Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition

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Edited by: P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel and W.P. Heinrichs

The Encyclopaedia of Islam (Second Edition) Online sets out the present state of our knowledge of the Islamic World. It is a unique and invaluable reference tool, an essential key to understanding the world of Islam, and the authoritative source not only for the religion, but also for the believers and the countries in which they live. 

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(16 words)

[see kihāna , also d̲j̲afr , faʾl , ik̲h̲tilād̲j̲ , raml , taʿbīr ].

Divine Decree

(7 words)

[see al-ḳaḍāʾ wa-’l-ḳadar ].


(5 words)

[see ṭalāḳ ].


(723 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl. | Massé, H.
(originally dew , Avestan daeva , Sanskrit dēva ), in Persian the name of the spirits of evil and of darkness, creatures of Ahriman, the personification of sins; their number is legion; among them are to be distinguished a group of seven principal demons, including Ahriman, opposed to the seven Ams̲h̲aspand (Av. aməša spənta , the “Immortal Holy Ones”). “The collective name of the daiva designates ... exclusively the inimical gods in the first place, then generally other supernatural beings who, being by nature evil, are opposed to the good and true faith .... These daiva, these dēv


(16,419 words)

Author(s): Duri, A.A. | Gottschalk, H.L. | Colin, G.S. | Lambton, A.K.S. | Bazmee Ansari, A.S.
, a collection of poetry or prose [see ʿarabiyya ; persian literature ; turkish literature ; urdū literature and s̲h̲iʿr ], a register, or an office. Sources differ about linguistic roots. Some ascribe to it a Persian origin from dev , ‘mad’ or ‘devil’, to describe secretaries. Others consider it Arabic from dawwana , to collect or to register, thus meaning a collection of records or sheets. (See Ḳalḳas̲h̲andī, Ṣubḥ , i, 90; LA, xvii, 23-4; Ṣūlī, Adab al-kuttāb , 187; Māwardī, al-Aḥkām al-sulṭāniyya , 175; D̲j̲ahs̲h̲iyārī, Wuzarāʾ , ¶ 16-17; cf. Balād̲h̲urī, Futūḥ ,…


(1,332 words)

Author(s): Bregel, Yu.
, the title of high officials in the Central Asian k̲h̲ānates in the 16th-19th centuries. The title appears first, apparently, in the Tīmūrid period, when its bearer, a Turkic amīr of one of the tribes of the Čag̲h̲atāys, was in charge of military affairs and of the affairs of the Turkic subjects, and stood at the head of dīwān-i imārat (or dīwān-i aʿlā ) (see H.R. Roemer, Staatsschreiben der Timuridenzeit , Wiesbaden 1952, 169-71). The title had the same meaning in the state of the Aḳ Ḳoyunlu [ q.v.] (see J.E. Woods, The Aqquyunlu , Minneapolis-Chicago 1976, 11). In the Ṣafawī state in Iran, the d…


(5 words)

[see k̲h̲aṭṭ ].

Dīwān-i Humāyūn

(2,300 words)

Author(s): Lewis, B.
, the name given to the Ottoman imperial council, until the mid 11th/17th century the central organ of the government of the Empire. Evidence on the dīwān under the early Sultans is scanty. According to ʿĀs̲h̲iḳpas̲h̲azāde (ch. 31; ed. N. Atsız, Osmanlı tarihlerı , Istanbul 1949, 118; German trans. R. Kreutel, Vom Hirtenzeit zur hohen Pforte , Graz 1959, 66), the practice of wearing a twisted turban ( burma dülbend ) when attending the dīwān was introduced during the reign of Ork̲h̲ān. Probably a kind of public audience is meant. The Egyptian physician S̲h̲ams al-Dīn …


(361 words)

Author(s): Longrigg, S.H.
, a town of central ʿIrāḳ, on the Ḥilla branch of the Euphrates, (at 44° 55′ E, 32° N.), midway between Ḥilla and Samāwa. With a population of some 12,000, almost all S̲h̲īʿī Arabs, it is the headquarters of a liwāʾ (total population, 508,000 according to the ‘preliminary figures’ of the 1957 census with the dependent ḳaḍās of Samāwa, ʿAfak, S̲h̲āmiyya, Abū Ṣuk̲h̲ayr, and Dīwāniyya itself; the tribes included in the liwāʾ are among the largest and least amenable of the middle Euphrates, and whether in Turkish times or the British occupation (notably in 1336/39, 191…

Dīwān al-S̲h̲ūrā

(7 words)

[see mad̲j̲lis al-s̲h̲ūrā ].


(897 words)

Author(s): Sourdel-Thomine, J.
or difrīgī , now divrigi, a small town in modern Turkey, situated on the confines of Armenia and Cappadocia on one of the routes leading from Syria and Upper Mesopotamia to the Anatolian plateau. Through it runs a torrent which flows into the Çaltı Irmak, a tributary of the Kara Su (northern Euphrates). This chief town of a ḳaḍāʾ in the province of Sivas, situated among market gardens and orchards which make it a pleasant resort—archaeological remains alone testify to its former prosperity in the Middle Ages—is now no more than a …


(2,757 words)

Author(s): Tyan, E.
, a specified amount of money or goods due in cases of homicide or other injuries to physical health unjustly committed upon the person of another. It is a substitute for the law of private vengeance. Accordingly it corresponds exactly to the compensation or wergeld of the ancient Roman and Germanic laws. Etymologically the term signifies that which is given in payment. The diya is also called, though very much more rarely, ʿaḳl . In a restricted sense—the sense which is most usual in law— diya means the compensation which is payable in cases of homicide, the compensation payabl…


(9 words)

[see Ḍayf , mihmān , musāfir ].

Ḍiyā Gökalp

(7 words)

[see gökalp, ziya ].


