Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition

Get access Subject: Middle East and Islamic Studies
Edited by: P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel and W.P. Heinrichs

The Encyclopaedia of Islam (Second Edition) Online sets out the present state of our knowledge of the Islamic World. It is a unique and invaluable reference tool, an essential key to understanding the world of Islam, and the authoritative source not only for the religion, but also for the believers and the countries in which they live. 

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D̲h̲āt al-Ṣawārī

(482 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C. E.
, Dhū ’l-Ṣawārī , G̲h̲azwat al-Ṣawārī , “the Battle of the Masts”, the names given in the Arabic sources to a naval battle between the Arabs and Byzantines in the latter part of ʿut̲h̲mān’s caliphate. The locale of the engagement is not wholly certain, but was probably off the coast of Lycia in southern Anatolia near the place Phoenix (modern Turkish Finike, chef-lieu of the kaza of that name in the vilayet of Antalya). As governor of Syria, Muʿāwiya [ q.v.] seems to have inaugurated a policy of building up Arab naval power in order to counter Byzantine control of the Easte…


(1,450 words)

Author(s): S̲h̲afīʿ, Muḥammad
, Muḥammad Ibrāhīm S̲h̲ayk̲h̲ , Urdū poet b. Dihlī 11 D̲h̲u ’l-Ḥid̲j̲d̲j̲a 1204/18 December 1790 (so Āzād; in 1203 according to a contemporary Calcutta newspaper, cf. Nawā-i Adab , 45), the only son of S̲h̲. Muḥammad Ramaḍān, a trusted servant of Nawwāb Luṭf ʿAlī K̲h̲ān of Dihlī. His early schooling in Persian and Arabic was in the mosque-school of Ḥāfiẓ G̲h̲ulām Rasūl S̲h̲awḳ, a poet and a pupil of S̲h̲āh Naṣīr (S̲h̲eftā, 150), who inspired the young learner with a love for reading and writing poetry…


(532 words)

Author(s): Rahman, F.
, “taste”, is a technical term used in philosophy, in aesthetics (especially literature), and in Ṣūfism. 1. In philosophy [see falsafa ] d̲h̲awḳ is the name for the gustatory sense-perception. Following Aristotle, it is defined as a kind of sub-species of the tactual sense, localized in the gustatory organ, the tongue. It differs from tactual sense, however, in that mere contact with skin is not sufficient for gustation to occur: besides contact, it needs a medium of transmission, viz. the saliv…


(5 words)

[see čas̲h̲nagīr ].


(227 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J. | Löfgren, O.
, “the wolves”, a South Arabian tribe whose lands lie between the territory of the Lower ʿAwāliḳ [ q.v.] and the Lower Wāḥidī [ q.v.]. There are also considerable settlements of the D̲h̲iʾāb in the country of the Lower Wāḥidī itself, the villages of which are largely occupied by them. The soil is unfertile and mostly prairie-like pasture land. In the east of the distict is a mountain of some size, the D̲j̲abal Ḥamrā, over 4000 ft. high. The chief place is the fishing village of Ḥawra (al-Ulyā) with an important harbour. The D̲h̲iʾāb are a very wild, warlike tribe of ¶ robbers, and are therefore…


(661 words)

Author(s): Kopf, L.
, the wolf. Most of the cognate forms in other Semitic languages have the same significance. Numerous synonyms and sobriquets are found in Arabic, such as sirḥān , uways , sīd , abū d̲j̲aʿda , etc. In local usage, d̲h̲iʾb may also denote the jackal (Jayakar, Malouf), yet Hommel’s assumption (303, n. 1) that this was the only meaning of the word in ancient Arabic (so also Jacob) is inconsistent with its use in the Sūra of Joseph (Ḳurʾān, XII, 13, 14, 17), where it stands for the biblical ‘evil beast’ (Gen. xxxvii 20, 33). Ample mention of the d̲h̲iʾb is made in ancient Arabic poems, proverbs, …


(246 words)

Author(s): İz, Fahīr
, Bayburtlu , Turkish folk-poet, b. towards the end of the 12th/18th century in Bayburt. Educated in Erzurum and Trabzon, he spent ten years in Istanbul and later travelled in the provinces on minor governmental duties; he was for a short time in the service of Muṣṭafā Res̲h̲īd Pas̲h̲a. He spent the last four years of his life in Trabzon and died in a village nearby while on his way to his home town (1275/1859). His background, somewhat different from that of the usual folk poet, led him to imitate classical poets, and he even composed a complete dīwān of traditional poetry in ʿarūḍ


(3,743 words)

Author(s): Gardet, L.
, reminding oneself. “Remind thyself of ( ud̲h̲kur ) thy Lord when thou forgettest” ( Ḳurʾān , XVIII, 24). Thus: the act of reminding, then oral mention of the memory, especially the tireless repetition of an ejaculatory litany, finally the very technique of this mention. In taṣawwuf the d̲h̲ikr is possibly the most frequent form of prayer, its muḳābal (“opposite correlative”) being fikr [ q.v.], (discursive) reflection, meditation. In his Ṭawāsīn , in connexion with Muḥammad’s “nocturnal ascension”, al-Ḥallad̲j̲ declares that the road which passes through “the garden of d̲h̲ikr”


(508 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C. E.
, Zikrīs , a Muslim sect of southern Balūčistān, especially strong amongst the Balūč of Makrān [ q.v.], but also with some representation amongst the Brahūīs of further north. The sect’s name derives from the fact that its adherents exalted the liturgical recitations of formulae including the name and titles of God, sc. d̲h̲ikr [ q.v.], above the formal Muslim worship, the ṣalāt or namāz . The D̲h̲ikrīs were believed by Hughes-Buller to stem from the North Indian heterodox movement of the Mahdawiyya, the followers of Sayyid Muḥammad Mahdī of D̲j̲awnpūr (847-91…


