Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition

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Edited by: P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel and W.P. Heinrichs

The Encyclopaedia of Islam (Second Edition) Online sets out the present state of our knowledge of the Islamic World. It is a unique and invaluable reference tool, an essential key to understanding the world of Islam, and the authoritative source not only for the religion, but also for the believers and the countries in which they live. 

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D̲h̲abīḥa

(90 words)

Author(s): Ed.
means both the sacrifices of a victim and the victim itself. In addition to the religious sacrifices studied in the art. d̲h̲abīḥā , there exist a host of others, meant for special occasions ( dbīḥa in Mag̲h̲ribī Arabic; Berber taməg̲h̲rust ; etc.), which have been treated at length in the art. dam above. On the blood sacrifices practised before the advent of Islam, see in particular ʿatīra and nad̲h̲r , and also J. Chelhod, Le sacrifice chez les Arabes , Paris 1955, and the bibliography cited there. (Ed.)

Ḏh̲abīḥa

(930 words)

Author(s): Bousquet, G.-H.
a victim destined for immolation according to Muslim law, in fulfilment of a vow, nad̲h̲r , for example, or for the sacrifice of ʿaḳiḳa , or on the occasion of the feast of the 10th day of D̲h̲u ’l-ḥid̲j̲d̲j̲a (then called ḍaḥiyya ), or in order to make atonement for certain transgressions committed during the ḥad̲j̲d̲j̲ (the victim in this case being known as hadī ). This d̲h̲abīḥa must be slaughtered according to a strict ritual known as d̲h̲akāʾa . Its form does not differ from the ritual slaughter of animals permitted as food: hence it is with thi…

Ḏh̲afār

(5 words)

[see Ẓafār ].

Ḏh̲ahab

(714 words)

Author(s): Ehrenkreutz, A.S.
, gold, played an important part in various areas of the life of Muslim society. The main reason for the significance of the metal was its economic assets. These were referred to in the Ḳurʾān. Apart from implicitly alluding to the value aspect of gold ( Sūra III, 85), the Ḳurʾan alludes to the attraction of ‘hoarded ḳintārs of gold’ for people ( Sūra III, 12) and warns against hoarding since ‘those who treasure up gold and silver and do not expend them in the way of Allāh’ would meet with a painful punishment ( Sūra IX, 34). The problem of gold was also discussed by Muslim jurists who de…

al-Ḏh̲ahabī

(1,839 words)

Author(s): Ben Cheneb, Moh. | Somogyi, J. de
, S̲h̲ams al-Dīn Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad b. ʿUt̲h̲mān b. Ḳāymāẓ b. ʿAbd Allāh al-Turkumānī al-Fāriḳī al-Dimas̲h̲ḳī al-S̲h̲āfiʿī , an Arab historian and theologian, was born at Damascus or at Mayyāfariḳīn on 1 or 3 Rabīʿ II (according to al-Kutubī, in Rabīʿ I) 673/5 or 7 October 1274, and died at Damascus, according to al-Subkī and al-Suyūṭī, in the night of Sunday-Monday on 3 D̲h̲u ’l-Ḳaʿda 748/4 February 1348, or, according to Aḥmad b. ʿIyās, in 753/1352-3. He was buried at the Bāb al-Ṣag̲h̲īr. His Life. His main lines of study were Tradition and canon law. He began to study Tradition at …

al-Ḏh̲ahabī

(6 words)

[see aḥmad al-manṣūr ].

D̲h̲ahabiyya

(14 words)

, Persian name of the Kubrāwiyya [ q.v.] order. See also Ţarīḳa .

Dhahran

(5 words)

[see Ẓahrān ].

