Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition

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Edited by: P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel and W.P. Heinrichs

The Encyclopaedia of Islam (Second Edition) Online sets out the present state of our knowledge of the Islamic World. It is a unique and invaluable reference tool, an essential key to understanding the world of Islam, and the authoritative source not only for the religion, but also for the believers and the countries in which they live. 

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(176 words)

Author(s): Davies, C. Collin
, (Pers.) ‘two-waters’, corresponding to the Greek μεσοποταμία, is in the Indo-Pākistān subcontinent generally applied to the land lying between two confluent rivers, and more particularly to the fertile plain between the D̲j̲amnā and the Ganges in Uttar Prades̲h̲. The long tongues of land between the five rivers of the Pand̲j̲āb are also known as doʾābs . Between the Satlad̲j̲ and the ¶ Beʾās lies the Bist doʾāb ; between the Beʾās and the Rāwī, the Bārī doʾāb; between the Rawī and the Čenāb, the Rečnā doʾāb; between the Čenāb and the D̲j̲helam, the Čad̲j̲ or D̲j̲eč doʾāb; and between the …


(5 words)

[see dawʿān ].


(3,991 words)

Author(s): İnalcık, Halil
, the plateau between the Danube and the Lom river in the North, the Black Sea in the East and the Prowadijska river or the Balkan range in the South. Deli Orman in This area is distinguished from the steppe region, Dobrud̲j̲a-Ki̊ri̊, in the East which is considered as the Dobrud̲j̲a proper. Called Scythia Minor in the Graeco-Roman period, it was included in the Byzantine province of Paristrion (Bard̲j̲ān in Idrīsī’s world map) in 361/972. In Bulgarian Karvunska Chora, it was ‘the land of Karbon…


(5 words)

[see ẓafār ].


(5 words)

[see kalb ].


(528 words)

Author(s): Sümer, F.
, name of an Og̲h̲uz tribe ( boy ). They are mentioned in the Og̲h̲uz-nāme (the account of the life of the Og̲h̲uz people before they embraced Islam, see F. Sümer, Oǧuzlar’a ait destanî mahiyette eserler , in Ank. Ün. DTCFD , xvii/3-4), where it is said that some prominent beys of the Og̲h̲uz rulers belonged to This tribe. According to the Syrian historian S̲h̲ams al-Dīn Muḥammad al-D̲j̲azarī (658/1260-739/1338), the Artuk [ q.v.] dynasty, ruling the Mardin-Diyārbekir region, belonged to the Döger tribe (F. Sümer, op. cit., 405, n. 171), which must therefore have taken part in th…


(924 words)

Author(s): İnalcık, Halil
Turkish term for falconer, from dog̲h̲an , falcon ( tog̲h̲an in Ki̊pčak Turkish, cf. al-Tuḥfa al-zakiyya fi ’l-lug̲h̲a al-Turkiyya , ed. B. Atalay, Istanbul 1945, 260), and in general use any kind of bird of prey. Bāzdār , from Persian, was also frequently used for the dog̲h̲and̲j̲i̊ . In the Ottoman empire the term dog̲h̲and̲j̲i̊ in the same sense as in later periods was found as early as the 8th/14th century (cf. P. Wittek, Zu einigen frühosmanischen Urkunden , in WZKM, liv (1957), 240; lvii (1961), 103; for dog̲h̲and̲j̲i̊ čiftligi see H. Inalcık, Sûret-i defter-i sancak-i Arvanid


(5 words)

[see ʿaḳīda ].


(5 words)

[see ḍayʿa ].

Dome of the Rock

(9 words)

[see ḳubbat al-ṣak̲h̲ra ].


(170 words)

Author(s): Ménage, V.L.
, ‘a decking-out, an adorning’, Turkish verbal noun derived ultimately from ton , ‘clothes’. The word is used in Ottoman Turkish in two restricted meanings: ‘fleet of ships, navy’ (presumably a caique of Ital. ‘armata’), for which see art. baḥriyya , iii (adding to bibliography H. and R. Kahane and A. Tietze, The Lingua Franca in the Levant , Urbana 1958, 1-45). ‘decoration of the streets of a city’ (synonyms: s̲h̲enlik , s̲h̲ehr-āyīn ) for a Muslim festival or on a secular occasion of public rejoicing such as a victory, an accession, a royal bi…


(5 words)

[see hiba ].


