Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition

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Edited by: P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel and W.P. Heinrichs

The Encyclopaedia of Islam (Second Edition) Online sets out the present state of our knowledge of the Islamic World. It is a unique and invaluable reference tool, an essential key to understanding the world of Islam, and the authoritative source not only for the religion, but also for the believers and the countries in which they live. 

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D̲j̲alāl al-Dawla

(23 words)

, honorific title of various princes, notably the Būyid (see below), the G̲h̲aznawid Muḥammad [ q.v.], and the Mirdāsid Naṣr [ q.v.].

D̲j̲alāl al-Dīn ʿĀrif

(402 words)

Author(s): Rustow, Dankwart A.
(Celâleddin Ārif), Turkish lawyer and statesman, was born in Erzurum on 19 October 1875, the son of Meḥmed ʿĀrif, a writer of some repute. He received his education at the military rüs̲h̲diyye in Çeşme and the Mekteb-i Sulṭānī at Galatasaray (Istanbul), where he graduated in 1895. He studied law in Paris and began to practise it in Egypt in 1901. He returned to Turkey after the 1908 revolution and joined the Ottoman Liberal ( Aḥrār ) Party, the first group of This period to oppose the centralizing tendencies of the Union and Progress movement in t…

D̲j̲alāl al-Dīn Ḥusayn al-Buk̲h̲ārī

(580 words)

Author(s): Bazmee Ansari, A.S.
, surnamed Mak̲h̲dūm-i Ḏj̲ahāniyān D̲j̲ahāngas̲h̲t , one of the early pīr s of India, was the son of Sayyid Aḥmad Kabīr whose father Sayyid D̲j̲alāl al-Dīn-i Surk̲h̲ had migrated from Buk̲h̲ārā to Multān and Bhakkar [ q.v.]. A descendant of Imām ʿAlī al-Naḳī, his father was a disciple of Rukn al-Dīn Abu ’l-Fatḥ, son and successor of Bahāʾ al-Dīn Zakariyyā [ q.v.]. Born 707/1308 at Uččh, where he also lies buried, he was educated in his home-town and in Multān but seems to have left for the Ḥid̲j̲āz at a very young age in search of more knowledge. He is re…

D̲j̲alāl al-Dīn K̲h̲ald̲j̲ī

(10 words)

[see dihlī sultanate , k̲h̲ald̲j̲ids ].

D̲j̲alāl al-Dīn K̲h̲wārazm-S̲h̲āh

(888 words)

Author(s): Boyle, J.A.
, the eldest son of Sultan Muḥammad K̲h̲wārazm-S̲h̲āh [ q.v.] and the last ruler of the dynasty. The spelling and pronunciation of his personal name (mnkbrny) are still uncertain. Such forms as Mangoubirti, Mankobirti, etc., are based upon a derivation first proposed by d’Ohsson, from the Turkish mengü in the sense of “Eternal [God]” and birti (for birdi ) “[he] gave”; but This etymology is now discredited. Muḥammad had originally designated his youngest son, Ḳuṭb al-Dīn Uzlag̲h̲-S̲h̲āh, as his successor, but shortly before his de…

D̲j̲alāl al-Dīn Mangubirtī

(9 words)

[see d̲j̲alāl al-dīn k̲h̲wārazm s̲h̲āh].

D̲j̲alāl al-Dīn Rūmī

(4,790 words)

Author(s): Ritter, H. | Bausani, A.
b. Bahāʾ al-Dīn Sulṭān al-ʿulamāʾ Walad b. Ḥusayn b. Aḥmad K̲h̲aṭībī , known by the sobriquet Mawlānā (Mevlânâ), Persian poet and founder of the Mawlawiyya order of dervishes, which was named after him, was born on Rabīʿ I 604/30 September 1207 in Balk̲h̲, and died on 5 D̲j̲umāda II 672/1273 in Ḳonya. The reasons put forward against the above-mentioned date of birth (Abdülbaki Gölpinarli, Mevlânâ Celâleddîn 3, 44; idem, Mevlânâ Şams-i Tabrîzî ile altmiṣ iki yaşinda buluştu , in Şarkiyat Mecmuasi , iii, 153-61; and Bir yazi üzerine , in Tarih Coǧrafya Dünyasi , ii/1…

D̲j̲alāl al-Dīn Tabrīzī

(10 words)

[see tabrīzī , d̲j̲alāl al-dīn ].

D̲j̲alāl al-Dīn Thanesarī

(10 words)

[see com-1212:thanesarī , d̲j̲alāl al-dīn ].