(4,693 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
, the term used to designate the sort of indefinitely renewed contract through which the Muslim community accords hospitality and protection to members of other revealed religions, on condition of their acknowledging the domination of Islam. The beneficiaries of the d̲h̲imma are called d̲h̲immīs , and are collectively referred to as ahl al-d̲h̲imma or simply d̲h̲imma. An account of the doctrinal position of Islam vis-à-vis the religions in question, and of the polemics between the two sides, is given in the article ahl al-kitāb ; for a detailed account of …


(767 words)

Author(s): Chehata, Chafik
, The term d̲h̲imma , in its legal sense, bears two meanings, the first of which, that of the works on Uṣūl (legal theory), is equivalent to the notion of capacity, and such is the definition of it given by the classical doctrine. The d̲h̲imma is the legal quality which makes the individual a proper subject of law, that is, a proper addressee of the rule which provides him with rights or charges him with obligations. In this sense the d̲h̲imma may be identified with the legal personality. It is for this reason that every person is endowed with a d̲h̲imma from the moment of birth. Eaually it fo…


(6 words)

[see ahl al-d̲h̲imma ].


(1,013 words)

Author(s): Hinz, W.
, originally the part of the arm from the elbow to the tip of the middle finger, then the measure of the cubit, and at the same time the name given to the instrument for measuring it. The legal cubit is four handsbreadths ( ḳabḍa = index finger, middle finger, ring finger, and little finger put together), each of six fingerbreadths ( aṣbaʿ = middle joint of the middle finger) each the width of six barley corns ( s̲h̲aʿīra ) laid side by side. A considerable number of different cubits were in common use in Islam. Roughly speaking they can be grouped ar…


(5 words)

[see gud̲j̲arāt ].


(529 words)

Author(s): Kopf, L.
, the fly. Some authors state that word is used also for other insects, such as bees, hornets, butterflies or moths ( farās̲h̲ ), etc. According to Arab lexicographers, it is either a singular or else a collective noun, in which case d̲h̲ubāba is used for the singular. Cognate synonyms are found in other Semitic languages, e.g., Hebrew , Aramaic . The fly is often mentioned and described in ancient Arabic poems and proverbs. A ḥadīt̲h̲ has it that there are flies in hell to torture the condemned. Numerous kinds are mentioned by Arab zoologists, so…


(5 words)

[see g̲h̲aṭafān ].

D̲h̲ū, D̲h̲ī, D̲h̲ā

(462 words)

Author(s): Fleisch, H.
, demonstrative forms based on the demonstrative element d̲h̲ . The variety of their uses precludes these forms from being regarded as a single declined word; thus: D̲h̲ū was the relative pronoun, invariable, of the Ṭayyiʾ; corresponding to the Hebrew , the poetic form of the relative pronoun. Ḏh̲ī forms part of the masc. relative pronoun allad̲h̲ī ; but allatī in the feminine. The opposition d̲h̲/ t marks the gender. Corresponding to d̲h̲ī are the Aramaic biblical relative, invariable, ( de in syr.), the Geez masc. demonstrative ze, acc. za. D̲h̲ā masc. sin…

D̲h̲ū Ḳār

(822 words)

Author(s): Veccia Vaglieri, L.
, name of a watering-place near Kūfa, in the direction of Wāsiṭ (Yāḳūt, iv, 10), where one of the most famous Arab ayyām [ q.v.] took place. In contrast with most other clashes between Arabian tribes, this one had a historical importance because the Bakr b. Wāʾil tribe (a coalition of all its clans except the Banū Ḥanīfa) put other Arabs to flight (Tag̲h̲lib, Iyād, etc.) among whom, significantly, were regular Persian troops. Even if the battle was no more than a skirmish (though sources speak of several thousand comba…

D̲h̲u ’l-Faḳār

(268 words)

Author(s): Mittwoch, E.
, the name of the famous sword which Muḥammad obtained as booty in the battle of Badr; it previously belonged to a heathen named al-ʿĀṣ b. Munabbih, killed in the battle. It is mentioned in the Sīra (ed. Saḳḳā, etc., 1375/1955), ii, 100, and in several ḥadīt̲h̲s (see for example Ibn Saʿd, ii, 2, section: fī suyūf al-Nabī . The expression D̲h̲u ’l-Faḳār is explained by the presence on this sword of notches ( fuḳra ) or grooves (cf. the expression sayf mufaḳḳar ). According to a tradition, the sword bore an inscription referring to blood-money which ended with the words lā yuḳtal Muslim bi-kāfir

D̲h̲u ’l-Faḳāriyya

(627 words)

Author(s): Holt, P.M.
, (alternatively Faḳāriyya , Zulfaḳāriyya ); a Mamlūk household and political faction in Egypt during the 17th and 18th centuries. (1) Origin and first ascendancy. The eponymous founder of the household, D̲h̲u ’l-Faḳār Bey, is a shadowy figure, who seems to have flourished in the first third of the 17th century, but is not mentioned by contemporary chroniclers. The account (in Ḏj̲abartī, ʿAd̲j̲āʾib al-Āt̲h̲ār , i, 21-3) which makes D̲h̲u ’l-Faḳār and the rival eponym, Ḳāsim, contemporaries of sultan Selīm I is legendary. The political importance of the Faḳāriyya began with the amīr al-…
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