the tribe of the victim, to whom they said: “We wish you to perform the dafn for So-and-so, who admits the truth of your accusati…

D̲h̲ū Nuwās

(1,618 words)

Author(s): Assouad, M.R. al-
, Yūsuf As̲h̲ʿar , pre-Islamic king of the Yemen. According to a tradition probably deriving from Wahb b. Munabbih ( Tīd̲j̲ān , 2 ff.) and repeated by the Arab chroniclers (Ibn Ḳutayba, Maʿārif , 277; al-Dīnawarī, Ak̲h̲bār , 63; al-Ṭabarī, i, 540 ff.; Ibn K̲h̲aldūn, ʿIbar , i, 90; al-Masʿūdī, Murūd̲j̲ , i, 129 etc.), Lahayʿa b. Yanūf (Lak̲h̲īʿa, Lak̲h̲īʿa Yanūf D̲h̲ū S̲h̲anātir; al-Ṭabarī, i, 540; see also Ibn al-At̲h̲īr, ii, 250) abandoning himself to unnatural practices with the sons of the aristocracy, the young D̲h̲ū Nu…


(7 words)

[see ʿarabiyya and other languages].


(5 words)

[see almās ].


(7 words)

[see ʿāmir b. ṣaʿṣaʿa ].


(5 words)

[see ḳumās̲h̲ ].


(245 words)

Author(s): Mandaville, J.
, an extensive gravel plain in northeastern Arabia, bounded roughly on the east by the depression of al-S̲h̲aḳḳ (which forms the western boundary of the Saudi Arabia-Kuwait Neutral Zone), on the west by the wādī of al-Bāṭin, and on the south by the gravel ridge of al-Warīʿa. The plain extends northward from Saudi Arabia into the Shaikhdom of Kuwait for a distance of about 20 kms. It has an area of c. 30,000 sq. kms. and is remarkable for its firm, almost featureless surface, sprinkled with pebbles of limest…


(467 words)

Author(s): Zolondek, L.
, poetic nickname of abū ʿalī muḥammad b. ʿalī b. razīn al-k̲h̲uzāʿī . ʿAbbāsid poet, born 148/765 and died 246/860. His birthplace is uncertain; the cities of Kūfa and Ḳarḳīsiya are given as his places of birth. According to the accounts in the Kitāb al-Ag̲h̲ānī , he spent his youth in Kūfa from which he was forced to flee because of some mischievous activity. Diʿbil’s apprenticeship as a poet was under the tutelage of Muslim b. al-Walīd [ q.v.]. However, he soon made a reputation for himself as is indicated from his relationship with K̲h̲alaf al-Aḥmar (d. 180/796) and M…


(7 words)

[see ḳāmūs , muʿd̲j̲am ].


(290 words)

Author(s): Bergh, S. van den
, ναντίον, “contrary” is one of the four classes of opposites, ἀντικείμενα, mutaḳābilāt , as discussed by Aristotle in his Categories x (and also in his Metaphysics v, 10). There are four classes of opposites: 1) relative terms; 2) contraries; 3) privation and possession; 4) affirmation and negation. The fact that there are contraries implies that there must be a substratum in which they inhere, for it is impossible, even for God, to change, e.g., the White into the Black, although a white thing may become black. There are things which have necessarily one of two contraries, e.g., illness a…


(2,033 words)

Author(s): Hartmann, R. | Longrigg, S.H.
, the Arabic name (used always without the article al-) of the easterly of the “Two Rivers” of ʿIrāḳ, the Tigris. The name is a modernized and Arabicized form of the Diglat of the Cuneiform, and occurs as Ḥiddeḳel in the Book of Genesis. The river (Dicle Nehri in modern Turkish) rises in the southern slopes of the main Taurus, ¶ south and south-east of Lake Golcük. Its upper course, with its many constituent tributaries, drains a wide area of foothills and plain, which formed the northern half of the ʿAbbāsid province of D̲j̲azīra) in which stood the imp…


(405 words)