(740 words)

Author(s): Longrigg, S.H.
, an important river of east-central ʿIrāḳ. Its name, of unknown origin and meaning, is ancient, appearing in antiquity as Σίλλα or Δέλας or Dialas; its upper waters are known as the Sirwān or (originally and more correctly) S̲h̲irwān, as known to Yāḳūt, and this name is in common use for most of its length. It forms a left-bank tributary of the Did̲j̲la (Tigris), navigable only by small craft, and with a discharge formidable in the flood season (March-May), slight in the later summer and autumn. The river rises in western Persia, where the many hill-streams (often dry in the sum…

Diyār Bakr

(4,093 words)

Author(s): Canard, M. | Cahen, Cl. | Yinanç, Mükrimin H. | Sourdel-Thomine, J.
, properly “abode of (the tribe of) Bakr”, the designation of the northern province of the D̲j̲azīra. It covers the region on the left and right banks of the Tigris from its source to the region where it changes from its west-east course to flow in a south-easterly direction. It is, therefore, the upper basin of the Tigris, from the region of Siʿirt and Tell Fāfān to that of Arḳanīn to the north-west of Āmid and Ḥiṣn al-Ḥamma (Čermük) to the west of Āmid. Yāḳūt points out that Diyār Bakr does not extend beyond the plain. Diyār Bakr is so called because it became, during the 1st/7th century…


(297 words)

Author(s): Rosenthal, F.
, Ḥusayn b. Muḥammad b. al-Ḥasan , 10th/16th century author of a once popular history of Muḥammad, entitled Taʾrīk̲h̲ al-k̲h̲amīs fī aḥwāl nafs nafīs and preserved in numerous MSS and printed twice (Cairo 1283, 1302). The work is furnished in addition with a brief sketch of subsequent Muslim history. The brief enumeration of Ottoman rulers at the end stops in some MSS with Süleymān Ḳānūnī but usually ends with Murād III (982/1574). The author is also credited with a detailed description of the sa…

Diyār Muḍar

(1,071 words)

Author(s): Canard, M. | Cahen, Cl.
, a name formed in the same way as Diyār Bakr [ q.v.], is the province of the Ḏj̲azīra whose territory is watered by the Euphrates and its tributary the Balīk̲h̲ as well as by the lower reaches of the K̲h̲ābūr. It extends on both banks of the Euphrates from Sumaysāṭ (Samosata) in the north to ʿAnā (ʿĀnāt) in the south. The principal town of the Diyār Muḍar was al-Raḳḳa on the left bank of the Euphrates; other major towns were Ḥarrān on the Balīk̲h̲, Edessa (al-Ruhā, Urfa), capital of Osrhoene, and Sarūd̲j̲ …

Diyār Rabīʿa

(956 words)

Author(s): Canard, M. | Cahen, Cl.
, a name formed in the same way as Diyār Bakr [ q.v.], is the most eastern and the largest province of the D̲j̲azīra. It includes three regions: that of the K̲h̲ābūr and its tributary the Hirmās (D̲j̲ag̲h̲d̲j̲ag̲h̲) and their sources, i.e., the slopes of the Ṭūr ʿAbdīn; that which is contained between the Hirmās and the Tigris, the former Bēt̲h̲ ʿArabāyē with the D̲j̲abal Sind̲j̲ār; and that on both banks of the Tigris between Tell Fāfān and Takrīt, which marks the boundary with ʿIrāḳ. The lower reaches of the two Zābs are also include…


(1,019 words)

Author(s): Dubler, C.E.
, is the most correct transcription of the Greek Διοσχορίδης; other forms, such as Diyāsḳūridūs, allow a certain Syriac influence to be admitted. In Islam the name always refers to Pedanius Dioscorides (Ist. century B.C.), born at Anazarbe in Cilicia, whose name when fully arabicized is Diyusḳuridīs al-ʿAyn Zarbī. What the Muslims in the Middle Ages knew of him and his work can be found summarized in the Ṭabaḳāt al-aṭibbāʾ wa ’l-ḥukamāʾ by Ibn D̲j̲uld̲j̲ul, ed. Fuʾad Sayyid, Cairo 1955, 21). After Galen (D̲j̲ālīnūs [ q.v.]) (377/987), he is the doctor most frequently quoted by M…


(1,072 words)

Author(s): Lockhart, L.
, the capital of the district ( s̲h̲ahristān ) of the same name in the Vlth ustān (K̲h̲ūzistān) of Persia, is situated in 32° 23′ N. Lat. and 48° 24′ E. Long. (Greenwich), on the left bank of the Āb-i Diz or Dizfūl-rūd. This river, which rises in the neighbourhood of Burūd̲j̲ird, flows into the Kārūn [ q.v.] at Band-i Ḳīr (ʿAskar Mukram, [ q.v.]). The town, which stands 200 metres above sea level, is built on a conglomerate formation; many of the inhabitants have made cellars ( sardābs ) under their houses in this formation, into which they retire during the he…


(976 words)

Author(s): Holt, P.M.
(1) A group of tribes in the Republic of the Sudan. The principal tribes of this group, mainly sedentary in their way of life, inhabit the banks of the main Nile from the Dongola [ q.v.] region southwards to the Fifth (Sabalūka) Cataract. Other tribes and clans in Kurdufān (Kordofan) and elsewhere attach themselves to this group. The link among the tribes of the D̲j̲aʿaliyyūn is traditionally expressed in genealogical form: their eponymous founder (rather than ancestor) is said to have been a certain Ibrāhīm known as D̲j̲aʿal ( i.e., “he made”, because he made himself a following fr…


(5 words)

[see bennāk ].


(672 words)

Author(s): Ahmad, S. Maqbul
(variants: Ibn Rusta: N. d̲j̲āba Yaʿḳūbī: N.h.nāya , Kanbāya al-Idrīsī: D̲j̲āfa : ibid, MS. Cairo: Ḥāba again, ʿĀba , G̲h̲āba , ʿĀna , etc. occurring in the same list of kings separately in Ibn K̲h̲urradād̲h̲bih and al-Idrīsī are perhaps a dittography of D̲j̲āba ) represents the name of the former hill-state of Chamba (old name Čampā ). The ancient capital of the state was Brahmapura (or Vayrāt́apat́t́ana). Hiuen Tsang describes the kingdom as 667 miles in circuit, and it must have included the whole of the hilly country between the Alaknanda and Karnālī rivers (Law, Historical geography).…


(5 words)

[see al-d̲j̲ibal ].


(11 words)

, Mountain, see under the name of the Mountain.