(5 words)

[see kurds ].


(514 words)

Author(s): Holt, P.M.
(Arabic, Dunḳula, Dunḳulā; obsolete forms, Dumḳula, Damḳala), the name of two towns in Nubia; more generally, the riverain territory dependent on these towns. All lie within the present Republic of the Sudan. The arabized Nubians of Dongola are called Danāḳla, a regional, not a tribal, designation. (1) Old Dongola (Dunḳula al-ʿad̲j̲ūz), on the right bank of the Nile, is on the site of a pre-Islamic town, the capital of the Christian kingdom of al-Maḳurra. It was besieged by an army under ʿAbd Allāh b. Saʿd b. Abī Sarḥ [ q.v.] in 31/652, but the Muslims withdrew after concluding a convention ( b…


(824 words)

Author(s): Perlmann, M.
(Turkish: convert) name of a sect in Turkey formed by Jews upon their conversion to Islam late in the 11th/17th century in emulation of S̲h̲abbetai Ṣeb̲i whom they considered the Messiah. The sect emerged out of mystic speculations justifying the conversion of Jews to Islam as a link in the chain of Messianic events, and served as a means to consolidate those who wished to emulate and remain faithful to the converted Messiah, even after his death. It attempted, in the spirit of the Messiah, to maintain secretly within Islam a…


(5 words)

[see miṣāḥa ].

Dōst Muḥammad

(7 words)

[see dūst muḥammad ].


(5 words)

[see dawār ].


(5 words)

[see ḥamām ].


(5 words)

[see mahr ].


(5 words)

[see darʿa ].


(549 words)

Author(s): Ménage, V.L.
( Di̊rač , Durač ), Slavonic and hence Ottoman name for the classical Dyrrhachium (med. Latin Duracium, Ital. Durazzo, Alb. Durrës), the principal port of modern Albania (41° 18′ N., 19° 26′ E.). The classical town was founded (c. 625 B.C.) under the name Epidamnus at the southern end of a narrow rocky peninsula (once an island) running parallel to the mainland coast, to which it was connected in antiquity at the North by a sand-spit …


(5 words)

[see turd̲j̲umān ].


(5 words)

[see tinnīn ].


(7 words)

[see turg̲h̲ud ʿalī pas̲h̲a ].


(5 words)

[see masraḥiyya ].


(6 words)

[see taʿbīr al-ruʾyā ].


(5 words)

[see libās ].


(5 words)

[see ibil ].


(5 words)

[see ʿaṭṭār ].


(5 words)

[see durūz ].


(2,026 words)

Author(s): Gardet, L.
, appeal, invocation (addressed to God) either on behalf of another or for oneself ( li...), or else against someone ( ʿalā ...); hence: prayer of invocation, calling either for blessing, or for imprecation and cursing, connected with the Semitic idea of the effective value of the spoken word. Cf. Ḳurʾān XVII, 11: “Man prays for evil as he prays for good”.— Duʿāʾ therefore will have the general sense of personal prayer addressed to God, and can often be translated as “prayer of request”. I.—The scope and practice of duʿāʾ . 1. In the Ḳurʾān, duʿāʾ always keeps its original meaning of invo…


(9 words)

[see k̲h̲urramiyya , t̲h̲anawiyya , zindīḳ ].


(5 words)

[see mazyadīs ].


(5 words)

[see rubāʿī ].


(808 words)

Author(s): Marr, Phebe
(commonly spelled Dubai ), a port (25° 16′ N., 55° 18′ E.) and s̲h̲ayk̲h̲dom on the Trucial Coast of Arabia. The town lies at the head of a winding creek ( k̲h̲awr ) extending some eight miles inland; ferries ply between Dayra, the market quarter on the north-east bank, and al-S̲h̲andag̲h̲a and Dubayy proper, quarters on the south-west bank. The population of the town, about 47,000, is predominantly Arab with some Iranians, Indians, and Balūčīs (Hay, 114). The Arab inhabitants of the principality comprise…


(5 words)

[see nud̲j̲ūm ].