D́́hākā

(844 words)

Author(s): Dani, A.H.
( Dacca )—(literally ‘concealed’, but origin obscure) is the capital of East Pakistan. The city is situated at the head of the waterways about a hundred miles from the sea, in a region which has had throughout history a premier position in this province of rivers and flooded plains. The Hindū capital was at Vikramapura, then favourably situated on the Dhales̲h̲warī river, where the line of old fortification can still be seen, but more important are the tomb and mosque (built …

Ḏh̲ākir

(500 words)

Author(s): Brands, H.W.
, Kāṣīm Bey , the foremost Ād̲h̲arbāyd̲j̲ānī poet and satirist in the first half of the 19th century. He was born probably in 1786, at Penāhābād in the K̲h̲ānate of Ḳarabāg̲h̲ (now S̲h̲ūs̲h̲a, Nagorno-Karabak̲h̲skay̲a̲ Avtonom. Oblast). He belonged to the clan of Ḏj̲awāns̲h̲īr, a renowned family of beys . In his satirical poetry he relentlessly castigated the religious fanaticism of the Mollās as well as corruption and all kinds of abuses by the beyzāde —the local aristocracy—and the Czarist administration officials. His criticism of the latter r…

Ḏh̲āl

(502 words)

Author(s): Fleisch, H. | Burton-Page, J.
, 9th letter of the Arabic alphabet, here transcribed d̲h̲ ; numerical value 700, in the Eastern system [see abd̲j̲ad ]. Definition: voiced interdental fricative; according to the Arabic grammatical tradition: rik̲h̲wa mad̲j̲hūra . For the mak̲h̲rad̲j̲ : lit̲h̲awiyya in al-K̲h̲alīl (al-Zamak̲h̲s̲h̲ari, Muf ., 191, line 2, 2nd ed. J. P. Broch) indicates a position of the tongue on the lit̲h̲a “gum”, therefore gingival . Ibn Yaʿīs̲h̲ (1460, line 21, ed. G. Jahn) records a position quite close to this, “the base of the central incisors”, and therefore alveolar . S…

D̲h̲amār

(396 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J. | Löfgren, O.
(or D̲h̲imār , see Yāḳūt s.v.), a district ( mik̲h̲lāf ) and town in South Arabia, south of Ṣanʿā, on the Ṣanʿā-ʿAdan road, near the fortress of Hirrān. The district of D̲h̲amār was very fertile and had rich cornfields, splendid gardens, and many ancient citadels and palaces. On account of its fertility it was called the Miṣr of Yaman. The horses of D̲h̲amār were famed throughout Yaman for their noble pedigree. Amongst places which are mentioned as belonging to the district of D̲h̲amār are the following: Aḍraʿa, Balad ʿAns, Baraddūn, al-Darb, Dalān and D̲h̲amūrān (…

al-D̲h̲ammiyya

(246 words)

Author(s): Hodgson, M.G.S.
, “the people of the blame”, is a name given by heresiographers to those who held certain disapproved doctrines. S̲h̲ahrastānī (134) and Maḳrīzī ( K̲h̲iṭaṭ , Būlāḳ 1270 A.H., ii, 353) apply it to S̲h̲īʿīs who claimed that Muḥammad was originally an agent of ʿAlī (the real prophet) but blameably summoned men to himself instead—a position noted (without a name) by As̲h̲ʿarī ( Maḳālāt al-Islāmiyyīn , ed. Md. Muḥyī al-Dīn ʿAbd al-Ḥamīd, Cairo 1950, 82), and ascribed also to al-S̲h̲almag̲h̲ānī [ q.v.]. Maḳrīzī explains that ʿAlī was silenced by being given Fāṭima. S̲h̲ahrastānī s…

D̲h̲anab

(5 words)

[see nud̲j̲ūm ].

