Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition

Get access Subject: Middle East and Islamic Studies
Edited by: P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel and W.P. Heinrichs

The Encyclopaedia of Islam (Second Edition) Online sets out the present state of our knowledge of the Islamic World. It is a unique and invaluable reference tool, an essential key to understanding the world of Islam, and the authoritative source not only for the religion, but also for the believers and the countries in which they live. 

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D̲h̲u ’l-Himma

(6,332 words)

Author(s): Canard, M.
or d̲h̲āt al-himma , name of the principal heroine of a romance of Arab chivalry entitled, in the 1327/1909 edition, Sīrat al-amīra D̲h̲āt al-Himma wa-waladihā ʿAbd al-Wahhāb wa ’l-amīr Abū ( sic) Muḥammad al-Baṭṭāl wa-ʿUḳba s̲h̲ayk̲h̲ al-ḍalāl wa-S̲h̲ūmadris al-muḥtāl , which, in the subtitle, describes itself as “the greatest history of the Arabs, and the Umayyad and ʿAbbāsid caliphs, comprising the history of the Arabs and their wars ..... and including their amazing conquests”. Also known is the title Sīrat al-mud̲j̲āhidīn wa-abṭāl al-muwaḥḥidīn al-amīra D̲h̲ū ( sic) ’l-Himma w…

D̲h̲u ’l-Ḳaʿda

(7 words)

[see taʾrīk̲h̲ , i].

Ḏh̲u ’l-Ḳadr

(1,542 words)

Author(s): Mordtmann, J.H. | Ménage, V.L.
, Turkmen dynasty, which ruled for nearly two centuries (738/1337-928/1522) from Elbistan over the region Marʿas̲h̲-Malatya, as clients first of the Mamlūk and later of the Ottoman Sultans. Name: The use in Arabic sources of the spellings Dulg̲h̲ādir and Tulg̲h̲ādir and in one of the dynasty’s inscriptions of Dulḳādīr (see R. Hartmann, Zur Wiedergabe türkischer Namen ..., Berlin 1952, 7; this spelling occurs also in Bazm u Razm , Istanbul 1918, 456) indicates that the Arabicized forms D̲h̲u ’l-Ḳadr and D̲h̲u ’l-Ḳādir, usual in the later Ott…

D̲h̲u ’l K̲h̲alaṣa

(469 words)

Author(s): Fahd, T.
(or K̲h̲ulaṣa ). D̲h̲u ’l-K̲h̲alaṣa refers to the sacred stone (and the holy place where it was to be found) which was worshipped by the tribes of Daws, K̲h̲at̲h̲ʿam, Bad̲j̲īla, the Azd of the Sarāt mountains and the Arabs of Tabāla. “It was a white quartziferous rock, bearing the sculpture of something like a crown. It was in Tabāla at the place called al-ʿAblāʾ, i.e., White Rock ( TʿA , viii, 3) between Mecca and the Yemen and seven nights’ march from the former ( i.e., approximately 192 kilometres or 119 miles). The guardians of the sanctuary were the Banū Umāma of the Bāhila…

D̲h̲u ’l-Kifl

(414 words)

Author(s): Vajda, G.
, a personage twice mentioned in the Ḳurʾān (XXI, 85 and XXXVIII, 48, probably second Meccan period), about whom neither Ḳurʾānic contexts nor Muslim exegesis provides any certain information. John Walker ( Who is D̲h̲u ’l-Kifl ?, in MW, xvi (1926), 399-401) would like the name to be understood in the sense of “the man with the double recompense” or rather “the man who received recompense twice over”, that is to say Job (Ayyūb [ q.v.]; cf. Job xlii, 10). Without being certain, this explanation does not lack probability; in any case, no better suggestion has been put fo…

D̲h̲u ’l-Nūn, Abu ’l-Fayḍ

(599 words)

Author(s): Smith, M.
T̲h̲awbān b. Ibrāhīm al-Miṣrī . This early Ṣūfī was born at Ik̲h̲mīm, in Upper Egypt, about 180/796. His father was a Nubian and D̲h̲u ’l-Nūn was said to have been a freedman. He made some study of medicine and also of alchemy and magic and he must ¶ have been influenced by Hellenistic teaching. Saʿdūn of Cairo is mentioned as his teacher and spiritual director. He travelled to Mecca and Damascus and visited the ascetics at Lubbān, S. of Antioch; it was on his travels that he learnt to become a master of asceticism and self-discipline. He met with hostility from the Muʿtazila [ q.v.] because he up…

D̲h̲u ’l-Nūnids

(1,095 words)