(427 words)

Author(s): Elisséeff, N.
, D̲j̲eblé, Lat. Gabala, Fr. Gibel, Zibel (not to be confused with Giblet-Ḏj̲oubayl) is a small port on the Syrian coast, situated 30 km. to the south of al-Lād̲h̲iḳiya, facing the island of Ruwad; it is one of the termini of the main road from K̲h̲urāsān, through the valley of the ʿAya al-S̲h̲arḳī in contact with D̲j̲abal Bahirā and G̲h̲āb, where there are roads towards Apamée and Aleppo. This town was an important commercial centre from the time of the Phoenicians, a Dorian colony in the 5th century B.C. and then a prosperous Roman town, surrounded by a coasta…


(665 words)

Author(s): Buhl, F. | Headley, R.L.
an isolated mountain (known locally as a ḥaḍba ) located in Nad̲j̲d at about 24° 48′ N, 43° 54′ E, some 60 km. north-west of al-Dawādimī, 25 km. south and east of Nafī, and 15 km. west of Wādī al-Ris̲h̲āʾ. The mountain, which consists of reddish stone, rises abruptly from the surrounding gravel plains. About seven km. in length and three km. wide, D̲j̲abala runs from south-west to northeast with three main wādīs descending from its slopes…

D̲j̲abala b. al-Ayham

(146 words)

Author(s): Kawar, Irfan
, the last of the G̲h̲assānid dynasts whose personality dominates the scene in the story of Arab-Byzantine relations during the Muslim Conquests and may evidence the resuscitation of the G̲h̲assānid Phylarchate after its destruction during the Persian invasion in A.D. 614. As the ally of Byzantium, D̲j̲abala fought against Muslim arms but lost twice, first at Dūmat al-D̲j̲andal and later at Yarmūk, after which battle he made his exit from military annals. But tradition has remembered him in beautiful anecdotes whether as a Muslim who c…

D̲j̲abala b. al-Ḥārit̲h̲

(467 words)

Author(s): Shahid, I. A.
, Ghassānid chieftain [see G̲h̲assān ] of the pre-Islamic period, who made his début in G̲h̲assānid - Byzantine relations ca. 500 A.D., when he mounted an offensive against Palestina Tertia but was beaten by Romanus, the dux of that province. Shortly afterwards in 502, Byzantium concluded a treaty with the G̲h̲assānids and recognised them as its new allies ( foederati ). Throughout the remaining part of the reign of the emperor Anastasius (491-518), the sources are silent on D̲j̲abala, who was probably not yet the G̲h̲assānid king b…

D̲j̲abal al-Ḥārit̲h̲

(8 words)

[see ag̲h̲ridāg̲h̲ and d̲j̲udī ]

D̲j̲abal Says

(1,222 words)

Author(s): Gaube, H.
, the name of a volcanic mountain in Syria situated ca. 105 km. southeast of Damascus. Around its west and south sides runs a small valley opening to the southeast into a large volcanic crater. In years with normal rainfall, this crater is filled with water for about eight months. A reservoir near its centre makes D̲j̲abal Says one of the few secure waterplaces in the region, where sometimes more than a hundred nomad families camp in autumn. At the mouth of the valley on the southeast-slope of D̲j̲abal Sa…

D̲j̲abal Ṭāriḳ

(775 words)

Author(s): Seybold, C.F. | Huici Miranda, A.
, Gibraltar , the promontory of calcareous rock, a British possession, south-west of the Spanish province of Cádiz, almost at the southern extremity of Spain (length 4.6 km., breadth reaching 1.2 km.; area, 4.9 sq. km.; highest point 425 m.); the town extends the length of the western slope, which is fairly gradual, and numbers 28,000 inhabitants (British, Spanish, Jews and Moroccans) (including the garrison); it is as it were the key to the Mediterranean, and is fortified an…

D̲j̲aʿbar or Ḳalʿat Ḏj̲aʿbar

(592 words)

Author(s): Sourdel, D.
, a ruined fortress situated on the left bank of the middle ¶ Euphrates, almost opposite Ṣiffīn. Also called Ḳalʿat Dawsar from the name by which this locality was known in the pre-Islamic period and in the early days of Islam (Pauly-Wissowa, iv, 2234: to Dawsarōn , which explains the Arab traditions connecting this name Dawsar with the king of al-Ḥīra, al-Nuʿmān b. al-Mund̲h̲ir), it was described by ancient Arabic authors as a stopping-place on the route leading from al-Raḳḳa to Bālis (Ibn K̲h̲urradād̲h̲bih. 74; al-Ṭa…


(417 words)

Author(s): Ullendorff, E.
, the name of the Muslims of Ethiopia. Originally the name of a region (D̲j̲abara or D̲j̲abart) in the territories of Zaylaʿ and Ifāt (cf. al-Maḳrīzī, al-Ilmām , Cairo 1895, 6 ff.), later applied to all the Muslim principalities of southern Ethiopia and, ultimately, to all Muslims living in Ethiopia. The term D̲j̲abart is sometimes also used by the Christian population of Ethiopia with reference to the Muslims of the Arabian peninsula and thus becomes identical with the term Muslim in general. In mod…


(1,967 words)

Author(s): Ayalon, D.
, ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. Ḥasan , the historian, b. 1167/1753, d. 1825 or early 1826, was a descendant of a Ḥanafī family from al-D̲j̲abart [ q.v.]. According to al-D̲j̲abartī the people of that region were very strict in their religion and were inclined to asceticism. Many of them went on foot to the Ḥid̲j̲āz, either as pilgrims or as mud̲j̲āwirūn . They had three riwāḳs , of their own: one in the mosque of Medina, one in the mosque at Mecca, and one in the mosque of al-Azhar at Cairo. The forefather of the Egyptian branch of the family of al…


(5 words)

[see ʿālam ].


(5 words)

[see nud̲j̲ūm ].


(95 words)

Author(s): Hartmann, R.
, the ancient Gabbula, a place eastsouth-east of Ḥalab, watered by the Nahr al-D̲h̲ahab. The salt-mines there lent D̲j̲abbūl a certain economic importance in the middle ages as they still do, to which it probably also owed its position as an administrative centre in the political division of the Mamlūk kingdom. (R. Hartmann) Bibliography M. Streck, Keilinschriftl. Beiträge zur Geogr. Vorderasiens, 20 Schiffer, Die Aramäer, 131 ff. Yāḳūt, ii, 29 Ḳalḳas̲h̲andī, Ḍawʾ al-ṣubḥ, Cairo 1324, 295 von Kremer, Beiträge z. Geogr. des nördl. Syrien, 18 Le Strange, Palestine, 460 Ritter, Erdkunde…


(252 words)

Author(s): Streck, M.
a town in Central Babylonia, on the east bank of the Tigris, a few hours’ journey above Kūt al-ʿAmāra, and five parasangs (about twenty miles) south-east of Nuʿmāniya (the modern Tell Naʿmān). It is described as a flourishing place by the older Arab geographers; but, by Yāḳūt’s time (beginning of the 7th/13th century) it had considerably declined. In course of time—we have no details of its decay—it fell utterly into ruins. This town must date from a very remote period; for the name of the Gambū…