Author(s): Quelquejay, Ch.
, a people comprising five small Ibero-Caucasian Muslim nationalities, whose total number reaches, according to a 1955 estimate, some 18,000. Ethnically close to the Andi [ q.v.] and the Avar [ q.v.], they inhabit the most elevated and inaccessible regions of Central Dāg̲h̲istān, near to the Georgian frontier. It is necessary to distinguish: 1. The Dido proper (T̲s̲ez T̲s̲unta), numbering about 7,200, distributed in 36 awls along the upper reaches of the Ori-T̲s̲kalis. 2. The Bežeta (Kapuči, Kapčui, Bes̲h̲ite, K̲h̲wanal), the most developed of the Dido peoples (2,500…


(1,325 words)

Author(s): Mauny, R.
, a town in the Sudan Republic, 360 km. SW of Timbuctoo and 200 km. ENE of Segou. Geographical position: lat. 13° 55′ N.—long. 4° 33′ W. (Gr.). Altitude: 278 m. The etymology of this name (often wrongly spelt Djenné) is unknown but the most likely is Dianna = the little Dia (Dia is an ancient Sudanese town, 70 km. to the NW.). Dienné was mentioned for the first time in 1447 by the Genoese Malfante, under the name Geni. The town is situated in the flood-area of the Niger and the Bani, 5 km. from the left bank of the latter river, to which it is connected by a navigable chann…


(5 words)

[see diwrīgī ].

Digital Computer

(7 words)

[see ḥisāb al-ʿaḳd ].


(295 words)

Author(s): Longrigg, S.H.
, the title of the hereditary ruler of the Banī ʿĀmir tribal group in the Agordat district of western Eritrea and in the eastern Sudan; he is also senior member of the aristocratic Nabtab class or caste, who, for historical reasons no longer possible to elucidate, form the superior stratum in every Banī ʿĀmir section. The title is believed of Fund̲j̲ origin, and may recall days when the tribe was, in the 10th/16th and 11th/17th centuries, intermittently tribute-paying to the Nilotic but Muslim F…


(5 words)

[see ossetes ].


(775 words)

Author(s): Spuler, B.
, name of two towns, and their respective districts in north-eastern Īrān: 1) A town north-east of Harāt, the capital of the southern part of the Bādg̲h̲īs [ q.v.] region, and the second largest town in that region (“half the size of Būs̲h̲and̲j̲”), and according to Yāḳūt (i, 461), the capital of the whole of Bādg̲h̲īs around the year 596/1200. The town was situated upon a hill in a fertile area, and near a silver mine; it was built of brick. In 98/716-7, Dihistān is mentioned as the seat of a Persian dihḳān (Ṭabarī, ii, 1320); ca. 426/1035, it came into the possession of a Turkish dihḳān (these tit…


(700 words)

Author(s): Lambton, A.K.S.
, arabicized form of dehkān , the head of a village and a member of the lesser feudal nobility of Sāsānian Persia. The power of the dihḳāns derived from their hereditary title to the local administration. They were an immensely important class, although the actual area of land they cultivated as the hereditary possession of their family was often small. They were the representatives of the government vis-à-vis the peasants and their principal function was to collect taxes; and, in the opinion of Chr…

al-Dihlawī, Nūr al-Ḥaḳḳ

(9 words)

[see nūr al-Ḥaḳḳ al-dihlawī ].

al-Dihlawī, S̲h̲āh Walī Allāh

(1,488 words)

Author(s): Bazmee Ansari, A.S.
, the popular name of Ḳuṭb al-dīn aḥmad abu’l-fayyāḍ , a revolutionary Indian thinker, theologian, pioneer Persian translator of the Ḳurʾān, and traditionist, the first child of the 60-year-old S̲h̲āh ʿAbd al-Raḥīm al-ʿUmarī of Dihlī, by his second wife, was born in 1114/1703 at Dihlī, four years before the death of Awrangzīb. A precocious child, he memorized the Ḳurʾān at the early age of seven and completed his studies with his father, both in the traditional and rational sciences…


(7,929 words)

Author(s): Burton-Page, J.
1. — History. The city of Dihlī, situated on the west bank of the river D̲j̲amnā [ q.v.] and now spread out between 28° 30′ and 28° 44′ N. and 77° 5′ and 77° 15′ E., was the capital of the earliest Muslim rulers of India from 608/1211 (see dihlī sultanate ), and remained the capital of the northern dynasties (with occasional exceptions: Dawlatābād, Agra, and Lahore (Lāhawr), [ qq.v.], were the centres favoured by some rulers) until the deposition of Bahādur S̲h̲āh in 1858; from 1911 it became the capital of British India, and after 1947 of Independent India. The usual Romanized form of the nam…

