Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition

Get access Subject: Middle East and Islamic Studies
Edited by: P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel and W.P. Heinrichs

The Encyclopaedia of Islam (Second Edition) Online sets out the present state of our knowledge of the Islamic World. It is a unique and invaluable reference tool, an essential key to understanding the world of Islam, and the authoritative source not only for the religion, but also for the believers and the countries in which they live. 

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(176 words)

Author(s): Davies, C. Collin
, (Pers.) ‘two-waters’, corresponding to the Greek μεσοποταμία, is in the Indo-Pākistān subcontinent generally applied to the land lying between two confluent rivers, and more particularly to the fertile plain between the D̲j̲amnā and the Ganges in Uttar Prades̲h̲. The long tongues of land between the five rivers of the Pand̲j̲āb are also known as doʾābs . Between the Satlad̲j̲ and the ¶ Beʾās lies the Bist doʾāb ; between the Beʾās and the Rāwī, the Bārī doʾāb; between the Rawī and the Čenāb, the Rečnā doʾāb; between the Čenāb and the D̲j̲helam, the Čad̲j̲ or D̲j̲eč doʾāb; and between the …


(5 words)

[see dawʿān ].


(3,991 words)

Author(s): İnalcık, Halil
, the plateau between the Danube and the Lom river in the North, the Black Sea in the East and the Prowadijska river or the Balkan range in the South. Deli Orman in This area is distinguished from the steppe region, Dobrud̲j̲a-Ki̊ri̊, in the East which is considered as the Dobrud̲j̲a proper. Called Scythia Minor in the Graeco-Roman period, it was included in the Byzantine province of Paristrion (Bard̲j̲ān in Idrīsī’s world map) in 361/972. In Bulgarian Karvunska Chora, it was ‘the land of Karbon…


(5 words)

[see ẓafār ].


(5 words)

[see kalb ].


(528 words)

Author(s): Sümer, F.
, name of an Og̲h̲uz tribe ( boy ). They are mentioned in the Og̲h̲uz-nāme (the account of the life of the Og̲h̲uz people before they embraced Islam, see F. Sümer, Oǧuzlar’a ait destanî mahiyette eserler , in Ank. Ün. DTCFD , xvii/3-4), where it is said that some prominent beys of the Og̲h̲uz rulers belonged to This tribe. According to the Syrian historian S̲h̲ams al-Dīn Muḥammad al-D̲j̲azarī (658/1260-739/1338), the Artuk [ q.v.] dynasty, ruling the Mardin-Diyārbekir region, belonged to the Döger tribe (F. Sümer, op. cit., 405, n. 171), which must therefore have taken part in th…


(924 words)

Author(s): İnalcık, Halil
Turkish term for falconer, from dog̲h̲an , falcon ( tog̲h̲an in Ki̊pčak Turkish, cf. al-Tuḥfa al-zakiyya fi ’l-lug̲h̲a al-Turkiyya , ed. B. Atalay, Istanbul 1945, 260), and in general use any kind of bird of prey. Bāzdār , from Persian, was also frequently used for the dog̲h̲and̲j̲i̊ . In the Ottoman empire the term dog̲h̲and̲j̲i̊ in the same sense as in later periods was found as early as the 8th/14th century (cf. P. Wittek, Zu einigen frühosmanischen Urkunden , in WZKM, liv (1957), 240; lvii (1961), 103; for dog̲h̲and̲j̲i̊ čiftligi see H. Inalcık, Sûret-i defter-i sancak-i Arvanid


(5 words)

[see ʿaḳīda ].


(5 words)

[see ḍayʿa ].

Dome of the Rock

(9 words)

[see ḳubbat al-ṣak̲h̲ra ].


(170 words)

Author(s): Ménage, V.L.
, ‘a decking-out, an adorning’, Turkish verbal noun derived ultimately from ton , ‘clothes’. The word is used in Ottoman Turkish in two restricted meanings: ‘fleet of ships, navy’ (presumably a caique of Ital. ‘armata’), for which see art. baḥriyya , iii (adding to bibliography H. and R. Kahane and A. Tietze, The Lingua Franca in the Levant , Urbana 1958, 1-45). ‘decoration of the streets of a city’ (synonyms: s̲h̲enlik , s̲h̲ehr-āyīn ) for a Muslim festival or on a secular occasion of public rejoicing such as a victory, an accession, a royal bi…


(5 words)

[see hiba ].


(5 words)

[see kurds ].


(514 words)

Author(s): Holt, P.M.
(Arabic, Dunḳula, Dunḳulā; obsolete forms, Dumḳula, Damḳala), the name of two towns in Nubia; more generally, the riverain territory dependent on these towns. All lie within the present Republic of the Sudan. The arabized Nubians of Dongola are called Danāḳla, a regional, not a tribal, designation. (1) Old Dongola (Dunḳula al-ʿad̲j̲ūz), on the right bank of the Nile, is on the site of a pre-Islamic town, the capital of the Christian kingdom of al-Maḳurra. It was besieged by an army under ʿAbd Allāh b. Saʿd b. Abī Sarḥ [ q.v.] in 31/652, but the Muslims withdrew after concluding a convention ( b…


(824 words)

Author(s): Perlmann, M.
(Turkish: convert) name of a sect in Turkey formed by Jews upon their conversion to Islam late in the 11th/17th century in emulation of S̲h̲abbetai Ṣeb̲i whom they considered the Messiah. The sect emerged out of mystic speculations justifying the conversion of Jews to Islam as a link in the chain of Messianic events, and served as a means to consolidate those who wished to emulate and remain faithful to the converted Messiah, even after his death. It attempted, in the spirit of the Messiah, to maintain secretly within Islam a…


(5 words)

[see miṣāḥa ].

Dōst Muḥammad

(7 words)

[see dūst muḥammad ].


(5 words)

[see dawār ].


(5 words)

[see ḥamām ].
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