Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition

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Edited by: P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel and W.P. Heinrichs

The Encyclopaedia of Islam (Second Edition) Online sets out the present state of our knowledge of the Islamic World. It is a unique and invaluable reference tool, an essential key to understanding the world of Islam, and the authoritative source not only for the religion, but also for the believers and the countries in which they live. 

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(467 words)

Author(s): Zolondek, L.
, poetic nickname of abū ʿalī muḥammad b. ʿalī b. razīn al-k̲h̲uzāʿī . ʿAbbāsid poet, born 148/765 and died 246/860. His birthplace is uncertain; the cities of Kūfa and Ḳarḳīsiya are given as his places of birth. According to the accounts in the Kitāb al-Ag̲h̲ānī , he spent his youth in Kūfa from which he was forced to flee because of some mischievous activity. Diʿbil’s apprenticeship as a poet was under the tutelage of Muslim b. al-Walīd [ q.v.]. However, he soon made a reputation for himself as is indicated from his relationship with K̲h̲alaf al-Aḥmar (d. 180/796) and M…


(7 words)

[see ḳāmūs , muʿd̲j̲am ].


(290 words)

Author(s): Bergh, S. van den
, ναντίον, “contrary” is one of the four classes of opposites, ἀντικείμενα, mutaḳābilāt , as discussed by Aristotle in his Categories x (and also in his Metaphysics v, 10). There are four classes of opposites: 1) relative terms; 2) contraries; 3) privation and possession; 4) affirmation and negation. The fact that there are contraries implies that there must be a substratum in which they inhere, for it is impossible, even for God, to change, e.g., the White into the Black, although a white thing may become black. There are things which have necessarily one of two contraries, e.g., illness a…


(2,033 words)

Author(s): Hartmann, R. | Longrigg, S.H.
, the Arabic name (used always without the article al-) of the easterly of the “Two Rivers” of ʿIrāḳ, the Tigris. The name is a modernized and Arabicized form of the Diglat of the Cuneiform, and occurs as Ḥiddeḳel in the Book of Genesis. The river (Dicle Nehri in modern Turkish) rises in the southern slopes of the main Taurus, ¶ south and south-east of Lake Golcük. Its upper course, with its many constituent tributaries, drains a wide area of foothills and plain, which formed the northern half of the ʿAbbāsid province of D̲j̲azīra) in which stood the imp…


(405 words)

Author(s): Quelquejay, Ch.
, a people comprising five small Ibero-Caucasian Muslim nationalities, whose total number reaches, according to a 1955 estimate, some 18,000. Ethnically close to the Andi [ q.v.] and the Avar [ q.v.], they inhabit the most elevated and inaccessible regions of Central Dāg̲h̲istān, near to the Georgian frontier. It is necessary to distinguish: 1. The Dido proper (T̲s̲ez T̲s̲unta), numbering about 7,200, distributed in 36 awls along the upper reaches of the Ori-T̲s̲kalis. 2. The Bežeta (Kapuči, Kapčui, Bes̲h̲ite, K̲h̲wanal), the most developed of the Dido peoples (2,500…


(1,325 words)

Author(s): Mauny, R.
, a town in the Sudan Republic, 360 km. SW of Timbuctoo and 200 km. ENE of Segou. Geographical position: lat. 13° 55′ N.—long. 4° 33′ W. (Gr.). Altitude: 278 m. The etymology of this name (often wrongly spelt Djenné) is unknown but the most likely is Dianna = the little Dia (Dia is an ancient Sudanese town, 70 km. to the NW.). Dienné was mentioned for the first time in 1447 by the Genoese Malfante, under the name Geni. The town is situated in the flood-area of the Niger and the Bani, 5 km. from the left bank of the latter river, to which it is connected by a navigable chann…


(5 words)

[see diwrīgī ].

Digital Computer

(7 words)

[see ḥisāb al-ʿaḳd ].


(295 words)

Author(s): Longrigg, S.H.
, the title of the hereditary ruler of the Banī ʿĀmir tribal group in the Agordat district of western Eritrea and in the eastern Sudan; he is also senior member of the aristocratic Nabtab class or caste, who, for historical reasons no longer possible to elucidate, form the superior stratum in every Banī ʿĀmir section. The title is believed of Fund̲j̲ origin, and may recall days when the tribe was, in the 10th/16th and 11th/17th centuries, intermittently tribute-paying to the Nilotic but Muslim F…


(5 words)

[see ossetes ].


