Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition

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Edited by: P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel and W.P. Heinrichs

The Encyclopaedia of Islam (Second Edition) Online sets out the present state of our knowledge of the Islamic World. It is a unique and invaluable reference tool, an essential key to understanding the world of Islam, and the authoritative source not only for the religion, but also for the believers and the countries in which they live. 

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Ḏj̲ad̲h̲īma al-Abras̲h̲ or al-Waḍḍāḥ

(236 words)

Author(s): Kawar, Irfan
( i.e., the leper), an important figure in the history of the Arabs before Islam, whose floruit may be assigned to the third centry A.D. Tradition makes him an Azdī and places his reign during the pre-Lak̲h̲mid period in ʿIrāḳ. From a mass of richly informative traditions, D̲j̲ad̲h̲īma emerges as a king who played a dominant rôle in the history of the Arabs in Syria and ʿIrāḳ and in the history of their relations with Persia and Rome. His reign marked the inception of one of the pre-Islamic Eras. Tradition credits him with having been…

D̲j̲ad̲h̲īma b. ʿĀmir

(427 words)

Author(s): Veccia Vaglieri, L.
, an Ishmaelite tribe living at G̲h̲umaysāʾ, south-east of Mecca and not far from that city. Its genealogy is: Ḏj̲ad̲h̲īma b. ʿĀmir b. ʿAbd Manāt b. Kināna [ q.v.] etc. (Wüstenfeld, ¶ Register zu den genealogischen Tabellen , 175 ff., attributes the following facts to the D̲j̲ad̲h̲īma b. ʿAdī b. Duʾil b. Bakr b. ʿAbd Manāt, etc. (Table N), without apparent justification). There was an ancient grudge between the tribe of the D̲j̲ad̲h̲īma and that of the Ḳurays̲h̲, although there was kindred between them: before…


(603 words)

Author(s): Spuler, B.
(Arabic ‘new’, ‘modern’; Turkish pronunciation d̲j̲edīd ), followers of the uṣūl-i d̲j̲edīd ( e), the ‘new methods’, among the Muslims of Russia. The movement arose in about 1880 among the Kazan [ q.v.] Tatars, who provided it with its first leaders; from there it spread to other Turkish peoples in Russia. The D̲j̲edīds were against ‘religious and cultural retrogression’; they pressed, above all, for modern teaching methods in the schools, for the cultural unification of all Turkish peoples living under Russian domination, but…


(1,300 words)

Author(s): Colin, G.S. | Cenival, P. de
, Arabic and the present-day official name of the ancient Mazagan (former Arabic name: al-Burayd̲j̲a “the little fortress”), a maritime town of Morocco, situated on the Atlantic Ocean 11 km. south-west of the mouth of the wādī Umm Rabiʿ. Its population was 40,318 in 1954, of whom 1704 were French, 120 foreigners, and 3,328 Jews. Some authors have considered that Mazagan arose on the site of Ptolemy’s ʿPоυσιβίς λιμήν, Pliny’s Portus Rutubis . The texts do not, indeed, say that there had ever been a town there, but merely an anchorage frequented by ships, and this ¶ seems to have been the ca…


(5 words)

[see ṭasm ].


(439 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C. E.
, a town in the western part of mediaeval K̲h̲urāsān in Persia, now a town and also a bak̲h̲s̲h̲ or sub-district in the s̲h̲ahrastān or district of Bud̲j̲nurd in the K̲h̲urāsān ustān . It lies at the western end of the elongated plain which stretches almost from Bisṭām in the west almost to Nīs̲h̲āpūr in the east, which is drained by the largely saline Kāl-i S̲h̲ūr stream, and which is now traversed by the Tehran-Nīs̲h̲āpūr-Mas̲h̲had railway. The mediaeval geographers, up to and including Ḥamd Allāh Mustawfī (see Le Strange, The lands of the Eastern Caliphate , 392-3…


(860 words)