D̲j̲ābir b. ʿAbd Allāh

(2,957 words)

Author(s): Kister, M. J.
b. ʿAmr b. Ḥarām b. Kaʿb b. G̲h̲anm b. Salima , Abū ʿAbd Allāh (or Abu ʿAbd al-Raḥmān, or Abū Muḥammad) al-Salamī al-K̲h̲azrad̲j̲ī al-Anṣārī , Companion of the Prophet. His father, ʿAbd Allāh, was one of the seventy men of Aws and Ḵh̲azrad̲j̲ who gave the Prophet the oath of allegiance at the ʿAḳaba Meeting [see al-ʿaḳaba ] and committed themselves to defend him. His father is also recorded in the list of the twelve nuḳabāʾ , the chosen group from among the seventy; D̲j̲ābir himself had attended the Meeting as a very young boy, and is therefore cou…

D̲j̲ābir b. Aflaḥ

(329 words)

Author(s): Suter, H.
, abū muḥammad , the astronomer Geber of the middle ages; he was often confused with the alchemist Geber, whose full name was Abū ʿAbd Allāh D̲j̲ābir b. Ḥayyān al-Ṣūfī. He belonged to Seville; the period in which he flourished cannot certainly be determined, but from the fact that his son was personally acquainted with Maimonides ¶ (d. 1204), it may be concluded that he died towards the middle of the 12th century. He wrote an astronomical work which still survives under two different titles; in the Escurial Ms. it is called Kitāb al-Hayʾa (the Book of Astronomy), in the Berlin copy it is entitled I…

D̲j̲ābir b. Ḥayyān

(2,207 words)

Author(s): Kraus, P. | Plessner, M.
b. ʿAbd allāh al-Kūfī al-Ṣūfī , one of the principal representatives of earlier Arabic alchemy. The genealogy quoted above is taken from the Fihrist, where on p. 354 the oldest biography of D̲j̲ābir is preserved. His kunya given there is not Abū Mūsā, as usual, but Abū ʿAbd Allāh, although Ibn al-Nadīm himself states that al-Rāzī (d. 313/925 or 323/935) used to quote: “Our master Abū Mūsā D̲j̲ābir b. Ḥayyān says . . .”. The biography shows not only complete uncertainty regarding facts, but also legendary ele…

D̲j̲ābir b. Zayd

(446 words)

Author(s): Rubinacci, R.
, Abu ’l-s̲h̲aʿthāʾ al-azdī al-ʿumānī al-yaḥmidī al-d̲j̲awfī (al-D̲j̲awf in Baṣra) al-baṣrī , a famous traditionist, ḥāfiẓ and jurist, of the Ibāḍī sect. He was born in 21/642 in Nazwā (in ʿUmān), and, according to tradition, became head of the Ibāḍī community of Baṣra upon the death of ʿAbd Allāh b. Ibāḍ [ q.v.]. He carried on the latter’s policy of maintaining friendly relations with the Umayyads, and kept on good terms with the ruthless persecutor of the Azāriḳa, al-Ḥad̲j̲d̲j̲ād̲j̲, through whom he even succeeded in obtaining regular payments …

D̲j̲ābir al-D̲j̲uʿfī

(902 words)

Author(s): Madelung, W.
, Abū ʿAbd Allāh or Abū Muḥammad b. Yazīd b. al-Ḥārit̲h̲ , Kufan S̲h̲īʿī traditionist of Arab descent. His chief teacher seems to have been al-S̲h̲aʿbī [ q.v.] (d. 100/718-19). Among other well-known traditionists, from whom he related, were ʿIkrima, ʿAṭāʾ b. Abī Rabāḥ and Ṭāwūs. Initially, he held the moderate S̲h̲īʿī views widespread among the Kūfan traditionists. Later he joined the more radical S̲h̲īʿī circles looking to Muḥammad al-Bāḳir (d. ca. 117/735) and his son D̲j̲aʿfar al-Ṣādiḳ for religious guidance. According to some Sunnī heresiologists, he became th…


(905 words)

Author(s): Lammens, H. | Sourdel-Thomine, J.
, the principal residence of the amīrs of G̲h̲assān, and for that reason known as “D̲j̲ābiya of kings”, situated in D̲j̲awlān [ q.v.], about 80 km. south of Damascus, not far from the site of the modern Nawā. It extended over several hills, hence perhaps the poetic form of plural D̲j̲awābī, with an allusion to the etymological sense of “reservoir”, the symbol of generosity (cf. Ag̲h̲ānī , xviii, 72). It was the perfect type of ancient bedouin ḥirt̲h̲ā/ḥīra , a huge encampment where nomads settled down, a jumble of tents and buildings; there is even a…


(5 words)

[see d̲j̲abriyya ].


(1,162 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
(A.), compulsion in marriage exercised upon one or other of the prospective partners, ¶ under conditions which vary according to the judicial schools. The right of d̲j̲abr is foreseen neither by the Ḳurʾān nor by the Sunna , and a ḥadīt̲h̲ (al-Buk̲h̲ārī, Niḳāh , bāb 42) actually declares that neither the father nor any other person may give in marriage without her consent a virgin or a woman who has already been under the authority of a husband; the Prophet himself consulted his daughter Fāṭima before giving her in m…


(1,463 words)

Author(s): Pedersen, J.
, or D̲j̲ibrīl , Hebrew Gabrīʾēl , “Man of God”, is mentioned for the first time in the Old Testament, Dan. viii, 15 ff.; ix, 21 as flying to Daniel in the shape of a Man, sent by God in order to explain the vision of Daniel about the future. In post-biblical Judaism Gabriel plays an outstanding part among thousands of angels representing nations and individuals and natural phenomena. He belongs to the archangels and is governor of Paradise and of the serpents and the cherubs (Enoch, xx, 7). He is one of “The angels of the face”, standing at the ¶ left side of the Lord, and he dominates all forces ( ibid.,…

D̲j̲abrān K̲h̲ālīl Ḏj̲abrān

(1,141 words)

