Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition

Get access Subject: Middle East and Islamic Studies
Edited by: P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel and W.P. Heinrichs

The Encyclopaedia of Islam (Second Edition) Online sets out the present state of our knowledge of the Islamic World. It is a unique and invaluable reference tool, an essential key to understanding the world of Islam, and the authoritative source not only for the religion, but also for the believers and the countries in which they live. 

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(5 words)

[see mahr ].


(5 words)

[see darʿa ].


(549 words)

Author(s): Ménage, V.L.
( Di̊rač , Durač ), Slavonic and hence Ottoman name for the classical Dyrrhachium (med. Latin Duracium, Ital. Durazzo, Alb. Durrës), the principal port of modern Albania (41° 18′ N., 19° 26′ E.). The classical town was founded (c. 625 B.C.) under the name Epidamnus at the southern end of a narrow rocky peninsula (once an island) running parallel to the mainland coast, to which it was connected in antiquity at the North by a sand-spit …


(5 words)

[see turd̲j̲umān ].


(5 words)

[see tinnīn ].


(7 words)

[see turg̲h̲ud ʿalī pas̲h̲a ].


(5 words)

[see masraḥiyya ].


(6 words)

[see taʿbīr al-ruʾyā ].


(5 words)

[see libās ].


(5 words)

[see ibil ].


(5 words)

[see ʿaṭṭār ].


(5 words)

[see durūz ].


(2,026 words)

Author(s): Gardet, L.
, appeal, invocation (addressed to God) either on behalf of another or for oneself ( li...), or else against someone ( ʿalā ...); hence: prayer of invocation, calling either for blessing, or for imprecation and cursing, connected with the Semitic idea of the effective value of the spoken word. Cf. Ḳurʾān XVII, 11: “Man prays for evil as he prays for good”.— Duʿāʾ therefore will have the general sense of personal prayer addressed to God, and can often be translated as “prayer of request”. I.—The scope and practice of duʿāʾ . 1. In the Ḳurʾān, duʿāʾ always keeps its original meaning of invo…


(9 words)

[see k̲h̲urramiyya , t̲h̲anawiyya , zindīḳ ].


(5 words)

[see mazyadīs ].


(5 words)

[see rubāʿī ].


(808 words)

Author(s): Marr, Phebe
(commonly spelled Dubai ), a port (25° 16′ N., 55° 18′ E.) and s̲h̲ayk̲h̲dom on the Trucial Coast of Arabia. The town lies at the head of a winding creek ( k̲h̲awr ) extending some eight miles inland; ferries ply between Dayra, the market quarter on the north-east bank, and al-S̲h̲andag̲h̲a and Dubayy proper, quarters on the south-west bank. The population of the town, about 47,000, is predominantly Arab with some Iranians, Indians, and Balūčīs (Hay, 114). The Arab inhabitants of the principality comprise…


(5 words)

[see nud̲j̲ūm ].


(845 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(modern spelling Debdou; usual pron.: Dǝbdu, ethn. dəbdūbī , pl. dbādba ), a small town in eastern Morocco, at an altitude of 1,100 m., “at the foot of the right flank of the valley” of the Oued Dubdū “which rises in a perpendicular cliff to a height of 80 m. above the valley”; on a plateau nearby stands the fortress ( ḳaṣba [ ḳaṣaba ]) protected by a fosse on the side facing the mountain; on the left side of the valley lies a suburb named Mṣəllā. A dependency of the ʿamāla (under the administration of the French Protectorate in the region) of Oujda, it is the ce…
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