Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition

Get access Subject: Middle East and Islamic Studies
Edited by: P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel and W.P. Heinrichs

The Encyclopaedia of Islam (Second Edition) Online sets out the present state of our knowledge of the Islamic World. It is a unique and invaluable reference tool, an essential key to understanding the world of Islam, and the authoritative source not only for the religion, but also for the believers and the countries in which they live. 

Subscriptions: see Brill.com


(441 words)

Author(s): Tritton, A.S.
(Ar.), the feminine of the elative adjective meaning ‘nearer, nearest’, is used in the Ḳurʾān, often combined with ‘life’ to mean This world. It had more or less This sense before Islam (Noeldeke, Muʿallaḳāt des ʿAmr und des Ḥārith , 49). The heaven of the dunyā is the lowest of the seven; dunyā is what is contained in the succession of night and day, is overshadowed by the sky and upheld by the earth, is all that the eye can see, the world of the seen ( s̲h̲ahāda ). In the realm of the spirit it includes all that Christians mean by the world and the flesh and…

Durayd b. al-Ṣimma

(796 words)

Author(s): Petráček, K.
, ancient Arabic poet and leader of the Banū D̲j̲us̲h̲am b. Muʿāwiya, one of the most powerful Bedouin opponents of Muḥammad, born ca. 530. He is a prominent figure of Arabic pre-Islamic antiquity; to later generations, ¶ he was the embodiment of ancient paganism which fought stubbornly against Islam. His father was Muʿāwiya b. al-Ḥārit̲h̲, called al-Ṣimma, leader of the Banū D̲j̲us̲h̲am b. Muʿāwiya, who belonged to the group of the Hawāzin tribes, and lived between Mecca and Ṭāʾif. Despite the similarity in their religion, and their economic,…


(5 words)

[see drač ],


(403 words)

Author(s): Burton-Page, J.
(Persian, lit. “be distant”), the mace or club used as an emblem of military dignity; in Persian and Turkish usage the dūrbās̲h̲ can also be the functionary who carries the mace [see čāʾūs̲h̲ , sarhang ]. The čūbdārs described by Niẓām al-Mulk, Siyāsat-nāme , ch. xxxix, who seem to have been similar functionaries, carried gold and silver staffs; ʿAwfī, D̲j̲āmiʿ al-ḥikāyāt (passage cited by M. Fuad Köprülü, Bizans müesseselerin Osmanlı müesseselerine tesiri hakkında bazı mülâhazalar , in Türk Hukuk ve Iktisat Tarihi Mecmuası , Istanbul 1931, 213; Ital. tr., Alcune osservazioni


(997 words)

Author(s): Ruska, J.
, the pearl. The ancient legend of its origin is found at great length in the Arabic authors, first in the Petrology ( Steinbuch , ed. Ruska) of Aristotle, then with variants in the Rasāʾil Ik̲h̲wān al-Ṣafāʾ and the later cosmographers. According to it, the aṣṭūrūs (’οστρεῖον) rises from the depths of the sea frequented by ships and goes out to the ocean. The winds there set up a shower of spray and the shells open to receive drops from This; when it has collected a few drops it goes to a secluded spot and exposes the…


(683 words)

Author(s): Yapp, M.E.
, an Afg̲h̲ān tribe known as Abdālī until their name was changed by Aḥmed S̲h̲āh Durrānī. (See abdālī , aḥmad s̲h̲āh , afg̲h̲ānistān ). The tribe was moved from Harāt and granted lands in the region of Ḳandahar by Nadir S̲h̲āh. At This time they were pastoral nomads but in the later 12th/18th century they began to take up agriculture. Their large financial and economic privileges were continued and extended in the reigns of Aḥmad S̲h̲āh and Tīmūr S̲h̲āh, when the Durrānī tribe formed the main pol…


(1,148 words)