Author(s): Karam, A.G.
, Lebanese writer, artist and poet, born on 6 January ( al-Samīr , iii/2, 52, Young 7, 142) or 6 December (Nuʿayma, 15) 1883, at Bs̲h̲arri. The details which have been related about his childhood are often romanticized or imaginary (Nuʿayma, 14-96; Young 7, 16-18 and passim ). Biographers are agreed upon 1895 as the date of his emigration to the U.S.A. with his mother Kāmila Raḥma (d. 28 June 1903), his two sisters Maryāna and Sulṭāna (d. 4 April 1902) and his maternal half-brother Butrus (d. 12 March 1903). The family …

D̲j̲abr Ibn al-Ḳāsim

(72 words)

Author(s): Hodgson, M.G.S.
was a high official of the Fāṭimid Caliphs al-Muʿizz and al-ʿAzīz. On one occasion he was al-ʿAzīz’s vicegerent over Egypt; in 373/984 he replaced Ibn Killīs as vizier for a few weeks, without great success. (M.G.S. Hodgson) Bibliography Ibn al-Ṣayrafī, al-Is̲h̲āra ilā man nāla ’l-wizāra, in BIFAO, Cairo 1925, 90 Walter J. Fischel, Jews in the economic and political life of medieval Islam, London 1937, 58 (there spelled K̲h̲abir).


(717 words)

Author(s): Rentz, G.
, a dynasty based in al-Aḥsāʾ [ q.v.] in eastern Arabia in the 9th-10th/15th-16th centuries. The Banū D̲j̲abr descended from ʿĀmir b. Rabīʿa b. ʿUḳayl. The founder of the dynasty was Sayf b. Zāmil b. D̲j̲abr, who supplanted the D̲j̲arwānids of ʿUḳayl [see al-ḳaṭīf ]. Sayf’s brother and successor Ad̲j̲wad was born in the desert in the region of al-Aḥsāʾ and al-Ḳaṭīf in Ramaḍān 821/October 1418. Ad̲j̲wad in his fifties was strong enough to become involved in ¶ the politics of Hormuz on the other side of the Gulf. He told the Medinan historian al-Samhūdī how he had visited …

D̲j̲abrī Saʿdallāh

(7 words)

[see saʿd allāh d̲j̲abrī].


(271 words)

Author(s): Watt, W. Montgomery
or Mud̲j̲bira , the name given by opponents to those whom they alleged to hold the doctrine of d̲j̲abr , “compulsion”, viz. that man does not really act but only God. It was also used by later heresiographers to describe a group of sects. The Muʿtazila applied it, usually in the form Mud̲j̲bira, to Traditionists, As̲h̲ʿarite theologians and others who denied their doctrine of ḳadar or “free will” (al-K̲h̲ayyāṭ, K. al-intiṣār , 18, 24, 26 f., 49 f., 67, 69, 135 f.; Ibn Ḳutayba, K. taʾwīl muk̲h̲talif al-ḥadīt̲h̲ , 96; Ibn al-Murtaḍā, K. al-munya (ed. Arnold), 45, 71 — of Fak̲h̲r al-Dīn al…

al-D̲j̲abr wa ’l-Muḳābala

(2,372 words)

Author(s): Hartner, W.
, originally two methods of transforming equations, later the name given to the theory of equations (algebra). The oldest Arabic work on algebra, composed ca. 850 A.D. by Muḥ. b. Mūsā al-K̲h̲wārizmī [ q.v.], consistently uses these methods for reducing certain problems to canonical forms; al-K̲h̲wārizmī’s work was edited with English translation by F. Rosen, London 1831. A revision of Rosen’s text is badly needed, cf. S. Gandz, The Mishnat ha Middot , in Quellen u. Stud. z. Gesch. d. Math. , Abt. A: Quellen, 2, 1932, 61 ff.; the translation is arbitrary and often wrong, not the…

D̲j̲aʿda (ʿĀmir)

(506 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, a South Arabian tribe. In early Islamic times D̲j̲aʿda had lands in the southernmost part of the Yemen highlands, the Sarw Ḥimyar, between the present-day towns of al-Ḍāliʿ and Ḳaʿṭaba in the north and the Wādī Abyan in the south. The road from Aden to Ṣanʿāʾ passed through the territory, and their neighbours were the Banū Mad̲h̲ḥid̲j̲ and Banū Yāfiʿ. These South Arabian D̲j̲aʿda are described by Hamdānī as a clan of ʿAyn al-Kabr, and are to be distinguished from the North Arabian tribe of D̲j…

D̲j̲aʿda b. Kaʿb

(9 words)

[see ʿāmir b. ṣaʿṣaʿa ].

Ḏj̲ad̲h̲īma al-Abras̲h̲ or al-Waḍḍāḥ

(236 words)

Author(s): Kawar, Irfan
( i.e., the leper), an important figure in the history of the Arabs before Islam, whose floruit may be assigned to the third centry A.D. Tradition makes him an Azdī and places his reign during the pre-Lak̲h̲mid period in ʿIrāḳ. From a mass of richly informative traditions, D̲j̲ad̲h̲īma emerges as a king who played a dominant rôle in the history of the Arabs in Syria and ʿIrāḳ and in the history of their relations with Persia and Rome. His reign marked the inception of one of the pre-Islamic Eras. Tradition credits him with having been…

D̲j̲ad̲h̲īma b. ʿĀmir

(427 words)

Author(s): Veccia Vaglieri, L.
, an Ishmaelite tribe living at G̲h̲umaysāʾ, south-east of Mecca and not far from that city. Its genealogy is: Ḏj̲ad̲h̲īma b. ʿĀmir b. ʿAbd Manāt b. Kināna [ q.v.] etc. (Wüstenfeld, ¶ Register zu den genealogischen Tabellen , 175 ff., attributes the following facts to the D̲j̲ad̲h̲īma b. ʿAdī b. Duʾil b. Bakr b. ʿAbd Manāt, etc. (Table N), without apparent justification). There was an ancient grudge between the tribe of the D̲j̲ad̲h̲īma and that of the Ḳurays̲h̲, although there was kindred between them: before…


(603 words)

Author(s): Spuler, B.
(Arabic ‘new’, ‘modern’; Turkish pronunciation d̲j̲edīd ), followers of the uṣūl-i d̲j̲edīd ( e), the ‘new methods’, among the Muslims of Russia. The movement arose in about 1880 among the Kazan [ q.v.] Tatars, who provided it with its first leaders; from there it spread to other Turkish peoples in Russia. The D̲j̲edīds were against ‘religious and cultural retrogression’; they pressed, above all, for modern teaching methods in the schools, for the cultural unification of all Turkish peoples living under Russian domination, but…


(1,300 words)

Author(s): Colin, G.S. | Cenival, P. de
, Arabic and the present-day official name of the ancient Mazagan (former Arabic name: al-Burayd̲j̲a “the little fortress”), a maritime town of Morocco, situated on the Atlantic Ocean 11 km. south-west of the mouth of the wādī Umm Rabiʿ. Its population was 40,318 in 1954, of whom 1704 were French, 120 foreigners, and 3,328 Jews. Some authors have considered that Mazagan arose on the site of Ptolemy’s ʿPоυσιβίς λιμήν, Pliny’s Portus Rutubis . The texts do not, indeed, say that there had ever been a town there, but merely an anchorage frequented by ships, and this ¶ seems to have been the ca…


(5 words)

[see ṭasm ].