D̲j̲alāl Ḥusayn Čelebi

(159 words)

Author(s): İz, Fahīr
( Celāl Ḥüseyin Çelebi ), Turkish poet. He was born in Monastir, the son of a sipāhī (?-978/1571?). As a young man he went to Istanbul to study, later wandered in Syria where he found protectors through whose help he entered the court of prince Selīm, who liked his easy manner and gaiety and who kept him at his court when he ascended the throne as Selīm II. Ḏj̲alāl remained a boon-companion of the Sultan until he became involved in political intrigues and religious controversies; he then had to leave court life and returned to his home-town where he died. His dīwān has not come down to us. Many…

D̲j̲alālī

(2,751 words)

Author(s): Taqizadeh, S.H.
( Taʾrīk̲h̲-i D̲j̲alālī ), the name of an era and also that of a calendar used often in Persia and in Persian books and literature from the last part of the 5th/11th century onward. The era was founded by the 3rd Sald̲j̲ūḳid ruler Sulṭān Maliks̲h̲āh b. Alp Arslan (465-85/1072-92) after consultation with his astronomers. It was called D̲j̲alālī after the title of that monarch, D̲j̲alāl al-Dawla (not D̲j̲alāl al-Dīn as some later authors supposed). The era was also called sometimes Malikī . The epoch of the era ( i.e., its beginning) was Friday, 9 Ramaḍān 471/15 March 1079, when the …

D̲j̲alālī

(1,671 words)

Author(s): Griswold, W. J.
, a term in Ottoman Turkish used to describe companies of brigands, led usually by idle or dissident Ottoman army officers, widely-spread throughout Anatolia from about 999/1590 but diminishing by 1030/1620. The term probably derives from an earlier (925/1519) political and religious rebellion in Amasya by a S̲h̲ayk̲h̲ D̲j̲alāl. Official Ottoman use appears in a petition ( ʿarḍ ) as early as 997/1588 (Divani Kalemi 997-8-C), where the term identifies unchecked rebels ( as̲h̲ḳiyāʾ ) engaging in brigandage. Analysis of the three-decade period of D̲j̲alālī re…

D̲j̲alāl Nūrī

(9 words)

[see i̇leri̇ , celâl nuri̇ ].

D̲j̲alāl ReD̲j̲āʾīzāde

(6 words)

[see red̲j̲āʾīzāde ].

D̲j̲alālzāde Muṣṭafā Čelebi

(626 words)

Author(s): Ménage, V.L.
(ca. 896/ 1490-975/1567), known as ‘Ḳod̲j̲a Nis̲h̲ānd̲j̲i̊’, Ottoman civil servant and historian, was the eldest son of the ḳāḍī D̲j̲alāl al-Dīn from Tosya (for whom see S̲h̲aḳāʾiḳ , tr. Rescher, 297 = tr. Med̲j̲dī, 466). His talents having attracted the attention of Pīrī Pas̲h̲a, in 922/1516 he turned from the scholarly career to become a clerk to the dīwān-i humāyūn . He was private secretary to Pīrī Pas̲h̲a during his Grand Vizierate (924/1518-929/1523) and to his successor Ibrāhīm Pas̲h̲a; his services in helping to regulate the…

D̲j̲alālzāde Ṣāliḥ Čelebi

(474 words)

Author(s): Walsh, J.R.
, Ottoman scholar, historian and poet, and younger brother of the famous nis̲h̲ānd̲j̲i̊, D̲j̲alālzāde Muṣṭafā Čelebi. Born in the last decade of the 9th century A.H. in Vučitrn (NW of Pris̲h̲tina) where his father, D̲j̲alāl al-Dīn, was ḳāḍī, upon completing his studies under Kamāl Pas̲h̲a-zāde and K̲h̲ayr al-Dīn Efendi, the tutor of Sulṭān Sulaymān, he entered the normal teaching career, reaching the Ṣaḥn in 943/1536-7 and the Bāyazīdiyya in Edirne in 949/1542-3. His judicial appointments include Aleppo (951/1544), Damascus (953/15…

Ḏj̲alāyir, D̲j̲alāyirid

(1,129 words)

Author(s): Smith, J.M.
( d̲j̲alāʾir , d̲j̲alāʾirid ). Originally the name of a Mongol tribe (see Ras̲h̲īd al-Dīn, Taʾrīk̲h̲-i G̲h̲āzānī , esp. bāb a), the term D̲j̲alāyir (and D̲j̲alāyirid) in Islamic history principally denotes one of the successor-dynasties that divided up the territories of the defunct Ilk̲h̲ānid empire. The spelling ‘D̲j̲alāyir’ is given by al-Ahrī, the contemporary, and very likely official, chronicler of the dynasty. D̲j̲alāyirid genealogies usually begin with Īlkā Nūyān (hence the dynasty’s …

D̲j̲ālī

(5 words)

[see d̲j̲awālī ].

D̲j̲alīlī

(449 words)

Author(s): Longrigg, S.H.
, a family and quasi-dynasty in Mosul, where seventeen members held the position of wālī of that wilāya for various periods between 1139/1726 and 1250/1834. If legendary origins in eastern Anatolia can be ignored, the founder of the family, ʿAbd al-D̲j̲alīl, seems to have begun life as a Christian slave of the local and equally famous ʿUmarī family in the later 11th/17th Century. His son Ismaʿīl, a Muslim and well educated, attained the Pas̲h̲ali̊ḳ of Mosul by exceptional merits after a lon…

Ḏj̲ālīnūs

(1,214 words)

Author(s): Walzer, R.
, Arabic for Galen, born in Pergamon, in Asia Minor A.D. 129, died in Rome about 199; the last great medical writer in Greek antiquity, outstanding as an anatomist and physiologist as well as as a practising physician, surgeon and pharmacologist. He also became known as an influential though minor philosopher. More than 120 books ascribed to him are included in the last complete edition of his Greek works by C. E. Kühn (Leipzig 1821-33); they represent by no means his whole output: some works have survived in Arabic, Hebrew or Latin translation only, others are unretrievably lost. Although D…
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