Dhār

(1,274 words)

Author(s): Harrison, J.B. | Burton-Page, J.
, an ancient town on the scarp of the Vindhyas overlooking the Narbadā valley, and since 1956 the headquarters of Dhār district, Madhya Pradesh, India. It stood on the main routes from Dihlī to the Dakhan and to Gud̲j̲arāt. From the 3rd/9th to the end of the 7th/13th centuries it was a capital of the Paramāras who ruled Mālwā first as Rās̲h̲t́rakūt́a feudatories and then as independent monarchs. The most powerful of these, Vākpati II (or Muñd̲j̲a) and Bhod̲j̲adeva I, receive mention in many Musl…

D̲h̲arra

(395 words)

Author(s): Gardet, L.
, a term denoting, in the Ḳurʾān or ḥadīt̲h̲s , the smallest possible appreciable quantity. The Ḳurʾān uses it five times, in the expression mit̲h̲ḳāl al-d̲h̲arra , “the weight of a d̲h̲arra” ,—to extol the Omniscience of God (X, 61; XXXIV, 3), or His absolute Omnipotence (XXXIV, 20), or His supreme Justice in retribution: IV, 40 and the celebrated text XCIX, 7-8 “He who shall have done the weight of one d̲h̲arra of good shall see it; he who shall have done the weight of one d̲h̲arra of evil shall see it”. Commentators on the Ḳurʾān and interpreters of ḥadīt̲h̲s have explained d̲h̲arra by two im…

Dhārwār

(309 words)

Author(s): Davies, C. Collin
, a district in the Belgaum division of the Indian State of Mysore. It has an area of 5,305 square miles and a population of 1,575,386 of whom 15% are Muslims (1951 Census). Until the 7th/13th century it remained free from the Muslim invader. In the following century it formed part of Muḥammad b. Tug̲h̲luḳ’s extensive empire. After the decline of Tug̲h̲luḳ power its geographical position, especially its proximity to the Rāyčūr Dōʾāb, made it a bone of contention between the Bahmanī kingdom of th…

Ḏh̲āt

(591 words)

Author(s): Rahman, F.
In Muslim philosophy this term is used in several senses. As a general term it can mean “thing”, like the words s̲h̲ayʾ and maʿnā ; next, it signifies the “being” or “self” or even “ego”: thus bi-d̲h̲ātihī means “by itself” or “by his self”; but most commonly d̲h̲āt is employed in the two different meanings of “substance” and “essence”, and is a translation of the Greek οὐσία. In its former usage as “substance” it is the equivalent of the subject or substratum (‘υποκείμενον) and is contrasted with qualities or predicate…

Ḏh̲āt al-Himma

(7 words)

[see d̲h̲u ʾl-himma ].

D̲h̲ātī

(283 words)

Author(s): İz, Fahīr
, Turkish poet, b. 875/1471 in Balıkesir. The son of a modest bootmaker, as a boy he practised his father’s craft but soon gave it up, moving to the capital during the reign of Bāyezīd I where, following his natural inclinations, he devoted his life to poetry. An easy and prolific versifier, he made a living from the gifts of the notables of the day, to whom he dedicated ḳaṣīdas (among others, to the sultans Selīm I, Suleymān I, to D̲j̲aʿfer Čelebi and Ibn Kemāl). In his old age he practised geomancy in a shop which soon became a sort of lit…

D̲h̲āt al-Ṣawārī

(482 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C. E.
, Dhū ’l-Ṣawārī , G̲h̲azwat al-Ṣawārī , “the Battle of the Masts”, the names given in the Arabic sources to a naval battle between the Arabs and Byzantines in the latter part of ʿut̲h̲mān’s caliphate. The locale of the engagement is not wholly certain, but was probably off the coast of Lycia in southern Anatolia near the place Phoenix (modern Turkish Finike, chef-lieu of the kaza of that name in the vilayet of Antalya). As governor of Syria, Muʿāwiya [ q.v.] seems to have inaugurated a policy of building up Arab naval power in order to counter Byzantine control of the Easte…

Ḏh̲awḳ

(1,450 words)