Author(s): De Bruijn, J. T. P.
, a nisba referring to D̲j̲ād̲j̲arm [ q.v. above] in western Ḵh̲urāsān, the name of two Persian poets, father and son, who flourished in the Mongol period. ¶ 1. The elder, Badr al-Dīn b. ʿUmar, made his career under the patronage of the D̲j̲uwaynīs [ q.v.], a clan originating from the same area, which came to political power under the early Il-K̲h̲āns. He was in particular connected with the governor of Iṣfahān, Bahāʾ al-Dīn Muḥammad D̲j̲uwaynī (d. 678/1279). The contemporary poet Mad̲j̲d-i Hamgar, who also belonged to the circle of this p…


(1,412 words)

Author(s): Lewicki, T.
(djado), the old capital of the eastern region of the D̲j̲abal Nafūsa in Tripolitania, nowadays a large village in the Fassāṭō district situated on three hills of unequal height. The population of about 2,000—towards the end of the 19th century there were 500 houses—mostly consists of Berbers of the Ibāḍī tribe of Nafūsa. The ruins of the old town are nothing but a pile of broken stones and caves with a mosque in the centre. Near the mosque was formerly the business quarter and the market ( sūḳ ), near which one can still see today the site of the Jewish quart…


(909 words)

Author(s): Le Cœur, M.Ch.
( d̲j̲ado ) in Arabie, or Brao in Teda, designates at once the principal palm-grove and the bulk of a massif bounded by the 12° and 20° N. parallels and the 12° and 13° E. meridians. This massif is a short branch of the plateau of primary sandstones which, from Tassili of the Ajjers to the massif of Afafi, joins the Ahaggar to the Tibesti. Changes of level are not marked: one passes from 5-800 m. on the ! plateau to 450 m. at the foot of its western declivity; J the impression of…


(877 words)

Author(s): Graefe, E. | MacDonald, D.B. | Plessner, M.
pl. d̲j̲adāwil , primarily “brook, watercourse”, means further “Ṭable, plan”. Graefe suggested that in this meaning it might derive from schedula ; but perhaps one should rather think of d̲j̲-d-l “to twist”, cf. S. Fraenkel, Die aramäischen Fremdwörter im Arabischen , 224, and the similar development of the meaning of zīd̲j̲ , as stated by E. Honigmann, Die sieben Klimata , 1929, 117 ff. In this second sense the word becomes a special term in sorcery, synonymous with k̲h̲ātim here it means quadrangular or other geometrical figures, into which names a…


(5 words)

[see nud̲j̲ūm ].


(429 words)

Author(s): Longrigg, S.H.
A large and famous Kurdish tribe of southern (ʿIrāḳī) Kurdistān, and of the Sanandad̲j̲ (Senna) district of Ardalān province of Western Persia. The tribe, cattle-owning and seasonally nomadic, was centred in the D̲j̲awānrūd [ q.v.] area of the latter province in the early 11th/17th century, and is first mentioned in connexion with the operations and Turko-Persian treaty of Sultan Murād IV. About 1112/1700, following bad relations with the Ardalān authorities, the main body of the tribe (estimated at 10,000 tents or families) mov…

Ḏj̲aʿfar b. Abī Ṭālib

(993 words)

Author(s): Veccia Vaglieri, L.
, cousin of the Prophet and brother of ʿAlī, whose elder he was by ten years. When his father was reduced to poverty, his uncle al-ʿAbbās took D̲j̲aʿfar into his house to solace him, while Muḥammad took care of ʿAlī. Soon being converted to Islam (D̲j̲aʿfar occupies the 24th, or 31st, or 32nd place in the list of the first Muslims), he was among those who emigrated to Abyssinia (his name heads the second list given by Ibn His̲h̲ām, 209); his wife Asmāʾ b. ʿUmays followed him. When the Ḳurays̲h̲ …

D̲j̲aʿfar b. Abī Yaḥyā, S̲h̲ams al-Dīn Abu ’l-Faḍl

(588 words)