(439 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C. E.
, a town in the western part of mediaeval K̲h̲urāsān in Persia, now a town and also a bak̲h̲s̲h̲ or sub-district in the s̲h̲ahrastān or district of Bud̲j̲nurd in the K̲h̲urāsān ustān . It lies at the western end of the elongated plain which stretches almost from Bisṭām in the west almost to Nīs̲h̲āpūr in the east, which is drained by the largely saline Kāl-i S̲h̲ūr stream, and which is now traversed by the Tehran-Nīs̲h̲āpūr-Mas̲h̲had railway. The mediaeval geographers, up to and including Ḥamd Allāh Mustawfī (see Le Strange, The lands of the Eastern Caliphate , 392-3…


(860 words)

Author(s): De Bruijn, J. T. P.
, a nisba referring to D̲j̲ād̲j̲arm [ q.v. above] in western Ḵh̲urāsān, the name of two Persian poets, father and son, who flourished in the Mongol period. ¶ 1. The elder, Badr al-Dīn b. ʿUmar, made his career under the patronage of the D̲j̲uwaynīs [ q.v.], a clan originating from the same area, which came to political power under the early Il-K̲h̲āns. He was in particular connected with the governor of Iṣfahān, Bahāʾ al-Dīn Muḥammad D̲j̲uwaynī (d. 678/1279). The contemporary poet Mad̲j̲d-i Hamgar, who also belonged to the circle of this p…


(1,412 words)

Author(s): Lewicki, T.
(djado), the old capital of the eastern region of the D̲j̲abal Nafūsa in Tripolitania, nowadays a large village in the Fassāṭō district situated on three hills of unequal height. The population of about 2,000—towards the end of the 19th century there were 500 houses—mostly consists of Berbers of the Ibāḍī tribe of Nafūsa. The ruins of the old town are nothing but a pile of broken stones and caves with a mosque in the centre. Near the mosque was formerly the business quarter and the market ( sūḳ ), near which one can still see today the site of the Jewish quart…


(909 words)

Author(s): Le Cœur, M.Ch.
( d̲j̲ado ) in Arabie, or Brao in Teda, designates at once the principal palm-grove and the bulk of a massif bounded by the 12° and 20° N. parallels and the 12° and 13° E. meridians. This massif is a short branch of the plateau of primary sandstones which, from Tassili of the Ajjers to the massif of Afafi, joins the Ahaggar to the Tibesti. Changes of level are not marked: one passes from 5-800 m. on the ! plateau to 450 m. at the foot of its western declivity; J the impression of…


(877 words)

Author(s): Graefe, E. | MacDonald, D.B. | Plessner, M.
pl. d̲j̲adāwil , primarily “brook, watercourse”, means further “Ṭable, plan”. Graefe suggested that in this meaning it might derive from schedula ; but perhaps one should rather think of d̲j̲-d-l “to twist”, cf. S. Fraenkel, Die aramäischen Fremdwörter im Arabischen , 224, and the similar development of the meaning of zīd̲j̲ , as stated by E. Honigmann, Die sieben Klimata , 1929, 117 ff. In this second sense the word becomes a special term in sorcery, synonymous with k̲h̲ātim here it means quadrangular or other geometrical figures, into which names a…


(5 words)

[see nud̲j̲ūm ].


(429 words)

Author(s): Longrigg, S.H.
A large and famous Kurdish tribe of southern (ʿIrāḳī) Kurdistān, and of the Sanandad̲j̲ (Senna) district of Ardalān province of Western Persia. The tribe, cattle-owning and seasonally nomadic, was centred in the D̲j̲awānrūd [ q.v.] area of the latter province in the early 11th/17th century, and is first mentioned in connexion with the operations and Turko-Persian treaty of Sultan Murād IV. About 1112/1700, following bad relations with the Ardalān authorities, the main body of the tribe (estimated at 10,000 tents or families) mov…

Ḏj̲aʿfar b. Abī Ṭālib

(993 words)

Author(s): Veccia Vaglieri, L.
, cousin of the Prophet and brother of ʿAlī, whose elder he was by ten years. When his father was reduced to poverty, his uncle al-ʿAbbās took D̲j̲aʿfar into his house to solace him, while Muḥammad took care of ʿAlī. Soon being converted to Islam (D̲j̲aʿfar occupies the 24th, or 31st, or 32nd place in the list of the first Muslims), he was among those who emigrated to Abyssinia (his name heads the second list given by Ibn His̲h̲ām, 209); his wife Asmāʾ b. ʿUmays followed him. When the Ḳurays̲h̲ …

D̲j̲aʿfar b. Abī Yaḥyā, S̲h̲ams al-Dīn Abu ’l-Faḍl

(588 words)

Author(s): Madelung, W.
b. Aḥmad b. ʿAbd al-Salām b. Isḥāḳ b. Muḥammad al-Buhlūlī al-Abnāwī , Zaydī, scholar and ḳāḍī . His ancestors, including his father, were Ismāʿīlī ḳāḍīs of Ṣanʿāʾ under the Ṣulayḥids and Ḥātimids. His brother Yaḥyā (d. 562/1167) served the Ismāʿīlī Zurayʿids of ʿAdan as a panegyrist and judge. D̲j̲aʿfar converted to Zaydism at an unknown date and at first adhered to the doctrine of the Muṭarrifiyya [ q.v.]. After the arrival of the Ḵh̲urāsānian Zaydī scholar Zayd b. al-Ḥasan al-Bayhaḳī in Ṣaʿda in 541/1146, D̲j̲aʿfar studied with him. Al-Bayhaḳī represented the…

Ḏj̲aʿfar b. ʿAlī b. Ḥamdūn al-Andalusī

(152 words)