Author(s): S̲h̲afīʿ, Muḥammad
, Muḥammad Ibrāhīm S̲h̲ayk̲h̲ , Urdū poet b. Dihlī 11 D̲h̲u ’l-Ḥid̲j̲d̲j̲a 1204/18 December 1790 (so Āzād; in 1203 according to a contemporary Calcutta newspaper, cf. Nawā-i Adab , 45), the only son of S̲h̲. Muḥammad Ramaḍān, a trusted servant of Nawwāb Luṭf ʿAlī K̲h̲ān of Dihlī. His early schooling in Persian and Arabic was in the mosque-school of Ḥāfiẓ G̲h̲ulām Rasūl S̲h̲awḳ, a poet and a pupil of S̲h̲āh Naṣīr (S̲h̲eftā, 150), who inspired the young learner with a love for reading and writing poetry…

D̲h̲awḳ

(532 words)

Author(s): Rahman, F.
, “taste”, is a technical term used in philosophy, in aesthetics (especially literature), and in Ṣūfism. 1. In philosophy [see falsafa ] d̲h̲awḳ is the name for the gustatory sense-perception. Following Aristotle, it is defined as a kind of sub-species of the tactual sense, localized in the gustatory organ, the tongue. It differs from tactual sense, however, in that mere contact with skin is not sufficient for gustation to occur: besides contact, it needs a medium of transmission, viz. the saliv…

Ḏh̲awwāḳ

(5 words)

[see čas̲h̲nagīr ].

al-Ḏh̲iʾāb

(227 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J. | Löfgren, O.
, “the wolves”, a South Arabian tribe whose lands lie between the territory of the Lower ʿAwāliḳ [ q.v.] and the Lower Wāḥidī [ q.v.]. There are also considerable settlements of the D̲h̲iʾāb in the country of the Lower Wāḥidī itself, the villages of which are largely occupied by them. The soil is unfertile and mostly prairie-like pasture land. In the east of the distict is a mountain of some size, the D̲j̲abal Ḥamrā, over 4000 ft. high. The chief place is the fishing village of Ḥawra (al-Ulyā) with an important harbour. The D̲h̲iʾāb are a very wild, warlike tribe of ¶ robbers, and are therefore…

Ḏh̲iʾb

(661 words)

Author(s): Kopf, L.
, the wolf. Most of the cognate forms in other Semitic languages have the same significance. Numerous synonyms and sobriquets are found in Arabic, such as sirḥān , uways , sīd , abū d̲j̲aʿda , etc. In local usage, d̲h̲iʾb may also denote the jackal (Jayakar, Malouf), yet Hommel’s assumption (303, n. 1) that this was the only meaning of the word in ancient Arabic (so also Jacob) is inconsistent with its use in the Sūra of Joseph (Ḳurʾān, XII, 13, 14, 17), where it stands for the biblical ‘evil beast’ (Gen. xxxvii 20, 33). Ample mention of the d̲h̲iʾb is made in ancient Arabic poems, proverbs, …

Ḏh̲ihnī

(246 words)

Author(s): İz, Fahīr
, Bayburtlu , Turkish folk-poet, b. towards the end of the 12th/18th century in Bayburt. Educated in Erzurum and Trabzon, he spent ten years in Istanbul and later travelled in the provinces on minor governmental duties; he was for a short time in the service of Muṣṭafā Res̲h̲īd Pas̲h̲a. He spent the last four years of his life in Trabzon and died in a village nearby while on his way to his home town (1275/1859). His background, somewhat different from that of the usual folk poet, led him to imitate classical poets, and he even composed a complete dīwān of traditional poetry in ʿarūḍ

D̲h̲ikr

(3,743 words)

Author(s): Gardet, L.
, reminding oneself. “Remind thyself of ( ud̲h̲kur ) thy Lord when thou forgettest” ( Ḳurʾān , XVIII, 24). Thus: the act of reminding, then oral mention of the memory, especially the tireless repetition of an ejaculatory litany, finally the very technique of this mention. In taṣawwuf the d̲h̲ikr is possibly the most frequent form of prayer, its muḳābal (“opposite correlative”) being fikr [ q.v.], (discursive) reflection, meditation. In his Ṭawāsīn , in connexion with Muḥammad’s “nocturnal ascension”, al-Ḥallad̲j̲ declares that the road which passes through “the garden of d̲h̲ikr”

