Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition

Get access Subject: Middle East and Islamic Studies
Edited by: P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel and W.P. Heinrichs

The Encyclopaedia of Islam (Second Edition) Online sets out the present state of our knowledge of the Islamic World. It is a unique and invaluable reference tool, an essential key to understanding the world of Islam, and the authoritative source not only for the religion, but also for the believers and the countries in which they live. 

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(90 words)

Author(s): Ed.
means both the sacrifices of a victim and the victim itself. In addition to the religious sacrifices studied in the art. d̲h̲abīḥā , there exist a host of others, meant for special occasions ( dbīḥa in Mag̲h̲ribī Arabic; Berber taməg̲h̲rust ; etc.), which have been treated at length in the art. dam above. On the blood sacrifices practised before the advent of Islam, see in particular ʿatīra and nad̲h̲r , and also J. Chelhod, Le sacrifice chez les Arabes , Paris 1955, and the bibliography cited there. (Ed.)


(930 words)

Author(s): Bousquet, G.-H.
a victim destined for immolation according to Muslim law, in fulfilment of a vow, nad̲h̲r , for example, or for the sacrifice of ʿaḳiḳa , or on the occasion of the feast of the 10th day of D̲h̲u ’l-ḥid̲j̲d̲j̲a (then called ḍaḥiyya ), or in order to make atonement for certain transgressions committed during the ḥad̲j̲d̲j̲ (the victim in this case being known as hadī ). This d̲h̲abīḥa must be slaughtered according to a strict ritual known as d̲h̲akāʾa . Its form does not differ from the ritual slaughter of animals permitted as food: hence it is with thi…


(5 words)

[see Ẓafār ].


(714 words)

Author(s): Ehrenkreutz, A.S.
, gold, played an important part in various areas of the life of Muslim society. The main reason for the significance of the metal was its economic assets. These were referred to in the Ḳurʾān. Apart from implicitly alluding to the value aspect of gold ( Sūra III, 85), the Ḳurʾan alludes to the attraction of ‘hoarded ḳintārs of gold’ for people ( Sūra III, 12) and warns against hoarding since ‘those who treasure up gold and silver and do not expend them in the way of Allāh’ would meet with a painful punishment ( Sūra IX, 34). The problem of gold was also discussed by Muslim jurists who de…


(1,839 words)

Author(s): Ben Cheneb, Moh. | Somogyi, J. de
, S̲h̲ams al-Dīn Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad b. ʿUt̲h̲mān b. Ḳāymāẓ b. ʿAbd Allāh al-Turkumānī al-Fāriḳī al-Dimas̲h̲ḳī al-S̲h̲āfiʿī , an Arab historian and theologian, was born at Damascus or at Mayyāfariḳīn on 1 or 3 Rabīʿ II (according to al-Kutubī, in Rabīʿ I) 673/5 or 7 October 1274, and died at Damascus, according to al-Subkī and al-Suyūṭī, in the night of Sunday-Monday on 3 D̲h̲u ’l-Ḳaʿda 748/4 February 1348, or, according to Aḥmad b. ʿIyās, in 753/1352-3. He was buried at the Bāb al-Ṣag̲h̲īr. His Life. His main lines of study were Tradition and canon law. He began to study Tradition at …


(6 words)

[see aḥmad al-manṣūr ].


(14 words)

, Persian name of the Kubrāwiyya [ q.v.] order. See also Ţarīḳa .


(5 words)

[see Ẓahrān ].


(844 words)

Author(s): Dani, A.H.
( Dacca )—(literally ‘concealed’, but origin obscure) is the capital of East Pakistan. The city is situated at the head of the waterways about a hundred miles from the sea, in a region which has had throughout history a premier position in this province of rivers and flooded plains. The Hindū capital was at Vikramapura, then favourably situated on the Dhales̲h̲warī river, where the line of old fortification can still be seen, but more important are the tomb and mosque (built …


(500 words)

Author(s): Brands, H.W.
, Kāṣīm Bey , the foremost Ād̲h̲arbāyd̲j̲ānī poet and satirist in the first half of the 19th century. He was born probably in 1786, at Penāhābād in the K̲h̲ānate of Ḳarabāg̲h̲ (now S̲h̲ūs̲h̲a, Nagorno-Karabak̲h̲skay̲a̲ Avtonom. Oblast). He belonged to the clan of Ḏj̲awāns̲h̲īr, a renowned family of beys . In his satirical poetry he relentlessly castigated the religious fanaticism of the Mollās as well as corruption and all kinds of abuses by the beyzāde —the local aristocracy—and the Czarist administration officials. His criticism of the latter r…


(502 words)

Author(s): Fleisch, H. | Burton-Page, J.
, 9th letter of the Arabic alphabet, here transcribed d̲h̲ ; numerical value 700, in the Eastern system [see abd̲j̲ad ]. Definition: voiced interdental fricative; according to the Arabic grammatical tradition: rik̲h̲wa mad̲j̲hūra . For the mak̲h̲rad̲j̲ : lit̲h̲awiyya in al-K̲h̲alīl (al-Zamak̲h̲s̲h̲ari, Muf ., 191, line 2, 2nd ed. J. P. Broch) indicates a position of the tongue on the lit̲h̲a “gum”, therefore gingival . Ibn Yaʿīs̲h̲ (1460, line 21, ed. G. Jahn) records a position quite close to this, “the base of the central incisors”, and therefore alveolar . S…


