Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition

Get access Subject: Middle East and Islamic Studies
Edited by: P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel and W.P. Heinrichs

The Encyclopaedia of Islam (Second Edition) Online sets out the present state of our knowledge of the Islamic World. It is a unique and invaluable reference tool, an essential key to understanding the world of Islam, and the authoritative source not only for the religion, but also for the believers and the countries in which they live. 

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(1,019 words)

Author(s): Dubler, C.E.
, is the most correct transcription of the Greek Διοσχορίδης; other forms, such as Diyāsḳūridūs, allow a certain Syriac influence to be admitted. In Islam the name always refers to Pedanius Dioscorides (Ist. century B.C.), born at Anazarbe in Cilicia, whose name when fully arabicized is Diyusḳuridīs al-ʿAyn Zarbī. What the Muslims in the Middle Ages knew of him and his work can be found summarized in the Ṭabaḳāt al-aṭibbāʾ wa ’l-ḥukamāʾ by Ibn D̲j̲uld̲j̲ul, ed. Fuʾad Sayyid, Cairo 1955, 21). After Galen (D̲j̲ālīnūs [ q.v.]) (377/987), he is the doctor most frequently quoted by M…


(1,072 words)

Author(s): Lockhart, L.
, the capital of the district ( s̲h̲ahristān ) of the same name in the Vlth ustān (K̲h̲ūzistān) of Persia, is situated in 32° 23′ N. Lat. and 48° 24′ E. Long. (Greenwich), on the left bank of the Āb-i Diz or Dizfūl-rūd. This river, which rises in the neighbourhood of Burūd̲j̲ird, flows into the Kārūn [ q.v.] at Band-i Ḳīr (ʿAskar Mukram, [ q.v.]). The town, which stands 200 metres above sea level, is built on a conglomerate formation; many of the inhabitants have made cellars ( sardābs ) under their houses in this formation, into which they retire during the he…


(976 words)

Author(s): Holt, P.M.
(1) A group of tribes in the Republic of the Sudan. The principal tribes of this group, mainly sedentary in their way of life, inhabit the banks of the main Nile from the Dongola [ q.v.] region southwards to the Fifth (Sabalūka) Cataract. Other tribes and clans in Kurdufān (Kordofan) and elsewhere attach themselves to this group. The link among the tribes of the D̲j̲aʿaliyyūn is traditionally expressed in genealogical form: their eponymous founder (rather than ancestor) is said to have been a certain Ibrāhīm known as D̲j̲aʿal ( i.e., “he made”, because he made himself a following fr…


(5 words)

[see bennāk ].


(672 words)

Author(s): Ahmad, S. Maqbul
(variants: Ibn Rusta: N. d̲j̲āba Yaʿḳūbī: N.h.nāya , Kanbāya al-Idrīsī: D̲j̲āfa : ibid, MS. Cairo: Ḥāba again, ʿĀba , G̲h̲āba , ʿĀna , etc. occurring in the same list of kings separately in Ibn K̲h̲urradād̲h̲bih and al-Idrīsī are perhaps a dittography of D̲j̲āba ) represents the name of the former hill-state of Chamba (old name Čampā ). The ancient capital of the state was Brahmapura (or Vayrāt́apat́t́ana). Hiuen Tsang describes the kingdom as 667 miles in circuit, and it must have included the whole of the hilly country between the Alaknanda and Karnālī rivers (Law, Historical geography).…


(5 words)

[see al-d̲j̲ibal ].


(11 words)

, Mountain, see under the name of the Mountain.


(427 words)

Author(s): Elisséeff, N.
, D̲j̲eblé, Lat. Gabala, Fr. Gibel, Zibel (not to be confused with Giblet-Ḏj̲oubayl) is a small port on the Syrian coast, situated 30 km. to the south of al-Lād̲h̲iḳiya, facing the island of Ruwad; it is one of the termini of the main road from K̲h̲urāsān, through the valley of the ʿAya al-S̲h̲arḳī in contact with D̲j̲abal Bahirā and G̲h̲āb, where there are roads towards Apamée and Aleppo. This town was an important commercial centre from the time of the Phoenicians, a Dorian colony in the 5th century B.C. and then a prosperous Roman town, surrounded by a coasta…


(665 words)

Author(s): Buhl, F. | Headley, R.L.
an isolated mountain (known locally as a ḥaḍba ) located in Nad̲j̲d at about 24° 48′ N, 43° 54′ E, some 60 km. north-west of al-Dawādimī, 25 km. south and east of Nafī, and 15 km. west of Wādī al-Ris̲h̲āʾ. The mountain, which consists of reddish stone, rises abruptly from the surrounding gravel plains. About seven km. in length and three km. wide, D̲j̲abala runs from south-west to northeast with three main wādīs descending from its slopes…