(845 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(modern spelling Debdou; usual pron.: Dǝbdu, ethn. dəbdūbī , pl. dbādba ), a small town in eastern Morocco, at an altitude of 1,100 m., “at the foot of the right flank of the valley” of the Oued Dubdū “which rises in a perpendicular cliff to a height of 80 m. above the valley”; on a plateau nearby stands the fortress ( ḳaṣba [ ḳaṣaba ]) protected by a fosse on the side facing the mountain; on the left side of the valley lies a suburb named Mṣəllā. A dependency of the ʿamāla (under the administration of the French Protectorate in the region) of Oujda, it is the ce…


(5 words)

[see ragusa ].


(5 words)

[see kārūn ].

Dūd al-Ḳazz

(6 words)

[see ḥarīr ].


(1,878 words)

Author(s): Farmer, H.G.
( Daff , the modern pronunciation, may be traced back to Abū ʿUbayda [d. ca. 210/825]) generic name for any instrument of the tambourine family, although sometimes it is the name for a special type. Islamic tradition says that it was invented by Tubal b. Lamak Masʿūdī, Murūd̲j̲ , viii, 88) whilst other gossip avers that it was first played on the nuptial night of Sulaymān and Bilḳīs (Ewliyā Čelebi, i/2, 226). Al-Mufaḍḍal b. Salama (d. 307-8/920) says that it was of Arab origin (fol. 20) and Ibn Iyās (d. ca. 930/ 1524) says in his Badāʾiʿ al-zuhūr that it was the duff that w…


(1,041 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W. | Spuler, B.
, occasionally Dūḳlāt , a Mongol tribe whose name, according to Abu ’l-G̲h̲āzī (ed. Desmaisons, St. Petersburg 1871, i, 65), derives from the plural of the Mongol word dog̲h̲olong (-lang) “lame”. The tribe appears to have played no part in the early period of the Mongol Empire, though it is supposed always to have supported Čingiz K̲h̲ān (Ras̲h̲īd al-Dīn, ed. Berezin in Trudi̊ vost. otd. Imp. Russk. Ark̲h̲eol. obs̲h̲čestva , vii, 275, xiii/text 47, 52; tr. L. A. Khetagurov, Moscow-Leningrad 1952, i/1, 193). At that time the tribe apparently …


(14 words)

(Ar.), “forenoon”, the hour of one of the prayers [see ṣalāt ].

Dukayn al-Rād̲j̲iz

(256 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
, the name of two poets who were confused by Ibn Ḳutayba ( S̲h̲iʿr , S̲h̲ākir ed. 592-95) and the authors who copied or utilized him: Ibn ʿAbd Rabbih, ʿIḳd , 1346/1928 ed., 202-3; Ag̲h̲ānī , viii, 155—Beirut ed., ix, 252-3; C. A. Nallino, Litt ., (with a note of correction by M. Nallino). 1.—Dukayn b. Rad̲j̲āʾ al-Fuḳaymī (d. 105/723-24); a panegyric in rad̲j̲az composed by him on Muṣʿab b. al-Zubayr; and an urd̲j̲ūza upon his horse who won a race organized by al-Walīd b. ʿAbd al-Malik (see Yāḳūt, xi, 113-17; Ibn ʿAsākir, v, 274-9), have been preserved. 2.—Dukayn b. Saʿīd al-Dārimī (d. 109/72…


(5 words)

[see tütün ].


(444 words)

Author(s): Deverdun, G.
, a confederation of Moroccan tribes which constituted an autonomous administrative region during the French Protectorate. When Morocco attained independence, it was attached to the province of Casablanca, and now forms no more than the al-Ḏj̲adīda circle (Mazagan). Some sections of the G̲h̲arb tribe also have This name. Al-Bakrī does not mention the Dukkāla, but al-Idrīsī, together with Ibn K̲h̲aldūn ( ʿIbar ) and Leo Africanus later, attribute an extensive area to the confederation, comprising roughly the triangle within the rivers …


(5 words)

[see nāʿūra ].


