Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition

Get access Subject: Middle East and Islamic Studies
Edited by: P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel and W.P. Heinrichs

The Encyclopaedia of Islam (Second Edition) Online sets out the present state of our knowledge of the Islamic World. It is a unique and invaluable reference tool, an essential key to understanding the world of Islam, and the authoritative source not only for the religion, but also for the believers and the countries in which they live. 

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(237 words)

Author(s): Fahd, T.
, Abū saʿīd ( Saʿd ) Naṣr b. Yaʿḳūb , is a writer chiefly remembered as author of al-Ḳādirī fi ’l-Taʿbīr (composed in 397/1006 and dedicated to al-Ḳādir Bi’llāh 381-422/991-1020), which is the oldest authentic Arabic treatise on oneirocriticism and an excellent synthesis of everything that was known on the subject at the time. Its sources were Arabic: Ibn Sīrīn [ q.v.] to whom innumerable interpretations are attributed; Greek: Artemidorus of Ephesus, whose Oneirocritica translated into Arabic by Ḥunayn b. Isḥāḳ (died 260/873; cf. Fihrist, 255, MS A 4726 in the Istanbul Universi…


(476 words)

Author(s): Lewis, B.
, the laḳab of Abū D̲j̲aʿfar Aḥmad b. Ḥusayn, a S̲h̲īʿī traditionist of the 3rd/9th century. His father was a reliable authority who related traditions of the Imāms ʿAlī al-Riḍā, Muḥammad al-D̲j̲awād, and ʿAlī al-Hādī; originally from Kūfa, he lived for a while in Ahwāz, where Dindān was born. Dindān also related traditions on the authority of his father’s masters, but was regarded as a g̲h̲ālī , extremist, and his reliability as a relator was impugned. He wrote several books, among them Kitāb al-iḥtid̲j̲ād̲j̲ , K. al-anbiyāʾ , K. al-mat̲h̲ālib , and K. al-muk̲h̲taṣar fi ’l-daʿwāt


(1,466 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
, Alphonse , Etienne (1861-1929), French painter of oriental subjects and writer who assumed the name Nacir Ed Dine (Nāṣir al-Dīn) when he became a convert to Islam. He was born in Paris on 28 March 1861, and studied under several well-known painters (Galland, Bouguereau, Robert-Fleury). After a first trip to Algeria (1884), he won a scholarship which allowed him to return there in 1885, and from then onwards he led a nomadic life there for several months of each year, until he settled at Bou Saada (Bū Saʿāda) in 1907. It …

Dīn-i Ilāhī

(802 words)

Author(s): Ahmad, Aziz
(Divine Faith), the heresy promulgated by the Indian Mug̲h̲al emperor Akbar [ q.v.] in 989/1581. The heresy is related to earlier Alfī heretical movements in Indian Islam of the 10th/16th century, implying the need for the reorientation of faith at the end of the first millennium of the advent of the Prophet. Among its formative inspirations was Akbar’s reaction to the decadence and corruption of contemporary ʿulamāʾ , his eclecticism and religious tolerance, and the intellectual scepticism of his chief associate Abu ’l-Faḍl ʿAllāmī. Ethically, the Dīn-i Ilāhī


(5 words)

[see diyusḳuridīs ].


(9 words)

[see elči , muʿāhada , safīr ]. ¶


(17,714 words)

Author(s): Björkman, W. | Colin, G.S. | Busse, H. | Reychmann, J. | Zajaczkowski, A.
i.— Classical arabic 1) Diplomatic has reached the status of a special science in the West, and the results of such research are accessible in good manuals (like Harry Bresslau’s Handbuch der Urkundenlehre für Deutschland und Italien , 2nd. ed. 1931). Much less work has been done on Arabic documents: the material is very scattered, and not yet sufficiently collated to permit detailed research. Yet Arabic documents have aroused interest for some considerable time: a number have been published, and the editing o…


(992 words)

Author(s): Bazmee Ansari, A.S.
, a princely state, which acceded to Pakistan in 1947, with an area of 2,040 sq. miles and a population of 148, 648 in 1951, lies to the south of Čitrāl in 35° 50′ and 34° 22′ N. and 71° 2′ and 72° 30′ E., taking its name from the village of Dīr, seat of the ruler, lying on the bank of a stream of the same name and a tributary of the Pand̲j̲kōŕā. Politically the Dīr territory roughly comprises the country watered by the Pand̲j̲kōŕā and its affluents. The state gained prominence in the second half of the 19th century for its hostility to the cause of the mud̲j̲āhidīn , remnants of t…


(5 words)

[see somli ].