Dihlī Sultanate

(8,485 words)

Author(s): Hardy, P.
, the principal Muslim kingdom in northern India from its establishment by Iletmis̲h̲ (608-633/1211-1236) until its submergence in the Mug̲h̲al empire under Akbar (963-1014/1556-1605). The establishment of the Dihlī sultanate was made possible by the Indian campaigns of the G̲h̲ūrid Muʿizz al-Dīn Muḥammad b. Sām and his lieutenant Ḳuṭb al-Dīn Aybak. Having recovered G̲h̲aznī from the G̲h̲uzz in 568/1173, in 571/1175 Muḥammad b. Sām captured Multān and Učč, hoping to by-pass the G̲h̲aznawid posse…

Dihlī Sultanate, Art

(540 words)

Author(s): Burton-Page, J.
With the exception of the coinage [see sikka ] and a very few ceramic fragments (a few described in J. Ph. Vogel, Catalogue of the Dehli museum of archaeology, Calcutta 1908; for the pottery fragments of the ʿĀdilābād excavations see H. Waddington, in Ancient India , i, 60-76), the only body of material for the study of the art of the Dihlī sultanate is monumental. Most of the ¶ monuments are in Dihlī itself and are described s.v. dihlī . The remainder are mostly described under the appropriate topographical headings, and are listed here in more or less chronological order. The first major und…


(514 words)

Author(s): Lammens, H. | Pellat, Ch.
(or Daḥya ) b. K̲h̲alīfa al-Kalbī , Companion of the Prophet and a somewhat mysterious character. He is traditionally represented as a rich merchant of such outstanding beauty that the Angel Gabriel took his features; and, when he arrived at Medina, all the women ( muʿṣir , see LA, root. ʿṣr ) came out to see him (Ḳurʾān, LXII, n, may be an allusion to this occurrence). There is no reason to accept the suggestion put forward by Lammens ( EI 1, s.v.) of some commercial connexion with Muḥammad; we only know that a sudden death put ¶ a stop to a projected marriage between a niece of Diḥya and …


(756 words)

Author(s): Kopf, L.
, the cock. The word is perhaps of non-Semitic origin. No cognate synonyms seem to exist in the other Semitic languages, except in modern South Arabian (Leslau, Lexique soqoṭri , 1938, 126). The cock is mentioned quite often in ancient Arabic poems and proverbs and in the ḥadīt̲h̲ . In zoological writings it is described as the most sensual and conceited of birds. It is of feeble intelligence, as it cannot find its way to the hen-house when it falls from a wall. Yet it possesses a number of laudable properties: it is cou…


(515 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
, a fortress situated on that part of the eastern shore of the Persian Gulf called the Sīf ʿUmāra, not far from the island of Ḳays [ q.v.], and famous in the 4th/10th century. It was known under three designations, Ḳalʿat al-Dīkdān, Ḥiṣn Dikbāya and Ḥiṣn Ibn ʿUmāra, as well as the Persian one Diz-i Pisar-i ʿUmāra ( Ḥudūd al-ʿālam , tr. 126). It stood guard over a village of fishermen and a port which could shelter some 20 ships, and according to Ibn Ḥawḳal (tr. Kramers and Wiet, 268-9), following Iṣṭak̲h̲rī (140), no-one could get u…

Dīk al-Ḏj̲inn al-Ḥimṣī

(337 words)

Author(s): Schaade, A. | Pellat, Ch.
, surname of the Syrian Arabic poet ʿAbd al-Salām b. Rag̲h̲bān b. ¶ ʿAbd al-Salām b. Ḥabīb b. ʿAbd Allāh b. Rag̲h̲bān b. Yazīd b. Tamīm. This latter had embraced Islam at Muʾta [ q.v.] under the auspices of Ḥabīb b. Maslama al-Fihrī [ q.v.], whose mawlā he became. The great-grandfather of the poet, Ḥabīb, who I was head of the dīwān of salaries under al-Manṣūr, gave his name to a mosque at Bag̲h̲dād, masd̲j̲id Ibn Rag̲h̲bān (al-D̲j̲āḥiẓ, Buk̲h̲alāʾ , ed. Ḥād̲j̲irī 327, trans. Pellat, index; al-Ḏj̲ahs̲h̲iyārī, 102; Le Strange, Baghdad , 95). Dīk al-Ḏj̲inn, born at…


(5 words)

[see māʿ ].