(478 words)

Author(s): Marin, E.
, an important tribe in the 3rd/9th century whose holdings formed a special district of their own known as al-Īg̲h̲ārayn (the two fiefs) in al-Ḏj̲ibāl. east of Nihāwand between Hamadān and Iṣfahān. ʿĪsā b. Idrīs laid the basis for the Dulafid fortune by engaging in highway robbery to such an extent that he was able to retire and erect a stronghold at al-Karad̲j̲, which his son and successor, al-Ḳāsim b. ʿĪsā al-Id̲j̲lī, known as Abū Dulaf, employed as the foundation for the Dulafid dynasty. ¶ Abū Dulaf was a S̲h̲īʿī, a highly educated man, a lauded poet, a …


(336 words)

Author(s): Longrigg, S.H.
, a large Sunnī tribe in ʿIrāḳ, living on the Euphrates from a point just below Fallūd̲j̲a to al-Ḳāʾim. They claim origins at Dulaymiyyāt in Nad̲j̲d five centuries ago, but these are doubtless mythical and in fact the tribe represents a wide variety of mixed tribal fragments and tribeless peasantry. A few sections are nomadic in the Ḏj̲azīra. moving to the river only from April to September; but the great majority live, at the humble level of ʿIrāḳī peasantry, by cultivating by water-lift or flo…


(181 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl. | Pellat, Ch.
, the name of the grey mule of the Prophet, which had been given to him by the Muḳawḳis [ q.v.], at the same time as the ass called Yaʿfūr/ʿUfayr. After serving as his mount during his campaigns, she survived him and died at Yanbuʿ so old and toothless that in order to feed her the barley had to be put into her mouth. According to the S̲h̲īʿī tradition, ʿAlī rode upon her at the battle of the Camel [see al-d̲j̲amal ] and at Ṣiffīn. As Duldul in Arabic means a porcupine, it is possible that she derived her name from her gait, but This is far from certain. For…


(5 words)

[see nud̲j̲ūm ].


(436 words)

Author(s): Sourdel, D.
, the name given by the Arab authors to a locality situated, on the borders of Anatolia and Syria, in the upper valley of the Nahr Karzīn, at the foot of the Anti-Taurus (Kurd Dag̲h̲), north-west of ʿAynṭāb. It was the ancient Doliche, famous for the cult of a Semitic divinity who in the Graeco-Roman period received the name of Zeus Dolichenos. Being at the intersection of the routes from Germanicia, Nicopolis and Zeugma, it had been conquered by ʿIyāḍ b. G̲h̲ānim and became one of the fortresse…

Dūmat al-D̲j̲andal

(2,069 words)

Author(s): Veccia Vaglieri, L.
, an oasis at the head of the Wādī Sirḥān which runs from south-east to north-west, linking central Arabia on one side and the mountains of Ḥawrān and Syria on the other; it is thus situated on the most direct route between Medina and Damascus, being about 15 days’ journey on foot from the former and about 7 days or rather more from the latter. The oasis is in a g̲h̲āʾiṭ “depression” or k̲h̲abt “vast low-lying area”, the length of which, according to Yāḳūt, is 5 parasangs or, in modern terms, according to Ḥāfiẓ Wahba, 3 mil…


(273 words)

Author(s): Sourdel, D.
, mediaeval ruined town of Upper Mesopotamia (within the borders of modern Turkey), situated 20 km. south-west of Mārdīn on a tributary of the K̲h̲ābūr, the site of which is today marked by the Kurdish village of Koč Ḥiṣār, the Kosar of the western chroniclers. A fortress of former times, generally identified with the Adenystrai of Dio Cassius, Dunaysir is not noted as an important place in the early years of Islam, and was subsequently never a fortress. Not until the 4th/10th century does its name appear, in a ms. of Ibn Ḥawḳ…


(5 words)

[see damāwand ]


(5 words)

[see deñi̇zli̇ ].


(5 words)

[see dongola ].


(441 words)

Author(s): Tritton, A.S.
(Ar.), the feminine of the elative adjective meaning ‘nearer, nearest’, is used in the Ḳurʾān, often combined with ‘life’ to mean This world. It had more or less This sense before Islam (Noeldeke, Muʿallaḳāt des ʿAmr und des Ḥārith , 49). The heaven of the dunyā is the lowest of the seven; dunyā is what is contained in the succession of night and day, is overshadowed by the sky and upheld by the earth, is all that the eye can see, the world of the seen ( s̲h̲ahāda ). In the realm of the spirit it includes all that Christians mean by the world and the flesh and…

Durayd b. al-Ṣimma

(796 words)