Author(s): Dunlop, D.M.
, in Arabic Bānū D̲h̲i ’l-Nūn, a prominent family of al-Andalus, originally Berbers of the tribe of Hawwāra. Their name appears to be the Arabicization of an earlier Zannūn (cf. Ibn ʿId̲h̲ārī, Bayān , iii, 276) which would explain the alternative spelling D̲h̲unnūn (ad̲j̲ D̲h̲unnūnī). In the 5th/11th century, during the first period of the Tarty Kings’ ( Mulūk al-Ṭawāʾif ), the D̲h̲u ’l-Nūnids ¶ ruled, with Ṭulayṭula (Toledo) as their capital, from Wādi ’l-Ḥid̲j̲āra (Guadalajara) and Ṭalabīra (Talavera) in the N. to Murcia in the S. The original territory of the Banū D̲h̲i ’l-Nūn …

D̲h̲u ’l-Rumma

(1,428 words)

Author(s): Blachère, R.
, lit. ‘he who wears a piece of cord’, nickname given to the famous Arab poet G̲h̲aylān b. ʿUḳba, who died in 117/735-36. He earned the name on account of a small charm which he hung around his neck by a piece of string. He was from the Saʿb b. Milkān clan, an offshoot of the ʿAdī tribe which originated from the ʿAbd Manāt peoples of Central Arabia. On his mother’s side he was related to the Asad tribe. If we accept that he died at the age of forty, his date of birth would be 77/696. This information is however open t…

D̲h̲u ’l-S̲h̲arā

(1,756 words)

Author(s): Ryckmans, G.
is the soubriquet of a god borrowed from the Nabataeans, known in Aramaic as ds̲h̲r , Dusares (E. Littmann, T̲h̲amūd und Ṣafā , 30). These soubriquets for gods formed from the pronoun d̲h̲ū (feminine d̲h̲āt ) were of frequent use in Southern Arabia (G. Ryckmans, Les religions arabes préislamiques 2, 44-5; W. Caskel, Die alten semitischen Gottheiten , 108-9). According to Ibn al-Kalbī, D̲h̲u ’l-S̲h̲arā was a divinity of the Banu ’l-Hārit̲h̲ of the tribe of the Azd ( Kitāb al-Aṣnām , ed. Aḥmad Zakī 2, 37). Ibn His̲h̲ām records that D̲h̲u ’l-S̲h̲arā “was an image belonging to Daus and the ḥimā

Ḏh̲unnūnids

(5 words)

[see d̲h̲u’l-nūnids ].

al-D̲h̲unūb, Dafn

(257 words)

Author(s): Chelhod, J.
, burial of offences, a nomadic practice which consists of a make-believe burial of the offences or crimes of which an Arab is accused. According to S̲h̲ihāb al-Dīn al-ʿUmarī ( al-Taʿrīf bi ’l-muṣṭalaḥ al-sharīf , Cairo 1312, 165 ff.), almost the only source, this curious ceremony was practised as follows. A delegation consisting of men who had the full confidence of the culprit appeared before an assembly of notables belonging to the tribe of the victim, to whom they said: “We wish you to perform the dafn for So-and-so, who admits the truth of your accusati…

D̲h̲ū Nuwās

(1,618 words)

Author(s): Assouad, M.R. al-
, Yūsuf As̲h̲ʿar , pre-Islamic king of the Yemen. According to a tradition probably deriving from Wahb b. Munabbih ( Tīd̲j̲ān , 2 ff.) and repeated by the Arab chroniclers (Ibn Ḳutayba, Maʿārif , 277; al-Dīnawarī, Ak̲h̲bār , 63; al-Ṭabarī, i, 540 ff.; Ibn K̲h̲aldūn, ʿIbar , i, 90; al-Masʿūdī, Murūd̲j̲ , i, 129 etc.), Lahayʿa b. Yanūf (Lak̲h̲īʿa, Lak̲h̲īʿa Yanūf D̲h̲ū S̲h̲anātir; al-Ṭabarī, i, 540; see also Ibn al-At̲h̲īr, ii, 250) abandoning himself to unnatural practices with the sons of the aristocracy, the young D̲h̲ū Nu…

Dialect

(7 words)

[see ʿarabiyya and other languages].

Diamond

(5 words)

[see almās ].

Ḍibāb

(7 words)

[see ʿāmir b. ṣaʿṣaʿa ].

Dibād̲j̲

(5 words)

[see ḳumās̲h̲ ].

al-Dibdiba

(245 words)

Author(s): Mandaville, J.
, an extensive gravel plain in northeastern Arabia, bounded roughly on the east by the depression of al-S̲h̲aḳḳ (which forms the western boundary of the Saudi Arabia-Kuwait Neutral Zone), on the west by the wādī of al-Bāṭin, and on the south by the gravel ridge of al-Warīʿa. The plain extends northward from Saudi Arabia into the Shaikhdom of Kuwait for a distance of about 20 kms. It has an area of c. 30,000 sq. kms. and is remarkable for its firm, almost featureless surface, sprinkled with pebbles of limest…
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