(192 words)

Author(s): Jomier, J.
, or dikkat al-muballig̲h̲ . During the prayer on Fridays (or feast-days) in the mosque, a participant with a loud voice is charged with the function of muballig̲h̲ . While saying his prayer he has to repeat aloud certain invocations to the imām, for all to hear. In mosques of any importance he stands on a dikka . This is the name given a platform usually standing on columns two to three metres high, situated in the covered part of the mosque between the miḥrāb and the court. In Cairo numerous undated platforms are to be found. The oldest dated inscription, with the word d-k-t, dates back to Sulṭā…


(1,299 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
, an ancient place in the Middle Atlas region of Morocco which owed its existence to the foundation in the last quarter of the 10th/16th century of a zāwiya [ q.v.], a “cultural” centre meant for teaching the Islamic sciences and Arab letters, and at the same time spreading the doctrine of the S̲h̲ād̲h̲iliyya [ q.v.] order, more precisely the branch known as the D̲j̲azūliyya [see al-d̲j̲azūlī , abū ʿabd allāh muḥammad ], and also sheltering the needy and travellers. In 1048/1638, the zāwiya dilāʾiyya or bakriyya (from the founder’s name, S̲h̲ayk̲h̲ Abū Bakr …

Dilāwar K̲h̲ān

(622 words)

Author(s): Bazmee Ansari, A.S.
, founder of the kingdom of Mālwa [ q.v.], whose real name was Ḥasan (Firis̲h̲ta, Nawalkishore ed., ii, 234); or Ḥusayn (Firis̲h̲ta, Briggs’s tr., iv, 170; so also Yazdani, op. cit. below); or ʿAmīd S̲h̲ah Dāwūd ( Tūzuk-i Ḏj̲ahāngīrī . tr. Rogers and Beveridge, ii, 407, based on the inscriptions of the D̲j̲āmiʿ masd̲j̲id (= Lāt́ masd̲j̲id) in Dhār, cf. Zafar Hasan, Inscriptions of Dhār and Mānḍū , in EIM, 1909-10, 11-2 and Plates III and IV). He was believed to be a lineal descendant of ¶ Muʿizz al-Dīn Muḥammad b. Sām, S̲h̲ihāb al-Dīn G̲h̲ūrī, and this belie…

Dilāwar Pas̲h̲a

(558 words)

Author(s): Parry, V.J.
(?-1031/1622), Ottoman Grand Vizier, was of Croat origin. He rose in the Palace service to the rank of Čās̲h̲nigīr Bas̲h̲i̊, ¶ becoming thereafter Beglerbeg of Cyprus and then, in D̲h̲u ’l-Ḥid̲j̲d̲j̲a 1022/January 1614, Beglerbeg of Bag̲h̲dād. As Beglerbeg of Diyārbekir—an appointment bestowed on him in 1024/1615—he shared in the Erivān campaign of 1025/1616 against the Ṣafawids of Persia. His subsequent career until 1030/1621 is somewhat obscure. The Ottoman chronicles (cf. Pečewī, ii, 366; Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ī K̲h̲alīfa, …


(371 words)

Author(s): Lewis, B.
, in Turkish tongueless, the name given to the deaf mutes employed in the inside service ¶ ( enderūn ) of the Ottoman palace, and for a while also at the Sublime Porte. They were also called by the Persian term bīzabārī , with the same meaning. They were established in the palace from the time of Meḥemmed II to the end of the Sultanate. Information about their numbers varies. According to ʿAṭāʾ, three to five of them were attached to each chamber ( Kog̲h̲us̲h̲ ); Rycaut speaks of ‘about forty’. A document of the time of Muṣṭafā II (d. 1115/1703), cited by U…


(16,125 words)

