Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition

Get access Subject: Middle East and Islamic Studies
Edited by: P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel and W.P. Heinrichs

The Encyclopaedia of Islam (Second Edition) Online sets out the present state of our knowledge of the Islamic World. It is a unique and invaluable reference tool, an essential key to understanding the world of Islam, and the authoritative source not only for the religion, but also for the believers and the countries in which they live. 

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(176 words)

Author(s): Davies, C. Collin
, (Pers.) ‘two-waters’, corresponding to the Greek μεσοποταμία, is in the Indo-Pākistān subcontinent generally applied to the land lying between two confluent rivers, and more particularly to the fertile plain between the D̲j̲amnā and the Ganges in Uttar Prades̲h̲. The long tongues of land between the five rivers of the Pand̲j̲āb are also known as doʾābs . Between the Satlad̲j̲ and the ¶ Beʾās lies the Bist doʾāb ; between the Beʾās and the Rāwī, the Bārī doʾāb; between the Rawī and the Čenāb, the Rečnā doʾāb; between the Čenāb and the D̲j̲helam, the Čad̲j̲ or D̲j̲eč doʾāb; and between the …


(5 words)

[see dawʿān ].


(3,991 words)

Author(s): İnalcık, Halil
, the plateau between the Danube and the Lom river in the North, the Black Sea in the East and the Prowadijska river or the Balkan range in the South. Deli Orman in This area is distinguished from the steppe region, Dobrud̲j̲a-Ki̊ri̊, in the East which is considered as the Dobrud̲j̲a proper. Called Scythia Minor in the Graeco-Roman period, it was included in the Byzantine province of Paristrion (Bard̲j̲ān in Idrīsī’s world map) in 361/972. In Bulgarian Karvunska Chora, it was ‘the land of Karbon…


(5 words)

[see ẓafār ].


(5 words)

[see kalb ].


(528 words)

Author(s): Sümer, F.
, name of an Og̲h̲uz tribe ( boy ). They are mentioned in the Og̲h̲uz-nāme (the account of the life of the Og̲h̲uz people before they embraced Islam, see F. Sümer, Oǧuzlar’a ait destanî mahiyette eserler , in Ank. Ün. DTCFD , xvii/3-4), where it is said that some prominent beys of the Og̲h̲uz rulers belonged to This tribe. According to the Syrian historian S̲h̲ams al-Dīn Muḥammad al-D̲j̲azarī (658/1260-739/1338), the Artuk [ q.v.] dynasty, ruling the Mardin-Diyārbekir region, belonged to the Döger tribe (F. Sümer, op. cit., 405, n. 171), which must therefore have taken part in th…


(924 words)

Author(s): İnalcık, Halil
Turkish term for falconer, from dog̲h̲an , falcon ( tog̲h̲an in Ki̊pčak Turkish, cf. al-Tuḥfa al-zakiyya fi ’l-lug̲h̲a al-Turkiyya , ed. B. Atalay, Istanbul 1945, 260), and in general use any kind of bird of prey. Bāzdār , from Persian, was also frequently used for the dog̲h̲and̲j̲i̊ . In the Ottoman empire the term dog̲h̲and̲j̲i̊ in the same sense as in later periods was found as early as the 8th/14th century (cf. P. Wittek, Zu einigen frühosmanischen Urkunden , in WZKM, liv (1957), 240; lvii (1961), 103; for dog̲h̲and̲j̲i̊ čiftligi see H. Inalcık, Sûret-i defter-i sancak-i Arvanid


(5 words)

[see ʿaḳīda ].


(5 words)

[see ḍayʿa ].

Dome of the Rock

(9 words)

[see ḳubbat al-ṣak̲h̲ra ].


(170 words)

Author(s): Ménage, V.L.
, ‘a decking-out, an adorning’, Turkish verbal noun derived ultimately from ton , ‘clothes’. The word is used in Ottoman Turkish in two restricted meanings: ‘fleet of ships, navy’ (presumably a caique of Ital. ‘armata’), for which see art. baḥriyya , iii (adding to bibliography H. and R. Kahane and A. Tietze, The Lingua Franca in the Levant , Urbana 1958, 1-45). ‘decoration of the streets of a city’ (synonyms: s̲h̲enlik , s̲h̲ehr-āyīn ) for a Muslim festival or on a secular occasion of public rejoicing such as a victory, an accession, a royal bi…


(5 words)

[see hiba ].