Author(s): Tourneau, R. le
, a descendant of a Yemeni family which settled in Spain at an unknown date, subsequently moving to the district of Msīla, in the Mag̲h̲rib, at the end of the 3rd/9th century at the latest. Like his father ʿAlī, he was at first a loyal supporter of the Fāṭimid cause, as Governor of Msila; then, probably inspired by jealousy of the Zīrids [ q.v.] who were increasingly favoured by the Fāṭimid caliphs, he changed sides in 360/971 and swore obedience to the Umayyad ¶ caliph of Spain. After a few years in favour, he incurred the displeasure of the all-powerful ḥād̲j̲ib al-Manṣūr b. Abī ʿĀmir [ q.v.] who …

D̲j̲aʿfar Beg

(231 words)

Author(s): Parry, V.J.
( ?-926/1520)—the “Zafir agà, eunuco” listed in the index to Marino Sanuto, Diarii , xxv, col. 832—was Sand̲j̲aḳ Beg of Gallipoli, i.e., Ḳapudān or High Admiral of the Ottoman naval forces. He was appointed to this office, not (as Ḳāmūs al-aʿlām and Sid̲j̲ill-i ʿOt̲h̲mānī assert) in 917/1511 but in 922/1516. His tenure of the office coincided with the Ottoman conquest of Syria and Egypt (922-3/1516-7) and with the extensive naval preparations that Sultan Selīm I (918-26/1512-20) urged forward during the last of his …

D̲j̲aʿfar b. Ḥarb

(345 words)

Author(s): Nader, A.N.
Abu ’l-Faḍl D̲j̲aʿfar b. Ḥarb al-Hamad̲h̲ānī (d. 236/850), a Muʿtazilī of the Bag̲h̲dād branch, was first a disciple of Abu ’l-Hud̲h̲ayl al-ʿAllāf at Baṣra, and then of al-Murdār at Bag̲h̲dād, whose asceticism he tried to imitate; this is what inspired him to give to the poor the large fortune which he had inherited from his father. In agreement with the Muʿtazila, he defended the doctrine that God knows through Himself from all eternity, that His knowledge is His very being, and that the object of His knowledge can exist from all eternity. He said t…

D̲j̲aʿfar b. Manṣūr al-Yaman

(494 words)

Author(s): Halm, H.
, Ismāʿīlī author and partisan of the Fāṭimids [ q.v.]. He was the son of the first Ismāʿīlī missionary in Yaman, al-Ḥasan b. Faraḥ b. Ḥaws̲h̲ab b. Zādān al-Kūfī, known as Manṣūr al-Yaman [ q.v.]. When in the year 286/899 the chief of the Ismāʿīlī propaganda, ʿUbayd Allāh, claimed the imāmate, Manṣūr al-Yaman acknowledged him; the letter by which ʿUbayd Allāh tried to prove his ʿAlid descent has been preserved in D̲j̲aʿfar’s al-Farāʾiḍ wa-ḥudūd al-dīn (see H.F. Hamdani, On the genealogy of Fatimid caliphs, Cairo 1958). When after the death of Manṣūr al-Yaman (302/914-15) his s…

D̲j̲aʿfar b. Mubas̲h̲s̲h̲ir

(573 words)

Author(s): Nader, A.N. | Schacht, J.
al-Ḳaṣabī (also al-T̲h̲aḳafī), a prominent Muʿtazilī theologian and ascetic of the school of Bag̲h̲dād, d. 234/848-9. He was a disciple of Abū Mūsā al-Murdār, and to some slight degree also influenced by al-Naẓẓām [ q.v.] of Baṣra. Little is known of his life except some anecdotes about his abnegation of the world, and the information that he introduced the Muʿtazilī doctrine to ʿĀna [ q.v.], and held disputations with Bis̲h̲r b. G̲h̲iyāt̲h̲ al-Marīsī [ q.v.]. He is the author of numerous works on fiḳh and kalām (al-K̲h̲ayyāṭ 81; Fihrist 37) and he had numerou…

Ḏj̲aʿfar b. Muḥammad

(8 words)

[see abū maʿs̲h̲ar ].

D̲j̲aʿfar Čelebi

(387 words)

Author(s): Ménage, V.L.
(864/1459-921/1515), Ottoman statesman and man of letters, was born at Amasya (for the date see E. Blochet, Cat. des mss. turcs , ii, 1-2), where his father Tād̲j̲ī Beg was adviser to Prince (later Sultan) Bāyezīd. After rising in the theological career to müderris , he was appointed nis̲h̲ānd̲j̲i̊ by Bāyezīd II (in 903/1497-8, see Tâci-zâde Sa’dî Çelebi Münşeâtı , ed. N. Lugal & A. Erzi, Istanbul 1956, 85). Suspected of favouring Prince Aḥmad in the struggle for the succession, Ḏj̲aʿfar, with other of Aḥmad’s partisans, was dismis…


(8 words)

[see fiḳh , it̲h̲nā ʿas̲h̲àriyya ].

D̲j̲aʿfar al-Ṣādiḳ

(1,170 words)

Author(s): Hodgson, M.G.S.
(“the trustworthy”), Abū ʿAbd Allāh, son of Muḥammad al-Bāḳir, was transmitter of ḥadīt̲h̲s and the last imām recognized by both Twelver and Ismāʿīlī S̲h̲īʿīs. He was born ¶ in 80/699-700 or 83/702-3 in Medina, his mother, Umm Farwa, being a great-granddaughter of Abū Bakr. He inherited al-Bāḳir’s following in 119/737 (or 114/733); hence during the crucial years of the transition from Umayyad to ʿAbbāsid power he was at the head of those S̲h̲īʿīs who accepted a nonmilitant Fāṭimī imāmate. He lived quietly in Madīna as an authority in ḥadīt̲h̲ and probably in fiḳh ;…

D̲j̲aʿfar S̲h̲arīf

(429 words)

Author(s): Burton-Page, J.
b. ʿAlī s̲h̲arīf al-Ḳurays̲h̲ī al-Nāgōrī , whose dates of birth and death are unknown, wrote his Ḳānūn-i Islām at the instigation of Dr. Herklots some time before 1832. He is said to have been “a man of low origin and of no account in ¶ his own country”, born at Uppuēlūru (Ellore) in Kistna District, Madras, and was employed as a muns̲h̲ī in the service of the Madras government. He was an orthodox Sunnī, yet tolerant towards the S̲h̲īʿas, who had considerable influence in south India in his time, learned yet objective in his approach…


(2,616 words)

Author(s): Fahd, T.
The particular veneration which, among the S̲h̲īʿas, the members of the Prophet’s family enjoy, is at the base of the belief that the descendants of Fāṭima have inherited certain privileges inherent in Prophethood; prediction of the future and of the destinies of nations and dynasties is one of these privileges. The S̲h̲īʿī conception of prophecy, closely connected with that of the ancient gnosis (cf. Tor Andrae, Die Person Muhammeds in Lehre und Glauben seiner Gemeinde , Stockholm 1918, ch. vi) made the prophetic afflatus pass from Adam to Muḥamm…


(5 words)

[see čag̲h̲atay ].