Ḍirār b. ʿAmr

(2,460 words)

Author(s): van Ess, J.
, Abū ʿAmr al-G̲h̲aṭafānī al-Kūfī ( ca. 110-200/ ca. 728-815), important Muʿtazilī theologian, disciple of Wāṣil b. ʿAṭāʾ (d. 131/749). In contrast to many other early Muʿtazilīs, he was of pure Arab extraction; he belonged to the ʿAbd Allāh b. G̲h̲aṭafān in Kūfa. He founded his prestige, however, through his teaching in Baṣra where Wāṣil had lived. By profession he is said to have been a ḳāḍī . After 170/786 we find him in Bag̲h̲dād in the circle of the Barmakids, where he took part, together with His̲h̲ām b. al-Ḥakam, the Ibāḍī scholar ʿ…

Ḍirār b. al-K̲h̲aṭṭāb

(127 words)

Author(s): Ed.
b. Mirdās al-Fihrī , a poet of Mecca. Chief of the clan of Muḥārib b. Fihr in the Fid̲j̲ār [ q.v.], he fought against the Muslims at Uḥud and at the battle of the Trench, and wrote invectives against the Prophet. He was however converted after the capture of Mecca, but it is not known if he perished in the battle of Yamāma (12/633) or whether he survived and went to settle in Syria. (Ed.) Bibliography Sīra, ed. Saḳḳā, etc., Cairo 1375/1955, i, 414-5, 450, ii, 145-6, 254-5 Ṭabarī, index Muḥ. b. Ḥabīb, Muḥabbar, 170, 176, 434 Buḥturī, Ḥamāsa, index Ibn Sallām, Ṭabaḳāt, ed. S̲h̲ākir, 209-12 Ag̲h̲ānī, i…

Dire Dawa

(313 words)

Author(s): Ullendorff, E.
, important road, rail, and air communication centre and chief commercial town in Eastern Ethiopia, situated 35 miles North-West of Harar [ q.v.] and thus within the cultural orbit of this major Muslim city in the Ethiopian Empire. The name is most probably derived from the Somali Dir - ḍabo ‘limit of the Dir’ (the Dir being the confederation of Somali tribes which inhabit the vast arid region between Dire Dawa and D̲j̲ibuti), but it is possible that the Amharicized form is meant to reflect a popular etymology from the Amharic dire dawa ‘hill of uncultivated land’…


(1,515 words)

Author(s): Canard, M.
(“Lion”), Fāṭimid amīr and wazīr ; his full name Abu ’l-As̲h̲bāl al-Ḍirg̲h̲ām b. ʿĀmir b. Sawwār, he received the agnomens of Fāris al-Muslimīn, S̲h̲ams al-k̲h̲ilāfa, and, when he was ¶ vizier of the last Fāṭimid al-ʿĀḍid, the title of al-Malik al-Manṣūr, the victorious king, according to a protocol issued by Riḍwān [ q.v.]. He was Arab in origin and was perhaps descended from the former kings of Ḥīra, to judge from the dynastic names of al-Lak̲h̲mī and al-Mund̲h̲irī that he bore. The first mention of him is made in 548/1153. He was among the detachment charged with relievin…


(1,417 words)

Author(s): Miles, G.C.
1. The name of a weight, derived from Greek δραχμή. Traditionally the dirham kayl or s̲h̲arʿī weighed from 50 to 60 average-sized, unshelled s̲h̲aʿīra or ḥabba , and was theoretically divided into 6 dānaḳ , the latter being calculated variously between 8 and 10 s̲h̲aʿīra. So numerous and contradictory are the reports on the weight of the dirham and its relationship to other Arab metrological units in different parts of the Islamic world and at different times that they cannot be summarized here, and the reader is referred to such works as Sauvaire’s Matériaux and Grohmann’s Einführung


(1,940 words)

Author(s): Rentz, G.
(or al-Darʿiyya), an oasis in Wādī Ḥanīfa [ q.v.] in Nad̲j̲d, the capital of Āl Saʿūd [ q.v.] until its overthrow in 1233/1818. The oasis lies c. 20 km. north-west of al-Riyāḍ, the present capital. The wadi flows south-east through the upper part of the oasis and then bends to the east before passing the main settlements. Beyond these settlements the high cliff of al-Ḳurayn forces the wadi to make a sharp turn to the south-west. The road from al-Riyāḍ descends the cliff by Nazlat al-Nāṣiriyya to enter the wadi o…


(126 words)

Author(s): Lewis, B.
, a Turkish word meaning living or livelihood. In the Ottoman Empire it was used to denote an income provided by the state, directly or indirectly, for the support of persons in its service. The term is used principally of the military fiefs (see timar), but also applies to pay (see ʿulūfa ), salaries, and grants of various kinds in lieu of pay to officers of the central and provincial governments. It does not normally apply to tax-farms, the basis of which is purchase and not service. (B. Lewis) Bibliography Ḏj̲aʿfer Čelebi, Maḥrūse-i Istanbul fetḥnāmesi, TOEM suppl. 1331, 17 Koçi Bey Risale…


(5 words)

[see fask̲h̲ ].


(5 words)

[see k̲h̲andaḳ ].


(601 words)

Author(s): Harrison, J.B.
, an island off the southern point of Saurashtra (Sawrās̲h̲t́rā, Sōrat̄h), India, with a good harbour clear of the dangerous tides of the Gulf of Cambay. Taken from the Čud́asāmas in 698/1298-99 by the generals of ʿAlāʾ al-Dīn K̲h̲ald̲j̲ī, probably lost a few years later, it was recovered by Muḥammad b. Tug̲h̲luḳ in 750/1349. In 804/1402 Muẓaffar K̲h̲ān, governor for the last Tug̲h̲luḳs and first sultan of Gud̲j̲arāt, built mosques, appointed ḳāḍīs and installed a garrison in Diū. By 834/1431 Diū was a flourishing port furnishing ships for the Gud̲…


(5 words)

[see dīwān ].
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