Author(s): Petráček, K.
, ancient Arabic poet and leader of the Banū D̲j̲us̲h̲am b. Muʿāwiya, one of the most powerful Bedouin opponents of Muḥammad, born ca. 530. He is a prominent figure of Arabic pre-Islamic antiquity; to later generations, ¶ he was the embodiment of ancient paganism which fought stubbornly against Islam. His father was Muʿāwiya b. al-Ḥārit̲h̲, called al-Ṣimma, leader of the Banū D̲j̲us̲h̲am b. Muʿāwiya, who belonged to the group of the Hawāzin tribes, and lived between Mecca and Ṭāʾif. Despite the similarity in their religion, and their economic,…


(5 words)

[see drač ],


(403 words)

Author(s): Burton-Page, J.
(Persian, lit. “be distant”), the mace or club used as an emblem of military dignity; in Persian and Turkish usage the dūrbās̲h̲ can also be the functionary who carries the mace [see čāʾūs̲h̲ , sarhang ]. The čūbdārs described by Niẓām al-Mulk, Siyāsat-nāme , ch. xxxix, who seem to have been similar functionaries, carried gold and silver staffs; ʿAwfī, D̲j̲āmiʿ al-ḥikāyāt (passage cited by M. Fuad Köprülü, Bizans müesseselerin Osmanlı müesseselerine tesiri hakkında bazı mülâhazalar , in Türk Hukuk ve Iktisat Tarihi Mecmuası , Istanbul 1931, 213; Ital. tr., Alcune osservazioni


(997 words)

Author(s): Ruska, J.
, the pearl. The ancient legend of its origin is found at great length in the Arabic authors, first in the Petrology ( Steinbuch , ed. Ruska) of Aristotle, then with variants in the Rasāʾil Ik̲h̲wān al-Ṣafāʾ and the later cosmographers. According to it, the aṣṭūrūs (’οστρεῖον) rises from the depths of the sea frequented by ships and goes out to the ocean. The winds there set up a shower of spray and the shells open to receive drops from This; when it has collected a few drops it goes to a secluded spot and exposes the…


(683 words)

Author(s): Yapp, M.E.
, an Afg̲h̲ān tribe known as Abdālī until their name was changed by Aḥmed S̲h̲āh Durrānī. (See abdālī , aḥmad s̲h̲āh , afg̲h̲ānistān ). The tribe was moved from Harāt and granted lands in the region of Ḳandahar by Nadir S̲h̲āh. At This time they were pastoral nomads but in the later 12th/18th century they began to take up agriculture. Their large financial and economic privileges were continued and extended in the reigns of Aḥmad S̲h̲āh and Tīmūr S̲h̲āh, when the Durrānī tribe formed the main pol…


(1,148 words)

Author(s): Walsh, J.R.
, the patronymic of a famous family of Ottoman ʿulemāʾ of the 18th-19th centuries, five members of which attained the office of S̲h̲ayk̲h̲ al-Islām [ q.v.] on no less than nine different occasions between the years 1734 and 1815. Only these latter can be dealt with here, and details must be confined to the periods of their mes̲h̲īk̲h̲at which, unless otherwise stated, was reached by the normal progress through the offices of ḳāḍī of Istanbul, ḳāḍī ’l-ʿasker of Anadolu and ḳāḍī ’l-ʿasker of Rūmeli. 1. Dürrī Meḥmed Efendi . The son of a certain Ilyās, his date a…


(647 words)

Author(s): Reşit Unat, Faik | Rustow, Dankwart A.
ʿAbd Allāh Bey or Efendi (1869-1923), one of the last S̲h̲ayk̲h̲ al-Islāms of the Ottoman Empire, known for his fetwā s condemning the Turkish nationalist movement under Muṣṭafā Kemāl (Atatürk). He was born into a wealthy family claiming the title of seyyid , most of whose male members belonged to the ʿilmiyye class, and five of whom had previously served as S̲h̲ayk̲h̲ al-Islām [see preceding article]. The son of the last there mentioned, ʿAbd Allāh, was Dürrīzāde Meḥmed Efendi, who rose to the rank of Ḳaḍīʿasker of Rumeli, and was the father of the ʿAbd A…


(946 words)

Author(s): Matthews, C.D.
(Dirʿī), a large G̲h̲āfirī tribe, mainly nomadic and Ibāḍī, of the foothills and steppes of ʿUmān in south-eastern Arabia. From Wādī al-Ṣafā and areas of the.G̲h̲āfirī Āl Bū S̲h̲āmis (of Nuʿaym) and Banī Ḳitab in al-Ẓāhira, their dīra extends south-east across the plain (Sayḥ al-Durūʿ) to Wādī Ḥalfīn and the territory of the Hināwī tribe of Āl Wahība. From Ḥamrāʾ al-Durūʿ and other outliers of the mountains of Inner ʿUmān (among which, centering around ʿIzz and Adam, is found the north-west enclave of the G̲h̲āfirī al-D̲j̲anaba), it extends south to the broken district of al-Ḥuḳuf ¶ (al-Ḥ…