(396 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J. | Löfgren, O.
(or D̲h̲imār , see Yāḳūt s.v.), a district ( mik̲h̲lāf ) and town in South Arabia, south of Ṣanʿā, on the Ṣanʿā-ʿAdan road, near the fortress of Hirrān. The district of D̲h̲amār was very fertile and had rich cornfields, splendid gardens, and many ancient citadels and palaces. On account of its fertility it was called the Miṣr of Yaman. The horses of D̲h̲amār were famed throughout Yaman for their noble pedigree. Amongst places which are mentioned as belonging to the district of D̲h̲amār are the following: Aḍraʿa, Balad ʿAns, Baraddūn, al-Darb, Dalān and D̲h̲amūrān (…


(246 words)

Author(s): Hodgson, M.G.S.
, “the people of the blame”, is a name given by heresiographers to those who held certain disapproved doctrines. S̲h̲ahrastānī (134) and Maḳrīzī ( K̲h̲iṭaṭ , Būlāḳ 1270 A.H., ii, 353) apply it to S̲h̲īʿīs who claimed that Muḥammad was originally an agent of ʿAlī (the real prophet) but blameably summoned men to himself instead—a position noted (without a name) by As̲h̲ʿarī ( Maḳālāt al-Islāmiyyīn , ed. Md. Muḥyī al-Dīn ʿAbd al-Ḥamīd, Cairo 1950, 82), and ascribed also to al-S̲h̲almag̲h̲ānī [ q.v.]. Maḳrīzī explains that ʿAlī was silenced by being given Fāṭima. S̲h̲ahrastānī s…


(5 words)

[see nud̲j̲ūm ].


(1,274 words)

Author(s): Harrison, J.B. | Burton-Page, J.
, an ancient town on the scarp of the Vindhyas overlooking the Narbadā valley, and since 1956 the headquarters of Dhār district, Madhya Pradesh, India. It stood on the main routes from Dihlī to the Dakhan and to Gud̲j̲arāt. From the 3rd/9th to the end of the 7th/13th centuries it was a capital of the Paramāras who ruled Mālwā first as Rās̲h̲t́rakūt́a feudatories and then as independent monarchs. The most powerful of these, Vākpati II (or Muñd̲j̲a) and Bhod̲j̲adeva I, receive mention in many Musl…


(395 words)

Author(s): Gardet, L.
, a term denoting, in the Ḳurʾān or ḥadīt̲h̲s , the smallest possible appreciable quantity. The Ḳurʾān uses it five times, in the expression mit̲h̲ḳāl al-d̲h̲arra , “the weight of a d̲h̲arra” ,—to extol the Omniscience of God (X, 61; XXXIV, 3), or His absolute Omnipotence (XXXIV, 20), or His supreme Justice in retribution: IV, 40 and the celebrated text XCIX, 7-8 “He who shall have done the weight of one d̲h̲arra of good shall see it; he who shall have done the weight of one d̲h̲arra of evil shall see it”. Commentators on the Ḳurʾān and interpreters of ḥadīt̲h̲s have explained d̲h̲arra by two im…


(309 words)

Author(s): Davies, C. Collin
, a district in the Belgaum division of the Indian State of Mysore. It has an area of 5,305 square miles and a population of 1,575,386 of whom 15% are Muslims (1951 Census). Until the 7th/13th century it remained free from the Muslim invader. In the following century it formed part of Muḥammad b. Tug̲h̲luḳ’s extensive empire. After the decline of Tug̲h̲luḳ power its geographical position, especially its proximity to the Rāyčūr Dōʾāb, made it a bone of contention between the Bahmanī kingdom of th…


(591 words)

Author(s): Rahman, F.
In Muslim philosophy this term is used in several senses. As a general term it can mean “thing”, like the words s̲h̲ayʾ and maʿnā ; next, it signifies the “being” or “self” or even “ego”: thus bi-d̲h̲ātihī means “by itself” or “by his self”; but most commonly d̲h̲āt is employed in the two different meanings of “substance” and “essence”, and is a translation of the Greek οὐσία. In its former usage as “substance” it is the equivalent of the subject or substratum (‘υποκείμενον) and is contrasted with qualities or predicate…

Ḏh̲āt al-Himma

(7 words)

[see d̲h̲u ʾl-himma ].


(283 words)

Author(s): İz, Fahīr
, Turkish poet, b. 875/1471 in Balıkesir. The son of a modest bootmaker, as a boy he practised his father’s craft but soon gave it up, moving to the capital during the reign of Bāyezīd I where, following his natural inclinations, he devoted his life to poetry. An easy and prolific versifier, he made a living from the gifts of the notables of the day, to whom he dedicated ḳaṣīdas (among others, to the sultans Selīm I, Suleymān I, to D̲j̲aʿfer Čelebi and Ibn Kemāl). In his old age he practised geomancy in a shop which soon became a sort of lit…
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