(775 words)

Author(s): Spuler, B.
, name of two towns, and their respective districts in north-eastern Īrān: 1) A town north-east of Harāt, the capital of the southern part of the Bādg̲h̲īs [ q.v.] region, and the second largest town in that region (“half the size of Būs̲h̲and̲j̲”), and according to Yāḳūt (i, 461), the capital of the whole of Bādg̲h̲īs around the year 596/1200. The town was situated upon a hill in a fertile area, and near a silver mine; it was built of brick. In 98/716-7, Dihistān is mentioned as the seat of a Persian dihḳān (Ṭabarī, ii, 1320); ca. 426/1035, it came into the possession of a Turkish dihḳān (these tit…


(700 words)

Author(s): Lambton, A.K.S.
, arabicized form of dehkān , the head of a village and a member of the lesser feudal nobility of Sāsānian Persia. The power of the dihḳāns derived from their hereditary title to the local administration. They were an immensely important class, although the actual area of land they cultivated as the hereditary possession of their family was often small. They were the representatives of the government vis-à-vis the peasants and their principal function was to collect taxes; and, in the opinion of Chr…

al-Dihlawī, Nūr al-Ḥaḳḳ

(9 words)

[see nūr al-Ḥaḳḳ al-dihlawī ].

al-Dihlawī, S̲h̲āh Walī Allāh

(1,488 words)

Author(s): Bazmee Ansari, A.S.
, the popular name of Ḳuṭb al-dīn aḥmad abu’l-fayyāḍ , a revolutionary Indian thinker, theologian, pioneer Persian translator of the Ḳurʾān, and traditionist, the first child of the 60-year-old S̲h̲āh ʿAbd al-Raḥīm al-ʿUmarī of Dihlī, by his second wife, was born in 1114/1703 at Dihlī, four years before the death of Awrangzīb. A precocious child, he memorized the Ḳurʾān at the early age of seven and completed his studies with his father, both in the traditional and rational sciences…


(7,929 words)

Author(s): Burton-Page, J.
1. — History. The city of Dihlī, situated on the west bank of the river D̲j̲amnā [ q.v.] and now spread out between 28° 30′ and 28° 44′ N. and 77° 5′ and 77° 15′ E., was the capital of the earliest Muslim rulers of India from 608/1211 (see dihlī sultanate ), and remained the capital of the northern dynasties (with occasional exceptions: Dawlatābād, Agra, and Lahore (Lāhawr), [ qq.v.], were the centres favoured by some rulers) until the deposition of Bahādur S̲h̲āh in 1858; from 1911 it became the capital of British India, and after 1947 of Independent India. The usual Romanized form of the nam…

Dihlī Sultanate

(8,485 words)

Author(s): Hardy, P.
, the principal Muslim kingdom in northern India from its establishment by Iletmis̲h̲ (608-633/1211-1236) until its submergence in the Mug̲h̲al empire under Akbar (963-1014/1556-1605). The establishment of the Dihlī sultanate was made possible by the Indian campaigns of the G̲h̲ūrid Muʿizz al-Dīn Muḥammad b. Sām and his lieutenant Ḳuṭb al-Dīn Aybak. Having recovered G̲h̲aznī from the G̲h̲uzz in 568/1173, in 571/1175 Muḥammad b. Sām captured Multān and Učč, hoping to by-pass the G̲h̲aznawid posse…

Dihlī Sultanate, Art

(540 words)

Author(s): Burton-Page, J.
With the exception of the coinage [see sikka ] and a very few ceramic fragments (a few described in J. Ph. Vogel, Catalogue of the Dehli museum of archaeology, Calcutta 1908; for the pottery fragments of the ʿĀdilābād excavations see H. Waddington, in Ancient India , i, 60-76), the only body of material for the study of the art of the Dihlī sultanate is monumental. Most of the ¶ monuments are in Dihlī itself and are described s.v. dihlī . The remainder are mostly described under the appropriate topographical headings, and are listed here in more or less chronological order. The first major und…


(514 words)

Author(s): Lammens, H. | Pellat, Ch.
(or Daḥya ) b. K̲h̲alīfa al-Kalbī , Companion of the Prophet and a somewhat mysterious character. He is traditionally represented as a rich merchant of such outstanding beauty that the Angel Gabriel took his features; and, when he arrived at Medina, all the women ( muʿṣir , see LA, root. ʿṣr ) came out to see him (Ḳurʾān, LXII, n, may be an allusion to this occurrence). There is no reason to accept the suggestion put forward by Lammens ( EI 1, s.v.) of some commercial connexion with Muḥammad; we only know that a sudden death put ¶ a stop to a projected marriage between a niece of Diḥya and …


(756 words)

Author(s): Kopf, L.
, the cock. The word is perhaps of non-Semitic origin. No cognate synonyms seem to exist in the other Semitic languages, except in modern South Arabian (Leslau, Lexique soqoṭri , 1938, 126). The cock is mentioned quite often in ancient Arabic poems and proverbs and in the ḥadīt̲h̲ . In zoological writings it is described as the most sensual and conceited of birds. It is of feeble intelligence, as it cannot find its way to the hen-house when it falls from a wall. Yet it possesses a number of laudable properties: it is cou…


(515 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
, a fortress situated on that part of the eastern shore of the Persian Gulf called the Sīf ʿUmāra, not far from the island of Ḳays [ q.v.], and famous in the 4th/10th century. It was known under three designations, Ḳalʿat al-Dīkdān, Ḥiṣn Dikbāya and Ḥiṣn Ibn ʿUmāra, as well as the Persian one Diz-i Pisar-i ʿUmāra ( Ḥudūd al-ʿālam , tr. 126). It stood guard over a village of fishermen and a port which could shelter some 20 ships, and according to Ibn Ḥawḳal (tr. Kramers and Wiet, 268-9), following Iṣṭak̲h̲rī (140), no-one could get u…
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