D̲h̲ikrīs

(508 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C. E.
, Zikrīs , a Muslim sect of southern Balūčistān, especially strong amongst the Balūč of Makrān [ q.v.], but also with some representation amongst the Brahūīs of further north. The sect’s name derives from the fact that its adherents exalted the liturgical recitations of formulae including the name and titles of God, sc. d̲h̲ikr [ q.v.], above the formal Muslim worship, the ṣalāt or namāz . The D̲h̲ikrīs were believed by Hughes-Buller to stem from the North Indian heterodox movement of the Mahdawiyya, the followers of Sayyid Muḥammad Mahdī of D̲j̲awnpūr (847-91…

D̲h̲imma

(4,693 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
, the term used to designate the sort of indefinitely renewed contract through which the Muslim community accords hospitality and protection to members of other revealed religions, on condition of their acknowledging the domination of Islam. The beneficiaries of the d̲h̲imma are called d̲h̲immīs , and are collectively referred to as ahl al-d̲h̲imma or simply d̲h̲imma. An account of the doctrinal position of Islam vis-à-vis the religions in question, and of the polemics between the two sides, is given in the article ahl al-kitāb ; for a detailed account of …

Ḏh̲imma

(767 words)

Author(s): Chehata, Chafik
, The term d̲h̲imma , in its legal sense, bears two meanings, the first of which, that of the works on Uṣūl (legal theory), is equivalent to the notion of capacity, and such is the definition of it given by the classical doctrine. The d̲h̲imma is the legal quality which makes the individual a proper subject of law, that is, a proper addressee of the rule which provides him with rights or charges him with obligations. In this sense the d̲h̲imma may be identified with the legal personality. It is for this reason that every person is endowed with a d̲h̲imma from the moment of birth. Eaually it fo…

Ḏh̲immī

(6 words)

[see ahl al-d̲h̲imma ].

D̲h̲irāʿ

(1,013 words)

Author(s): Hinz, W.
, originally the part of the arm from the elbow to the tip of the middle finger, then the measure of the cubit, and at the same time the name given to the instrument for measuring it. The legal cubit is four handsbreadths ( ḳabḍa = index finger, middle finger, ring finger, and little finger put together), each of six fingerbreadths ( aṣbaʿ = middle joint of the middle finger) each the width of six barley corns ( s̲h̲aʿīra ) laid side by side. A considerable number of different cubits were in common use in Islam. Roughly speaking they can be grouped ar…

Dholkā

(5 words)

[see gud̲j̲arāt ].

Ḏh̲ubāb

(529 words)

Author(s): Kopf, L.
, the fly. Some authors state that word is used also for other insects, such as bees, hornets, butterflies or moths ( farās̲h̲ ), etc. According to Arab lexicographers, it is either a singular or else a collective noun, in which case d̲h̲ubāba is used for the singular. Cognate synonyms are found in other Semitic languages, e.g., Hebrew , Aramaic . The fly is often mentioned and described in ancient Arabic poems and proverbs. A ḥadīt̲h̲ has it that there are flies in hell to torture the condemned. Numerous kinds are mentioned by Arab zoologists, so…

Ḏh̲ubyān

(5 words)

[see g̲h̲aṭafān ].

D̲h̲ū, D̲h̲ī, D̲h̲ā

(462 words)

Author(s): Fleisch, H.
, demonstrative forms based on the demonstrative element d̲h̲ . The variety of their uses precludes these forms from being regarded as a single declined word; thus: D̲h̲ū was the relative pronoun, invariable, of the Ṭayyiʾ; corresponding to the Hebrew , the poetic form of the relative pronoun. Ḏh̲ī forms part of the masc. relative pronoun allad̲h̲ī ; but allatī in the feminine. The opposition d̲h̲/ t marks the gender. Corresponding to d̲h̲ī are the Aramaic biblical relative, invariable, ( de in syr.), the Geez masc. demonstrative ze, acc. za. D̲h̲ā masc. sin…