(6,810 words)

Author(s): Hodgson, M.G.S. | Şehabeddin Tekindaǧ, M.C. | M. Tayyi̇b Gökbi̇lgi̇n
(Druzes), sing. Durzī , a Syrian people professing an initiatory faith derived from the Ismāʿīliyya [ q.v.]. They call themselves Muwaḥḥidūn , “unitarians”, and number (in the mid-twentieth century) almost 200,000, living in various parts of Syria, especially in the mountains of the Lebanon, Anti-Lebanon, and Ḥawrān, chiefly as cultivators and landlords. The faith originated in the closing years of the reign of al-Ḥākim [ q.v.], Fāṭimid Caliph of Egypt (386-411/996-1021). According to the Ismāʿīlī S̲h̲īʿī faith then officially received in Egypt, al-Ḥākim, as imām


(5 words)

[see kākawayhids ].

Dūst Muḥammad

(800 words)

Author(s): Yapp, M.E.
, the real founder of Bārakzāy rule in Afg̲h̲ānistān, was the 20th son of Pāyinda K̲h̲ān, chief of the Bārakzāy clan under Tīmūr S̲h̲āh. After the execution of Pāyinda K̲h̲ān in the reign of Zamān S̲h̲āh, Dust Muḥammad was brought up by his Ḳi̊zi̊lbas̲h̲ mother’s relatives until he came under the care of the eldest brother, Fatḥ K̲h̲ān, who held considerable influence under Maḥmūd S̲h̲āh. In the second reign of Maḥmūd, Dūst Muḥammad held prominent offices including that of governor of Kūhistān, …


(44,385 words)

Author(s): Ed. | Lewis, B. | Khadduri, M. | Lambton, A.K.S. | Caldwell, J.A.M. | Et al.
, in modern Arabic constitution. A word of Persian origin, it seems originally to have meant a person exercising authority, whether religious or political, and was later specialized to designate members of the Zoroastrian priesthood. It occurs in Kalīla wa-Dimna in the sense of “counsellor”, and recurs with the same sense, at a much later date, in the phrase Dustūr-i mükerrem , one of the honorific titles of the Grand Vizier in the Ottoman Empire. More commonly, dustūr was used in the sense of “rule” or “regulation”, and in particular the code of ru…


(688 words)

Author(s): De Jong, F.
, Ibrāhīm al-Ras̲h̲īd b. Ṣāliḥ al-Dunḳulāwī al-S̲h̲āʿiḳī , Sūfī s̲h̲ayk̲h̲ of Nubian extraction and belonging to the S̲h̲ād̲h̲iliyya order, and a disciple and k̲h̲alīfa [ q.v.] of Aḥmad b. Idrīs [ q.v.]. He was born in 1228/1813 in Duwayh near Dunḳulā (Dongola) on the Nubian Nile and belonged to the tribe of the S̲h̲āʾiḳiyya. He joined the religious community of Aḥmad b. Idrīs in 1246/1830 in the town of Ṣabyā in ʿAsīr [ q.v.], where the latter had sought refuge from prosecution for heresy by the Meccan ʿulamāʾ , and succeeded him as leader of the Ahmadiyya (al-Idrisiyya) ṭarīḳa

Duyūn-i ʿUmūmiyye

(706 words)

Author(s): Lewis, B.
, the Ottoman public debt, more particularly the debt administration set up in 1881. The Ottoman government had made its first attempts to raise money by internal loans in ¶ the late 18th and early 19th centuries (see ashām and ḳāʾime ). The needs and opportunities of the Crimean War brought a new type of loan, floated on the money markets of Europe. The first such foreign loan was raised in London in 1854, the second in the following year. They were for £ 3,000,000 at 6% and £ 5,000,000 at 4% respectively. Betwee…


(5 words)

[see d̲j̲ahannam ].

Düzme Muṣṭafā

(7 words)

[see muṣṭafā düzme ].
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