(570 words)

Author(s): Despois, J.
a small oasis to the southeast of Cyrenaica, the site of the tomb of Muḥammad b. ʿAlī al-Sanūsī, founder of the brotherhood of the Sanūsiyya. It is the furthest east, the smallest and the least prosperous of the oases along the important traditional route which leads from the valley of the Nile and Sīwa to Fezzan and the region of Tripoli, passing through a chain of depressions where are to be found the palm-groves of D̲j̲ālo, Awd̲j̲īla, Marada, and D̲j̲ufra, which are close to the 29th parallel. The depression of D̲j̲ag̲h̲būb consists of a sinuous basin called Wādī D̲j̲ag̲h̲būb c…


(243 words)

Author(s): Suter, H. | Vernet, J.
(or Čag̲h̲mīnī ), Maḥmūd b. Muḥammad b. ʿUmar , a well-known Arab astronomer, a native of D̲j̲ag̲h̲mīn, a small town in ¶ K̲h̲wārizm. The dates of his birth and death are not precisely established, but it is very probable that he died in 745/1344-5 (cf. Suter, in ZDMG, liii (1899), 539). The following works of his have been preserved: (1) al-Mulak̲h̲k̲h̲aṣ fil-hayʾa (Epitome of astronomy), which was very widely known and was frequently commented upon, notably by Ḳāḍīzāda al-Rūmī, by al-Ḏj̲urd̲j̲ānī. and by many others; a German tran…


(54 words)

, land given or assigned by governments in India to individuals, as a pension or as a reward for immediate services. The holder ( d̲j̲āgīrdār ) was not liable for land tax on his holding (see Ḍarība ), nor necessarily for military service by virtue of his tenure. See further iḳṭāʿ .

D̲j̲ahāndār S̲h̲āh

(531 words)

Author(s): Hardy, P.
, Muʿizz al-Dīn , Mug̲h̲al emperor regnabat 21 Ṣafar 1124/29 March 1712 to 16 Muḥarram 1125/11 February 1713. Born 10 Ramaḍān 1071/10 May 1661, eldest son of Bahādur S̲h̲āh [ q.v.], at the time of his father’s death he was governor of Multān. Pleasure-loving and indolent, he was able to participate actively in the struggle among Bahādur S̲h̲āh’s sons for the throne only through the support of the ambitious D̲h̲u ’l-fiḳār K̲h̲ān, mīr bak̲h̲s̲h̲ī and ṣūbadār of the Deccan who was anxious to exclude ʿAẓīm al-S̲h̲aʾn from the succession and to win the wizāra for himself. After three days fight…


(2,354 words)

Author(s): Bazmee Ansari, A.S.
, the fourth Mug̲h̲al emperor of India in the line of Bābur [ q.v.], the first surviving child of Akbar, others born earlier having all died in infancy, was born on 17 Rabīʿ I 977/31 August 1569 of a Rād̲j̲pūt queen, called Miryam al-Zamānī, at (Fatḥpur) Sīkrī, near Āgrā, in the hermitage of a recluse S̲h̲ayk̲h̲ Salīm Čis̲h̲tī, to whose intercession the birth of a son was attributed. The young prince was named Salīm after the S̲h̲ayk̲h̲ but Akbar always called him S̲h̲ayk̲h̲ū Bābā, scrupulously avoiding the …


(406 words)

Author(s): Gardet, L.
, Gehenna (Hebrew gēhinnōm , valley of the Gehenna); the Arabic word evokes etymologically the idea of “depth” (cf. infernus ). Used very often in the Ḳurʾān as a synonym of nār (“fire”), d̲j̲ahannam must accordingly be rendered by the general idea of Hell. The same is true in traditions. Exegetists and many treatises on kalām (or taṣawwuf ) were, subsequently, to give it a particularized connotation. The description of the Muslim Hell, the problems relating to it and consequently the references to verses in the Ḳurʾān mentioning d̲j̲ahannam, are considered in the article nār: here only …

D̲j̲ahān S̲h̲āh

(6 words)

(i) [see supplement].

Ḏj̲ahān S̲h̲āh

(7 words)

(ii) [See mug̲h̲als ].


(362 words)

Author(s): Hardy, P.
ʿAlāʾ al-Dīn Ḥusayn b. al-Ḥusayn , G̲h̲ūrid ruler—poet, notorious for his burning of G̲h̲azna in 546/1151. The cause of the violence between the G̲h̲ūrids and Bahrām S̲h̲āh of G̲h̲azna [ q.v.] would appear to have been an attempt by Ḳuṭb al-Dīn Muḥammad, (eldest brother of ʿAlāʾ al-Dīn) to seize G̲h̲azna through an intrigue with some of its inhabitants. Bahrām S̲h̲āh had him poisoned; an attempt by another brother, Sayf al-Dīn Sūrī, to avenge his brother ended, after the temporary occupation of G̲h̲azna by the G̲h̲ūrid force…


(1,093 words)

Author(s): Fischel, W.J.
(pl. d̲j̲ahābid̲h̲a ), a term of Persian origin, perhaps derived from a * gahbad̲h̲ in the Sāsānid administration, (the term is suggested by Herzfeld; Paikuli, gloss. N° 274) used in the sense of a financial clerk, expert in matters of coins, skilled money examiner, treasury receiver, government cashier, money changer or collector ( Tād̲j̲ al-ʿArūs , ii, 558; Dozy, Supplément , i, 226; Vullers, Lexicon Persicum , i, 544; Ibn Mammātī, 304, etc.). From the end of the 2nd/8th century on, bearers of this title in the time of the ʿAbbāsid Caliphs Manṣūr, Harūn, and Mahdī …


(5 words)

[see k̲h̲alwatiyya ].
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