D̲h̲ū Ḳār

(822 words)

Author(s): Veccia Vaglieri, L.
, name of a watering-place near Kūfa, in the direction of Wāsiṭ (Yāḳūt, iv, 10), where one of the most famous Arab ayyām [ q.v.] took place. In contrast with most other clashes between Arabian tribes, this one had a historical importance because the Bakr b. Wāʾil tribe (a coalition of all its clans except the Banū Ḥanīfa) put other Arabs to flight (Tag̲h̲lib, Iyād, etc.) among whom, significantly, were regular Persian troops. Even if the battle was no more than a skirmish (though sources speak of several thousand comba…

D̲h̲u ’l-Faḳār

(268 words)

Author(s): Mittwoch, E.
, the name of the famous sword which Muḥammad obtained as booty in the battle of Badr; it previously belonged to a heathen named al-ʿĀṣ b. Munabbih, killed in the battle. It is mentioned in the Sīra (ed. Saḳḳā, etc., 1375/1955), ii, 100, and in several ḥadīt̲h̲s (see for example Ibn Saʿd, ii, 2, section: fī suyūf al-Nabī . The expression D̲h̲u ’l-Faḳār is explained by the presence on this sword of notches ( fuḳra ) or grooves (cf. the expression sayf mufaḳḳar ). According to a tradition, the sword bore an inscription referring to blood-money which ended with the words lā yuḳtal Muslim bi-kāfir

D̲h̲u ’l-Faḳāriyya

(627 words)

Author(s): Holt, P.M.
, (alternatively Faḳāriyya , Zulfaḳāriyya ); a Mamlūk household and political faction in Egypt during the 17th and 18th centuries. (1) Origin and first ascendancy. The eponymous founder of the household, D̲h̲u ’l-Faḳār Bey, is a shadowy figure, who seems to have flourished in the first third of the 17th century, but is not mentioned by contemporary chroniclers. The account (in Ḏj̲abartī, ʿAd̲j̲āʾib al-Āt̲h̲ār , i, 21-3) which makes D̲h̲u ’l-Faḳār and the rival eponym, Ḳāsim, contemporaries of sultan Selīm I is legendary. The political importance of the Faḳāriyya began with the amīr al-…

D̲h̲u ’l-Himma

(6,332 words)

Author(s): Canard, M.
or d̲h̲āt al-himma , name of the principal heroine of a romance of Arab chivalry entitled, in the 1327/1909 edition, Sīrat al-amīra D̲h̲āt al-Himma wa-waladihā ʿAbd al-Wahhāb wa ’l-amīr Abū ( sic) Muḥammad al-Baṭṭāl wa-ʿUḳba s̲h̲ayk̲h̲ al-ḍalāl wa-S̲h̲ūmadris al-muḥtāl , which, in the subtitle, describes itself as “the greatest history of the Arabs, and the Umayyad and ʿAbbāsid caliphs, comprising the history of the Arabs and their wars ..... and including their amazing conquests”. Also known is the title Sīrat al-mud̲j̲āhidīn wa-abṭāl al-muwaḥḥidīn al-amīra D̲h̲ū ( sic) ’l-Himma w…

D̲h̲u ’l-Ḳaʿda

(7 words)

[see taʾrīk̲h̲ , i].

Ḏh̲u ’l-Ḳadr

(1,542 words)

Author(s): Mordtmann, J.H. | Ménage, V.L.
, Turkmen dynasty, which ruled for nearly two centuries (738/1337-928/1522) from Elbistan over the region Marʿas̲h̲-Malatya, as clients first of the Mamlūk and later of the Ottoman Sultans. Name: The use in Arabic sources of the spellings Dulg̲h̲ādir and Tulg̲h̲ādir and in one of the dynasty’s inscriptions of Dulḳādīr (see R. Hartmann, Zur Wiedergabe türkischer Namen ..., Berlin 1952, 7; this spelling occurs also in Bazm u Razm , Istanbul 1918, 456) indicates that the Arabicized forms D̲h̲u ’l-Ḳadr and D̲h̲u ’l-Ḳādir, usual in the later Ott…