Author(s): Madelung, W.
b. Aḥmad b. ʿAbd al-Salām b. Isḥāḳ b. Muḥammad al-Buhlūlī al-Abnāwī , Zaydī, scholar and ḳāḍī . His ancestors, including his father, were Ismāʿīlī ḳāḍīs of Ṣanʿāʾ under the Ṣulayḥids and Ḥātimids. His brother Yaḥyā (d. 562/1167) served the Ismāʿīlī Zurayʿids of ʿAdan as a panegyrist and judge. D̲j̲aʿfar converted to Zaydism at an unknown date and at first adhered to the doctrine of the Muṭarrifiyya [ q.v.]. After the arrival of the Ḵh̲urāsānian Zaydī scholar Zayd b. al-Ḥasan al-Bayhaḳī in Ṣaʿda in 541/1146, D̲j̲aʿfar studied with him. Al-Bayhaḳī represented the…

Ḏj̲aʿfar b. ʿAlī b. Ḥamdūn al-Andalusī

(152 words)

Author(s): Tourneau, R. le
, a descendant of a Yemeni family which settled in Spain at an unknown date, subsequently moving to the district of Msīla, in the Mag̲h̲rib, at the end of the 3rd/9th century at the latest. Like his father ʿAlī, he was at first a loyal supporter of the Fāṭimid cause, as Governor of Msila; then, probably inspired by jealousy of the Zīrids [ q.v.] who were increasingly favoured by the Fāṭimid caliphs, he changed sides in 360/971 and swore obedience to the Umayyad ¶ caliph of Spain. After a few years in favour, he incurred the displeasure of the all-powerful ḥād̲j̲ib al-Manṣūr b. Abī ʿĀmir [ q.v.] who …

D̲j̲aʿfar Beg

(231 words)

Author(s): Parry, V.J.
( ?-926/1520)—the “Zafir agà, eunuco” listed in the index to Marino Sanuto, Diarii , xxv, col. 832—was Sand̲j̲aḳ Beg of Gallipoli, i.e., Ḳapudān or High Admiral of the Ottoman naval forces. He was appointed to this office, not (as Ḳāmūs al-aʿlām and Sid̲j̲ill-i ʿOt̲h̲mānī assert) in 917/1511 but in 922/1516. His tenure of the office coincided with the Ottoman conquest of Syria and Egypt (922-3/1516-7) and with the extensive naval preparations that Sultan Selīm I (918-26/1512-20) urged forward during the last of his …

D̲j̲aʿfar b. Ḥarb

(345 words)

Author(s): Nader, A.N.
Abu ’l-Faḍl D̲j̲aʿfar b. Ḥarb al-Hamad̲h̲ānī (d. 236/850), a Muʿtazilī of the Bag̲h̲dād branch, was first a disciple of Abu ’l-Hud̲h̲ayl al-ʿAllāf at Baṣra, and then of al-Murdār at Bag̲h̲dād, whose asceticism he tried to imitate; this is what inspired him to give to the poor the large fortune which he had inherited from his father. In agreement with the Muʿtazila, he defended the doctrine that God knows through Himself from all eternity, that His knowledge is His very being, and that the object of His knowledge can exist from all eternity. He said t…

D̲j̲aʿfar b. Manṣūr al-Yaman

(494 words)

Author(s): Halm, H.
, Ismāʿīlī author and partisan of the Fāṭimids [ q.v.]. He was the son of the first Ismāʿīlī missionary in Yaman, al-Ḥasan b. Faraḥ b. Ḥaws̲h̲ab b. Zādān al-Kūfī, known as Manṣūr al-Yaman [ q.v.]. When in the year 286/899 the chief of the Ismāʿīlī propaganda, ʿUbayd Allāh, claimed the imāmate, Manṣūr al-Yaman acknowledged him; the letter by which ʿUbayd Allāh tried to prove his ʿAlid descent has been preserved in D̲j̲aʿfar’s al-Farāʾiḍ wa-ḥudūd al-dīn (see H.F. Hamdani, On the genealogy of Fatimid caliphs, Cairo 1958). When after the death of Manṣūr al-Yaman (302/914-15) his s…
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