Author(s): Elisséeff, N.
, Dimas̲h̲ḳ al-S̲h̲ām or simply al-S̲h̲ām , (Lat. Damascus, Fr. Damas) is the largest city of Syria. It is situated at longitude 36° 18′ east and latitude 33° 30′ north, very much at the same latitude as Bag̲h̲dād and Fās, at an altitude of nearly 700 metres, on the edge of the desert at the foot of Diabal Ḳāsiyūn, one of the massifs of the eastern slopes of the Anti-Lebanon. To the east and the north-east the steppe extends as far as the Euphrates, while to the south it merges with Arabia. A hundred or more kilometres from the Mediterranean behind the Lebanon and Anti-Lebanon, a doubl…


(302 words)

Author(s): Dunlop, D.M.
S̲h̲ams al-Dīn abū ʿAbd allāh muḥammad b. Abī Ṭālib al-Anṣārī al-Ṣūfī , known as Ibn S̲h̲ayk̲h̲ Ḥittīn, author of a cosmography and other works. He was s̲h̲ayk̲h̲ and imām at al-Rabwa, described by Ibn Baṭṭūṭa as a pleasant locality near Damascus, now the suburb of al-Ṣāliḥiyya, and d. at Ṣafad in 727/1327. Al-Dimas̲h̲ḳī’s best known work, Nuk̲h̲bat al-dahr fī ʿad̲j̲āʾib al-barr wa ’l-baḥr is a compilation dealing with geography in the widest sense, and somewhat closely resembling the ʿAd̲j̲āʾib al-mak̲h̲lūḳāt of al-Ḳazwīnī. Though the author’s standp…


(1,029 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
, also called Dimotiḳa , a town in the former Ottoman Rumeli. Dimetoḳa lies in western Thrace, in a side valley of the Maritsa, and at times played a significant role in Ottoman history. The territory has belonged to Greece since the treaty of Neuilly (27 November 1919), again bears its pre-Ottoman name of Didymóteikhon, and lies within the administrative district (Nomos) of Ebros. It has a population of about 10,000, and is the seat of a bishop of the Greek church as well as o…


(398 words)

Author(s): Holt, P.M.
(Damietta), a town of Lower Egypt situated on the eastern arm of the Nile, near its mouth. Dimyāṭ, which was an important town before the Muslim conquest, was captured by a force under al-Miḳdād b. al-Aswad, sent by ʿAmr b. ¶ al-ʿĀṣ. As a Muslim town, it suffered repeated naval raids, at first from the Byzantines and subsequently from the Crusaders. After an attack in D̲h̲u ’l-Ḥid̲j̲d̲j̲a 238/June 853, al-Mutawakkil ordered the construction of a fortress at Dimyāṭ as part of a general plan to fortify the Mediterr…


(244 words)

Author(s): Vajda, G.
Nūr al-Dīn or Aṣīl al-Dīn ; his dates are uncertain but almost certainly not before the end of the 7th/13th century; author of a ḳaṣīda in lām on the names of God (see al-asmāʾ al-Ḥusnā and d̲h̲ikr ); each verse of this ḳaṣīda is reputed to possess mysterious virtues, given in detail by the commentaries of which the text has several times been the object (the best-known is that by the Moroccan mystic, Aḥmad al-Burnusī Zarrūḳ, d. 899/1493). The ḳaṣīda Dimyāṭiyya holds a considerable place in the worship of the semiliterate, in particular in North Africa…


(365 words)

Author(s): Jeffery, A.
, al-Bannāʾ . Aḥmad b. Muḥammad b. Aḥmad b. Muḥammad b. ʿAbd al-G̲h̲anī al-Dimyāṭī , known as al-Bannāʾ, Though he had some local reputation in Lower Egypt as a pillar of the Naḳs̲h̲bandiyya order of dervishes, owes his fame to his work Itḥāf fuḍalāʾ al-bas̲h̲ar on the Ḳurʾānic variants of the Fourteen Readers. He was born at Dimyāṭ where he had the usual education of a Muslim youth under local teachers, till he was able to journey to Cairo, where he studied ḳirāʾāt , ḥadīt̲h̲ and S̲h̲āfiʿī fiḳh under al-Muzāḥī and al-S̲h̲abrāmulsī, and was able to hear such …

al-Dimyāṭī, ʿAbd al-Muʾmin b. K̲h̲alaf S̲h̲araf al-Dīn al-Tūnī al-Dimyāṭī al-S̲h̲āfiʿī

(290 words)

