Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition

Get access Subject: Middle East and Islamic Studies
Edited by: P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel and W.P. Heinrichs

The Encyclopaedia of Islam (Second Edition) Online sets out the present state of our knowledge of the Islamic World. It is a unique and invaluable reference tool, an essential key to understanding the world of Islam, and the authoritative source not only for the religion, but also for the believers and the countries in which they live. 

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(705 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, a term used, in almost all its occurrences, as the opposite of the word islām , and which refers to the state of affairs in Arabia before the mission of the Prophet, to paganism (sometimes even that of non-Arab lands), the pre-Islamic period and the men of that time. From the morphological point of view, d̲j̲āhiliyya seems to be formed by the addition of the suffix -iyya, denoting an abstract, to the active participle djāhil , the exact sense of which is difficult to determine. I. Goldziher ( Muḥ . St., i, 219 ff.; analysis in Arabica , vii/3 (1960), 246-9), remarking that djāhil is opposed to ḥalīm…


(1,201 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
( Banu ), one of the families of government contractors characteristic of their period who almost completely monopolized the caliph’s vizierate during the protectorate of the Great Sald̲j̲ūḳids, and deriving their particular importance from that fact. The founder of the political fortunes of the dynasty, Fak̲h̲r al-Dawla Abū Naṣr Muḥammad b. Muḥammad b. D̲j̲ahīr, born in al-Mawṣil in 398/1007-8 of a family of rich merchants, entered the service of the S̲h̲īʿī ʿUḳaylid princes of that town; then, after one of them, Ḳirwās̲h̲, fell …


(3,222 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
Abū ʿUt̲h̲mān ʿAmr b. Baḥr al-Fuḳaymī al-Baṣrī , was a famous Arab prose writer, the author of works of adab , Muʿtazilī theology and politico-religious polemics. Born at Baṣra about 160/776 in an obscure family of mawālī from the Banū Kināna and probably of Abyssinian origin, he owes his sobriquet to a malformation of the eyes ( d̲j̲āḥiẓ = with a projecting cornea). Little is known of his childhood in Baṣra, except that from an early age an invincible desire for learning and a remarkably inquisitive mind urged him towards a life of independence and, m…


(78 words)

Author(s): Frye, R.N.
(from Balōčī d̲j̲ahla ‘‘below” or “southern”), district of Pakistani Balōčistān, lying below Sarawān. Formerly part of the K̲h̲ānate of Kalāt and one of the two great divisions of the ¶ Brahōīs (or Brahūī). Area, 21,128 sq. miles, population unknown, estimated 100,000. The capital is K̲h̲uzdār and the population is mainly Brahōī with a few Balōč and Lōrīs. It is mainly a grazing country. (R.N. Frye) Bibliography Baluchistan Gazeteer, vi, B, Bombay 1907 M. G. Pikulin, Belud̲z̲hi, Moscow 1959.

Ḏj̲ahm b. Ṣafwān

(202 words)

Author(s): Watt, W. Montgomery
, Abu muḥriz , early theologian, sometimes called al-Tirmid̲h̲ī or al-Samarḳandī. He was a client of Rāsib (a baṭn of Azd) and appears as secretary to al-Ḥārit̲h̲ b. Surayd̲j̲, “The man with the black banner” who revolted against the Umayyads and from 116/734 to 128/746 controlled tracts of eastern K̲h̲urāsān, sometimes in alliance with Turks. D̲j̲ahm was captured and executed in 128/746, shortly before al-Ḥārit̲h̲ himself. The basis of this movement of revolt, of which D̲j̲ahm was intellect…


(693 words)

Author(s): Watt, W. Montgomery
, an early sect, frequently mentioned but somewhat mysterious. Identity. No names are known of any members of the sect, apart from the alleged founder D̲j̲ahm [ q.v.]. The basic fact is that “after the translation of the Greek books in the second century a doctrine ( maḳāla ) known as that of the D̲j̲ahmiyya was spread by Bis̲h̲r b. G̲h̲iyāt̲h̲ al-Marīsī [ q.v.] and his generation (IbnTaymiyya, ʿAḳīda Ḥamawiyya , ap. M. Schreiner in ZDMG, liii, 72 f.; lii, 544). A pupil of Abū Yūsuf (d. 182/798), Bis̲h̲r (d. 218/833 or a little later) was questioned about his strange v…


(431 words)

Author(s): Sourdel, D.
, Abū ʿAbd allāh Ṃuhammad b. ʿAbdūs , a scholar born in al-Kūfa, who played a political rôle at the beginning of the 4th/10th century on account of his relations with the viziers of the time. He succeeded his father in the office of ḥād̲j̲ib to the vizier ʿAlī b. ʿIsā, of whose personal guard he was in command in 306/912. Later, he is found among the supporters of Ibn Muḳla whom he helped to be proclaimed vizier and whom he concealed after his fall; several times he was imprisoned and fined, either by the viziers or by the amīrs Ibn Rāʾiḳ and Bad̲j̲kam. He died in 331/942. Al-D̲j̲ahs̲h̲iyārī is princi…