D̲j̲abala b. al-Ayham

(146 words)

Author(s): Kawar, Irfan
, the last of the G̲h̲assānid dynasts whose personality dominates the scene in the story of Arab-Byzantine relations during the Muslim Conquests and may evidence the resuscitation of the G̲h̲assānid Phylarchate after its destruction during the Persian invasion in A.D. 614. As the ally of Byzantium, D̲j̲abala fought against Muslim arms but lost twice, first at Dūmat al-D̲j̲andal and later at Yarmūk, after which battle he made his exit from military annals. But tradition has remembered him in beautiful anecdotes whether as a Muslim who c…

D̲j̲abala b. al-Ḥārit̲h̲

(467 words)

Author(s): Shahid, I. A.
, Ghassānid chieftain [see G̲h̲assān ] of the pre-Islamic period, who made his début in G̲h̲assānid - Byzantine relations ca. 500 A.D., when he mounted an offensive against Palestina Tertia but was beaten by Romanus, the dux of that province. Shortly afterwards in 502, Byzantium concluded a treaty with the G̲h̲assānids and recognised them as its new allies ( foederati ). Throughout the remaining part of the reign of the emperor Anastasius (491-518), the sources are silent on D̲j̲abala, who was probably not yet the G̲h̲assānid king b…

D̲j̲abal al-Ḥārit̲h̲

(8 words)

[see ag̲h̲ridāg̲h̲ and d̲j̲udī ]

D̲j̲abal Says

(1,222 words)

Author(s): Gaube, H.
, the name of a volcanic mountain in Syria situated ca. 105 km. southeast of Damascus. Around its west and south sides runs a small valley opening to the southeast into a large volcanic crater. In years with normal rainfall, this crater is filled with water for about eight months. A reservoir near its centre makes D̲j̲abal Says one of the few secure waterplaces in the region, where sometimes more than a hundred nomad families camp in autumn. At the mouth of the valley on the southeast-slope of D̲j̲abal Sa…

D̲j̲abal Ṭāriḳ

(775 words)

Author(s): Seybold, C.F. | Huici Miranda, A.
, Gibraltar , the promontory of calcareous rock, a British possession, south-west of the Spanish province of Cádiz, almost at the southern extremity of Spain (length 4.6 km., breadth reaching 1.2 km.; area, 4.9 sq. km.; highest point 425 m.); the town extends the length of the western slope, which is fairly gradual, and numbers 28,000 inhabitants (British, Spanish, Jews and Moroccans) (including the garrison); it is as it were the key to the Mediterranean, and is fortified an…

D̲j̲aʿbar or Ḳalʿat Ḏj̲aʿbar

(592 words)

Author(s): Sourdel, D.
, a ruined fortress situated on the left bank of the middle ¶ Euphrates, almost opposite Ṣiffīn. Also called Ḳalʿat Dawsar from the name by which this locality was known in the pre-Islamic period and in the early days of Islam (Pauly-Wissowa, iv, 2234: to Dawsarōn , which explains the Arab traditions connecting this name Dawsar with the king of al-Ḥīra, al-Nuʿmān b. al-Mund̲h̲ir), it was described by ancient Arabic authors as a stopping-place on the route leading from al-Raḳḳa to Bālis (Ibn K̲h̲urradād̲h̲bih. 74; al-Ṭa…


(417 words)

Author(s): Ullendorff, E.
, the name of the Muslims of Ethiopia. Originally the name of a region (D̲j̲abara or D̲j̲abart) in the territories of Zaylaʿ and Ifāt (cf. al-Maḳrīzī, al-Ilmām , Cairo 1895, 6 ff.), later applied to all the Muslim principalities of southern Ethiopia and, ultimately, to all Muslims living in Ethiopia. The term D̲j̲abart is sometimes also used by the Christian population of Ethiopia with reference to the Muslims of the Arabian peninsula and thus becomes identical with the term Muslim in general. In mod…


(1,967 words)

Author(s): Ayalon, D.
, ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. Ḥasan , the historian, b. 1167/1753, d. 1825 or early 1826, was a descendant of a Ḥanafī family from al-D̲j̲abart [ q.v.]. According to al-D̲j̲abartī the people of that region were very strict in their religion and were inclined to asceticism. Many of them went on foot to the Ḥid̲j̲āz, either as pilgrims or as mud̲j̲āwirūn . They had three riwāḳs , of their own: one in the mosque of Medina, one in the mosque at Mecca, and one in the mosque of al-Azhar at Cairo. The forefather of the Egyptian branch of the family of al…


(5 words)

[see ʿālam ].


(5 words)

[see nud̲j̲ūm ].
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