(5 words)

[see kurds ].


(514 words)

Author(s): Holt, P.M.
(Arabic, Dunḳula, Dunḳulā; obsolete forms, Dumḳula, Damḳala), the name of two towns in Nubia; more generally, the riverain territory dependent on these towns. All lie within the present Republic of the Sudan. The arabized Nubians of Dongola are called Danāḳla, a regional, not a tribal, designation. (1) Old Dongola (Dunḳula al-ʿad̲j̲ūz), on the right bank of the Nile, is on the site of a pre-Islamic town, the capital of the Christian kingdom of al-Maḳurra. It was besieged by an army under ʿAbd Allāh b. Saʿd b. Abī Sarḥ [ q.v.] in 31/652, but the Muslims withdrew after concluding a convention ( b…


(824 words)

Author(s): Perlmann, M.
(Turkish: convert) name of a sect in Turkey formed by Jews upon their conversion to Islam late in the 11th/17th century in emulation of S̲h̲abbetai Ṣeb̲i whom they considered the Messiah. The sect emerged out of mystic speculations justifying the conversion of Jews to Islam as a link in the chain of Messianic events, and served as a means to consolidate those who wished to emulate and remain faithful to the converted Messiah, even after his death. It attempted, in the spirit of the Messiah, to maintain secretly within Islam a…


(5 words)

[see miṣāḥa ].

Dōst Muḥammad

(7 words)

[see dūst muḥammad ].


(5 words)

[see dawār ].


(5 words)

[see ḥamām ].


(5 words)

[see mahr ].


(5 words)

[see darʿa ].


(549 words)

Author(s): Ménage, V.L.
( Di̊rač , Durač ), Slavonic and hence Ottoman name for the classical Dyrrhachium (med. Latin Duracium, Ital. Durazzo, Alb. Durrës), the principal port of modern Albania (41° 18′ N., 19° 26′ E.). The classical town was founded (c. 625 B.C.) under the name Epidamnus at the southern end of a narrow rocky peninsula (once an island) running parallel to the mainland coast, to which it was connected in antiquity at the North by a sand-spit …


(5 words)

[see turd̲j̲umān ].


(5 words)

[see tinnīn ].


(7 words)

[see turg̲h̲ud ʿalī pas̲h̲a ].


(5 words)

[see masraḥiyya ].


(6 words)

[see taʿbīr al-ruʾyā ].


(5 words)

[see libās ].


(5 words)

[see ibil ].


(5 words)

[see ʿaṭṭār ].


(5 words)

[see durūz ].


(2,026 words)

Author(s): Gardet, L.
, appeal, invocation (addressed to God) either on behalf of another or for oneself ( li...), or else against someone ( ʿalā ...); hence: prayer of invocation, calling either for blessing, or for imprecation and cursing, connected with the Semitic idea of the effective value of the spoken word. Cf. Ḳurʾān XVII, 11: “Man prays for evil as he prays for good”.— Duʿāʾ therefore will have the general sense of personal prayer addressed to God, and can often be translated as “prayer of request”. I.—The scope and practice of duʿāʾ . 1. In the Ḳurʾān, duʿāʾ always keeps its original meaning of invo…


(9 words)

[see k̲h̲urramiyya , t̲h̲anawiyya , zindīḳ ].


(5 words)

[see mazyadīs ].


(5 words)

[see rubāʿī ].


(808 words)

Author(s): Marr, Phebe
(commonly spelled Dubai ), a port (25° 16′ N., 55° 18′ E.) and s̲h̲ayk̲h̲dom on the Trucial Coast of Arabia. The town lies at the head of a winding creek ( k̲h̲awr ) extending some eight miles inland; ferries ply between Dayra, the market quarter on the north-east bank, and al-S̲h̲andag̲h̲a and Dubayy proper, quarters on the south-west bank. The population of the town, about 47,000, is predominantly Arab with some Iranians, Indians, and Balūčīs (Hay, 114). The Arab inhabitants of the principality comprise…


(5 words)

[see nud̲j̲ūm ].