(486 words)

Author(s): Huici Miranda, A.
The terrible conflict brought about by the fall of the Umayyad Caliphate led the Cordovans, under the direction and advice of the influential and respected vizier Abū Ḥazm D̲j̲ahwar b. Muxammad b. D̲j̲ahwar, to declare incapable and expel from the city all the members of the imperial family. They proclaimed a form of republic (422/1031) at the head of which they placed the vizier, who had already demonstrated his great political talents at the court of His̲h̲ām II. Once elected, however, he refu…


(227 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
, Abu ’l-Ḥasan aḥmad b. D̲j̲aʿfar b. Mūsā b. Yaḥyā al-Barmakī al-Nadīm (and also al-Ṭunbūrī , because he played the tunbūr , lute (Fr.: “pandore”)). A philologist and transmitter of traditions, singer and musician, poet and wit and a descendant of the Barmakids. He was reputedly born in 224/839, and died at the age of a hundred, at Wāsiṭ in S̲h̲aʿbān 324/June-July 936. A man of very varied culture, but little religion, of doubtful morals and repulsive appearance (he was dirty and ugly, and owed…


(844 words)

Author(s): Chehata, Chafik
, a term used in a general way to denote permissible acts, that is to say acts which are not contrary to a rule of the law. However, in the classical division of acts into five categories ( al-aḥkām al-k̲h̲amsa ; cf. Dict . Tech . Terms , i, 379 ff.; I. Goldziher, Die Ẓāhiriten , 66 ff.; Juynboll, Handbuch , 59 ff.) adopted by the writers on uṣūl [ q.v.] the permissible act is generally described as mubāḥ . It is thus quite as clearly differentiated from the act which is obligatory ( wād̲j̲ib ) or merely recommended ( mandūb ), as from that which is forbidden ( ḥarām ) or simply considered reprehensible ( mak…


(5 words)

[see ṣila ].


(557 words)

Author(s): Berg, C.C.
, town on the north coast of Java, a few miles to the east of 107° E. Long. The name is believed to be the abbreviated form of Djajakarta, ‘Victorious and Prosperous’; in its turn it was corrupted ¶ into Jakatra (Jacatra) by the first Dutch visitors (1610). Judging by the name, we may suppose old Djakarta to have been the residence of a more or less independent king who was Javanese by descent or by culture. The Dutch settlement was given the name Batavia, from Batavi, one of the Latin names for the Netherlanders; Jan P. Coen, local…


(5 words)

[see zakāt ].


(5 words)

[see tazyīf ].

D̲j̲alāʾir, D̲j̲alāʾirid

(8 words)

[see d̲j̲alāyir , d̲j̲alāyirid ].


(118 words)

Author(s): Carrère-d'Encausse, H.
, principal town and administrative centre of the region of the same name in the Kirghiz SSR, situated in the plain of Kongar to the extreme south of the essentially mountainous region which is a prolongation of the Tian S̲h̲an and whose mean altitude is from 2000 to 3000 m., the lowest regions of the plains being no less than 500 m. This former small town, of no economic importance, is now a large industrial city supported by the cotton production of the hinterland. The urban population reflect…


(1,255 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C. E.
, a town of eastern Afghānistān, situated in lat. 34° 26′ N. and long. 70° 27′ E. at an altitude of 620 m./1, 950 ft. It lies in the valley of the Kābul River some 79 miles from Pes̲h̲āwar to the east and 101 miles from Kābul city to the west, and is on the right bank of the river. As well as being roughly midway along the historic route connecting Kābul with the beginning of the plains of northern India, D̲j̲alābād is also strategically situated to command routes into Kāfiristān [ q.v.] (modern Nūristān) and today, routes run northwards from it up to the Kānur and Alingār River valleys. The area around…

D̲j̲alāl al-Dawla

(730 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K.V.
, Abū Ṭāhir b. Bahā ʾal-Dawla , a Būyid, born in 383/993-4. When Sulṭān al-Dawla, after the death of his father Bahāʾ al-Dawla in 403/1012, was named amīr al-umarāʾ , he entrusted his brother D̲j̲alāl al-Dawla with the office of governor of Baṣra. The latter stayed there for several years without becoming involved in the private quarrels of the Būyids. In 415/1024-5 Sulṭān al-Dawla died and his brother Mus̲h̲arrif al-Dawla died in the following year. D̲j̲alāl al-Dawla was then proclaimed amīr al-umarāʾ, but, as he did not appear at Bag̲h̲dād to take possession of his new dig…
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