Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition

Get access Subject: Middle East and Islamic Studies
Edited by: P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel and W.P. Heinrichs

The Encyclopaedia of Islam (Second Edition) Online sets out the present state of our knowledge of the Islamic World. It is a unique and invaluable reference tool, an essential key to understanding the world of Islam, and the authoritative source not only for the religion, but also for the believers and the countries in which they live. 

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(5 words)

[see ragusa ].


(5 words)

[see kārūn ].

Dūd al-Ḳazz

(6 words)

[see ḥarīr ].


(1,878 words)

Author(s): Farmer, H.G.
( Daff , the modern pronunciation, may be traced back to Abū ʿUbayda [d. ca. 210/825]) generic name for any instrument of the tambourine family, although sometimes it is the name for a special type. Islamic tradition says that it was invented by Tubal b. Lamak Masʿūdī, Murūd̲j̲ , viii, 88) whilst other gossip avers that it was first played on the nuptial night of Sulaymān and Bilḳīs (Ewliyā Čelebi, i/2, 226). Al-Mufaḍḍal b. Salama (d. 307-8/920) says that it was of Arab origin (fol. 20) and Ibn Iyās (d. ca. 930/ 1524) says in his Badāʾiʿ al-zuhūr that it was the duff that w…


(1,041 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W. | Spuler, B.
, occasionally Dūḳlāt , a Mongol tribe whose name, according to Abu ’l-G̲h̲āzī (ed. Desmaisons, St. Petersburg 1871, i, 65), derives from the plural of the Mongol word dog̲h̲olong (-lang) “lame”. The tribe appears to have played no part in the early period of the Mongol Empire, though it is supposed always to have supported Čingiz K̲h̲ān (Ras̲h̲īd al-Dīn, ed. Berezin in Trudi̊ vost. otd. Imp. Russk. Ark̲h̲eol. obs̲h̲čestva , vii, 275, xiii/text 47, 52; tr. L. A. Khetagurov, Moscow-Leningrad 1952, i/1, 193). At that time the tribe apparently …


(14 words)

(Ar.), “forenoon”, the hour of one of the prayers [see ṣalāt ].

Dukayn al-Rād̲j̲iz

(256 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
, the name of two poets who were confused by Ibn Ḳutayba ( S̲h̲iʿr , S̲h̲ākir ed. 592-95) and the authors who copied or utilized him: Ibn ʿAbd Rabbih, ʿIḳd , 1346/1928 ed., 202-3; Ag̲h̲ānī , viii, 155—Beirut ed., ix, 252-3; C. A. Nallino, Litt ., (with a note of correction by M. Nallino). 1.—Dukayn b. Rad̲j̲āʾ al-Fuḳaymī (d. 105/723-24); a panegyric in rad̲j̲az composed by him on Muṣʿab b. al-Zubayr; and an urd̲j̲ūza upon his horse who won a race organized by al-Walīd b. ʿAbd al-Malik (see Yāḳūt, xi, 113-17; Ibn ʿAsākir, v, 274-9), have been preserved. 2.—Dukayn b. Saʿīd al-Dārimī (d. 109/72…


(5 words)

[see tütün ].


(444 words)

Author(s): Deverdun, G.
, a confederation of Moroccan tribes which constituted an autonomous administrative region during the French Protectorate. When Morocco attained independence, it was attached to the province of Casablanca, and now forms no more than the al-Ḏj̲adīda circle (Mazagan). Some sections of the G̲h̲arb tribe also have This name. Al-Bakrī does not mention the Dukkāla, but al-Idrīsī, together with Ibn K̲h̲aldūn ( ʿIbar ) and Leo Africanus later, attribute an extensive area to the confederation, comprising roughly the triangle within the rivers …


(5 words)

[see nāʿūra ].


(478 words)

Author(s): Marin, E.
, an important tribe in the 3rd/9th century whose holdings formed a special district of their own known as al-Īg̲h̲ārayn (the two fiefs) in al-Ḏj̲ibāl. east of Nihāwand between Hamadān and Iṣfahān. ʿĪsā b. Idrīs laid the basis for the Dulafid fortune by engaging in highway robbery to such an extent that he was able to retire and erect a stronghold at al-Karad̲j̲, which his son and successor, al-Ḳāsim b. ʿĪsā al-Id̲j̲lī, known as Abū Dulaf, employed as the foundation for the Dulafid dynasty. ¶ Abū Dulaf was a S̲h̲īʿī, a highly educated man, a lauded poet, a …


(336 words)

Author(s): Longrigg, S.H.
, a large Sunnī tribe in ʿIrāḳ, living on the Euphrates from a point just below Fallūd̲j̲a to al-Ḳāʾim. They claim origins at Dulaymiyyāt in Nad̲j̲d five centuries ago, but these are doubtless mythical and in fact the tribe represents a wide variety of mixed tribal fragments and tribeless peasantry. A few sections are nomadic in the Ḏj̲azīra. moving to the river only from April to September; but the great majority live, at the humble level of ʿIrāḳī peasantry, by cultivating by water-lift or flo…


(181 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl. | Pellat, Ch.
, the name of the grey mule of the Prophet, which had been given to him by the Muḳawḳis [ q.v.], at the same time as the ass called Yaʿfūr/ʿUfayr. After serving as his mount during his campaigns, she survived him and died at Yanbuʿ so old and toothless that in order to feed her the barley had to be put into her mouth. According to the S̲h̲īʿī tradition, ʿAlī rode upon her at the battle of the Camel [see al-d̲j̲amal ] and at Ṣiffīn. As Duldul in Arabic means a porcupine, it is possible that she derived her name from her gait, but This is far from certain. For…


(5 words)

[see nud̲j̲ūm ].


(436 words)

Author(s): Sourdel, D.
, the name given by the Arab authors to a locality situated, on the borders of Anatolia and Syria, in the upper valley of the Nahr Karzīn, at the foot of the Anti-Taurus (Kurd Dag̲h̲), north-west of ʿAynṭāb. It was the ancient Doliche, famous for the cult of a Semitic divinity who in the Graeco-Roman period received the name of Zeus Dolichenos. Being at the intersection of the routes from Germanicia, Nicopolis and Zeugma, it had been conquered by ʿIyāḍ b. G̲h̲ānim and became one of the fortresse…

Dūmat al-D̲j̲andal

(2,069 words)

Author(s): Veccia Vaglieri, L.
, an oasis at the head of the Wādī Sirḥān which runs from south-east to north-west, linking central Arabia on one side and the mountains of Ḥawrān and Syria on the other; it is thus situated on the most direct route between Medina and Damascus, being about 15 days’ journey on foot from the former and about 7 days or rather more from the latter. The oasis is in a g̲h̲āʾiṭ “depression” or k̲h̲abt “vast low-lying area”, the length of which, according to Yāḳūt, is 5 parasangs or, in modern terms, according to Ḥāfiẓ Wahba, 3 mil…


(273 words)

Author(s): Sourdel, D.
, mediaeval ruined town of Upper Mesopotamia (within the borders of modern Turkey), situated 20 km. south-west of Mārdīn on a tributary of the K̲h̲ābūr, the site of which is today marked by the Kurdish village of Koč Ḥiṣār, the Kosar of the western chroniclers. A fortress of former times, generally identified with the Adenystrai of Dio Cassius, Dunaysir is not noted as an important place in the early years of Islam, and was subsequently never a fortress. Not until the 4th/10th century does its name appear, in a ms. of Ibn Ḥawḳ…


(5 words)

[see damāwand ]


(5 words)

[see deñi̇zli̇ ].


(5 words)

[see dongola ].
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