(845 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(modern spelling Debdou; usual pron.: Dǝbdu, ethn. dəbdūbī , pl. dbādba ), a small town in eastern Morocco, at an altitude of 1,100 m., “at the foot of the right flank of the valley” of the Oued Dubdū “which rises in a perpendicular cliff to a height of 80 m. above the valley”; on a plateau nearby stands the fortress ( ḳaṣba [ ḳaṣaba ]) protected by a fosse on the side facing the mountain; on the left side of the valley lies a suburb named Mṣəllā. A dependency of the ʿamāla (under the administration of the French Protectorate in the region) of Oujda, it is the ce…


(5 words)

[see ragusa ].


(5 words)

[see kārūn ].

Dūd al-Ḳazz

(6 words)

[see ḥarīr ].


(1,878 words)

Author(s): Farmer, H.G.
( Daff , the modern pronunciation, may be traced back to Abū ʿUbayda [d. ca. 210/825]) generic name for any instrument of the tambourine family, although sometimes it is the name for a special type. Islamic tradition says that it was invented by Tubal b. Lamak Masʿūdī, Murūd̲j̲ , viii, 88) whilst other gossip avers that it was first played on the nuptial night of Sulaymān and Bilḳīs (Ewliyā Čelebi, i/2, 226). Al-Mufaḍḍal b. Salama (d. 307-8/920) says that it was of Arab origin (fol. 20) and Ibn Iyās (d. ca. 930/ 1524) says in his Badāʾiʿ al-zuhūr that it was the duff that w…


(1,041 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W. | Spuler, B.
, occasionally Dūḳlāt , a Mongol tribe whose name, according to Abu ’l-G̲h̲āzī (ed. Desmaisons, St. Petersburg 1871, i, 65), derives from the plural of the Mongol word dog̲h̲olong (-lang) “lame”. The tribe appears to have played no part in the early period of the Mongol Empire, though it is supposed always to have supported Čingiz K̲h̲ān (Ras̲h̲īd al-Dīn, ed. Berezin in Trudi̊ vost. otd. Imp. Russk. Ark̲h̲eol. obs̲h̲čestva , vii, 275, xiii/text 47, 52; tr. L. A. Khetagurov, Moscow-Leningrad 1952, i/1, 193). At that time the tribe apparently …


(14 words)

(Ar.), “forenoon”, the hour of one of the prayers [see ṣalāt ].

Dukayn al-Rād̲j̲iz

(256 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
, the name of two poets who were confused by Ibn Ḳutayba ( S̲h̲iʿr , S̲h̲ākir ed. 592-95) and the authors who copied or utilized him: Ibn ʿAbd Rabbih, ʿIḳd , 1346/1928 ed., 202-3; Ag̲h̲ānī , viii, 155—Beirut ed., ix, 252-3; C. A. Nallino, Litt ., (with a note of correction by M. Nallino). 1.—Dukayn b. Rad̲j̲āʾ al-Fuḳaymī (d. 105/723-24); a panegyric in rad̲j̲az composed by him on Muṣʿab b. al-Zubayr; and an urd̲j̲ūza upon his horse who won a race organized by al-Walīd b. ʿAbd al-Malik (see Yāḳūt, xi, 113-17; Ibn ʿAsākir, v, 274-9), have been preserved. 2.—Dukayn b. Saʿīd al-Dārimī (d. 109/72…


(5 words)

[see tütün ].


(444 words)

Author(s): Deverdun, G.
, a confederation of Moroccan tribes which constituted an autonomous administrative region during the French Protectorate. When Morocco attained independence, it was attached to the province of Casablanca, and now forms no more than the al-Ḏj̲adīda circle (Mazagan). Some sections of the G̲h̲arb tribe also have This name. Al-Bakrī does not mention the Dukkāla, but al-Idrīsī, together with Ibn K̲h̲aldūn ( ʿIbar ) and Leo Africanus later, attribute an extensive area to the confederation, comprising roughly the triangle within the rivers …


(5 words)

[see nāʿūra ].
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