Author(s): Vajda, G.
, traditionist born in 613/1217 on the island of Tūnā between Tinnīs and Damietta; at the end of his career he was professor at the Manṣūriyya and at the Ẓāhiriyya in Cairo, where he died in 705/1306. Apart from the works listed by Brockelmann, to be supplemented by the recent study of A. Dietrich, ʿAbdalmuʾmin b. Xalaf ad-Dimyāṭī’nin bir muhācirūn listesi , in Şarkiyat Mecmuasi , iii (1959), 125-55) he has left a dictionary of authorities, often cited and used by subsequent historians and biographers, called Muʿd̲j̲am S̲h̲uyūk̲h̲ ; it only survives at the pre…


(3,326 words)

Author(s): Gardet, L.
, I. Definition and general notion. It is usual to emphasize three distinct senses of dīn : (1) judgment, retribution; (2) custom, usage; (3) religion. The first refers to the Hebraeo-Aramaic root, the second to the Arabic root dāna , dayn (debt, money owing), the third to the Pehlevi dēn (revelation, religion). This third etymology has been exploited by Nöldeke and Vollers. We would agree with Gaudefroy-Demombynes ( Mahomet , 504) in not finding it convincing. In any case, the notion of “religion” in question is by no means identical in Maz…


(327 words)

Author(s): Dani, A.H.
a district in East Pakistan; population (1951) 1,354,432. In 1947 the district was partitioned, and its southern part was given to India. The name has been wrongly derived from Dinwad̲j̲ or Danud̲j̲, identified with king Danud̲j̲a Mardana Deva, whose coins are dated in Sáka 1339-40=A.D. 1417-18. This king has nothing to do with Rād̲j̲ā Ganesá, whose original estate was at Bhatoriya in this district and who played an important role in the early 9th/15th century Muslim history of Bengal. Dīnād̲j̲ is a non-Aryan term, which with the Sanskrit ending pur makes the f…


(1,842 words)

Author(s): Miles, G.C.
(pl. danānir ), the name of the gold unit of currency in early Islam. The word derives from Greek δηνάριον (Latin, denarius ), originally signifying a silver coin but in post-Constantinian times commonly synonymous with solidus , denarius aureus or νóμισμα χρυσοῦν The Arabs were familiar with thә word and with the Roman and Byzantine gold coin before Islam ( Ḳurʾān , ed. Flügel, iii, 68; and cf. ¶ J. Stepková in Numismatický Sbornik , iii, 1956, 65). The earliest type of Arab dīnār, undated but attributable to approximately the year 72/691-2, and struck almost certainly a…


(262 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
( Malik ), name of one of the Og̲h̲uz chieftains who set themselves up at K̲h̲urāsān after the dislocation of the kingdom of the Sald̲j̲ūḳid Sand̲j̲ar; unable to maintain his position there before the pressure of the K̲h̲wārizmian state, he found a way to profit from the dissensions among the Sald̲j̲ūḳids of Kirmān to lay hands on that principality (582/1186) and to hold it, in spite of hostilities on the borders of Sistān, Fārs, and the Persian Gulf, until his death in 591/1195. After his death, however, Kirmān in its turn became absorbed within the K̲h̲wārizmian empire, on account of in…


(867 words)

Author(s): Lockhart, L.
(sometimes incorrectly written Daynawar) in the middle ages was one of the most important towns in D̲j̲ibāl (Media); it is now in ruins. The exact location is 34° 35′ Lat. N. and 47° 26′ E. Long. (Greenwich). The ruins are situated on the north-eastern edge of a fertile plain 1600 metres above sea level which is watered by the Čam-i Dīnawar. This stream, after traversing the precipitous Tang-i Dīnawar, joins the Gamas-Āb near the rock of Bisitūn; the G…


(969 words)

Author(s): Lewin, B.
, Abū Ḥanīfa aḥmad b. Dāwūd , Arab scholar of the 3rd/9th century. The name of his grandfather, Wanand, indicates that he was of Iranian origin. In spite of the great value attached to his work by later authors very little has been handed down about his life except a short notice by Ibn al-Nadīm ( Fihrist , 78), copied by Yāḳūt with additional notices about the year of his death, which according to various sources fell in 281 or 282/894-5 or before 290/902-3; an appreciation of his work quoted from the K. Taḳrīẓ al-D̲j̲āḥiẓ by Abū Ḥayyān al-Tawḥīdī and an anecdote a…
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