D̲h̲u ’l K̲h̲alaṣa

(469 words)

Author(s): Fahd, T.
(or K̲h̲ulaṣa ). D̲h̲u ’l-K̲h̲alaṣa refers to the sacred stone (and the holy place where it was to be found) which was worshipped by the tribes of Daws, K̲h̲at̲h̲ʿam, Bad̲j̲īla, the Azd of the Sarāt mountains and the Arabs of Tabāla. “It was a white quartziferous rock, bearing the sculpture of something like a crown. It was in Tabāla at the place called al-ʿAblāʾ, i.e., White Rock ( TʿA , viii, 3) between Mecca and the Yemen and seven nights’ march from the former ( i.e., approximately 192 kilometres or 119 miles). The guardians of the sanctuary were the Banū Umāma of the Bāhila…

D̲h̲u ’l-Kifl

(414 words)

Author(s): Vajda, G.
, a personage twice mentioned in the Ḳurʾān (XXI, 85 and XXXVIII, 48, probably second Meccan period), about whom neither Ḳurʾānic contexts nor Muslim exegesis provides any certain information. John Walker ( Who is D̲h̲u ’l-Kifl ?, in MW, xvi (1926), 399-401) would like the name to be understood in the sense of “the man with the double recompense” or rather “the man who received recompense twice over”, that is to say Job (Ayyūb [ q.v.]; cf. Job xlii, 10). Without being certain, this explanation does not lack probability; in any case, no better suggestion has been put fo…

D̲h̲u ’l-Nūn, Abu ’l-Fayḍ

(599 words)

Author(s): Smith, M.
T̲h̲awbān b. Ibrāhīm al-Miṣrī . This early Ṣūfī was born at Ik̲h̲mīm, in Upper Egypt, about 180/796. His father was a Nubian and D̲h̲u ’l-Nūn was said to have been a freedman. He made some study of medicine and also of alchemy and magic and he must ¶ have been influenced by Hellenistic teaching. Saʿdūn of Cairo is mentioned as his teacher and spiritual director. He travelled to Mecca and Damascus and visited the ascetics at Lubbān, S. of Antioch; it was on his travels that he learnt to become a master of asceticism and self-discipline. He met with hostility from the Muʿtazila [ q.v.] because he up…

D̲h̲u ’l-Nūnids

(1,095 words)

Author(s): Dunlop, D.M.
, in Arabic Bānū D̲h̲i ’l-Nūn, a prominent family of al-Andalus, originally Berbers of the tribe of Hawwāra. Their name appears to be the Arabicization of an earlier Zannūn (cf. Ibn ʿId̲h̲ārī, Bayān , iii, 276) which would explain the alternative spelling D̲h̲unnūn (ad̲j̲ D̲h̲unnūnī). In the 5th/11th century, during the first period of the Tarty Kings’ ( Mulūk al-Ṭawāʾif ), the D̲h̲u ’l-Nūnids ¶ ruled, with Ṭulayṭula (Toledo) as their capital, from Wādi ’l-Ḥid̲j̲āra (Guadalajara) and Ṭalabīra (Talavera) in the N. to Murcia in the S. The original territory of the Banū D̲h̲i ’l-Nūn …

D̲h̲u ’l-Rumma

(1,428 words)

Author(s): Blachère, R.
, lit. ‘he who wears a piece of cord’, nickname given to the famous Arab poet G̲h̲aylān b. ʿUḳba, who died in 117/735-36. He earned the name on account of a small charm which he hung around his neck by a piece of string. He was from the Saʿb b. Milkān clan, an offshoot of the ʿAdī tribe which originated from the ʿAbd Manāt peoples of Central Arabia. On his mother’s side he was related to the Asad tribe. If we accept that he died at the age of forty, his date of birth would be 77/696. This information is however open t…
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