Author(s): Walsh, J.R.
, the patronymic of a famous family of Ottoman ʿulemāʾ of the 18th-19th centuries, five members of which attained the office of S̲h̲ayk̲h̲ al-Islām [ q.v.] on no less than nine different occasions between the years 1734 and 1815. Only these latter can be dealt with here, and details must be confined to the periods of their mes̲h̲īk̲h̲at which, unless otherwise stated, was reached by the normal progress through the offices of ḳāḍī of Istanbul, ḳāḍī ’l-ʿasker of Anadolu and ḳāḍī ’l-ʿasker of Rūmeli. 1. Dürrī Meḥmed Efendi . The son of a certain Ilyās, his date a…


(647 words)

Author(s): Reşit Unat, Faik | Rustow, Dankwart A.
ʿAbd Allāh Bey or Efendi (1869-1923), one of the last S̲h̲ayk̲h̲ al-Islāms of the Ottoman Empire, known for his fetwā s condemning the Turkish nationalist movement under Muṣṭafā Kemāl (Atatürk). He was born into a wealthy family claiming the title of seyyid , most of whose male members belonged to the ʿilmiyye class, and five of whom had previously served as S̲h̲ayk̲h̲ al-Islām [see preceding article]. The son of the last there mentioned, ʿAbd Allāh, was Dürrīzāde Meḥmed Efendi, who rose to the rank of Ḳaḍīʿasker of Rumeli, and was the father of the ʿAbd A…


(946 words)

Author(s): Matthews, C.D.
(Dirʿī), a large G̲h̲āfirī tribe, mainly nomadic and Ibāḍī, of the foothills and steppes of ʿUmān in south-eastern Arabia. From Wādī al-Ṣafā and areas of the.G̲h̲āfirī Āl Bū S̲h̲āmis (of Nuʿaym) and Banī Ḳitab in al-Ẓāhira, their dīra extends south-east across the plain (Sayḥ al-Durūʿ) to Wādī Ḥalfīn and the territory of the Hināwī tribe of Āl Wahība. From Ḥamrāʾ al-Durūʿ and other outliers of the mountains of Inner ʿUmān (among which, centering around ʿIzz and Adam, is found the north-west enclave of the G̲h̲āfirī al-D̲j̲anaba), it extends south to the broken district of al-Ḥuḳuf ¶ (al-Ḥ…


(6,810 words)

Author(s): Hodgson, M.G.S. | Şehabeddin Tekindaǧ, M.C. | M. Tayyi̇b Gökbi̇lgi̇n
(Druzes), sing. Durzī , a Syrian people professing an initiatory faith derived from the Ismāʿīliyya [ q.v.]. They call themselves Muwaḥḥidūn , “unitarians”, and number (in the mid-twentieth century) almost 200,000, living in various parts of Syria, especially in the mountains of the Lebanon, Anti-Lebanon, and Ḥawrān, chiefly as cultivators and landlords. The faith originated in the closing years of the reign of al-Ḥākim [ q.v.], Fāṭimid Caliph of Egypt (386-411/996-1021). According to the Ismāʿīlī S̲h̲īʿī faith then officially received in Egypt, al-Ḥākim, as imām


(5 words)

[see kākawayhids ].

Dūst Muḥammad

(800 words)

Author(s): Yapp, M.E.
, the real founder of Bārakzāy rule in Afg̲h̲ānistān, was the 20th son of Pāyinda K̲h̲ān, chief of the Bārakzāy clan under Tīmūr S̲h̲āh. After the execution of Pāyinda K̲h̲ān in the reign of Zamān S̲h̲āh, Dust Muḥammad was brought up by his Ḳi̊zi̊lbas̲h̲ mother’s relatives until he came under the care of the eldest brother, Fatḥ K̲h̲ān, who held considerable influence under Maḥmūd S̲h̲āh. In the second reign of Maḥmūd, Dūst Muḥammad held prominent offices including that of governor of Kūhistān, …


(44,385 words)

Author(s): Ed. | Lewis, B. | Khadduri, M. | Lambton, A.K.S. | Caldwell, J.A.M. | Et al.
, in modern Arabic constitution. A word of Persian origin, it seems originally to have meant a person exercising authority, whether religious or political, and was later specialized to designate members of the Zoroastrian priesthood. It occurs in Kalīla wa-Dimna in the sense of “counsellor”, and recurs with the same sense, at a much later date, in the phrase Dustūr-i mükerrem , one of the honorific titles of the Grand Vizier in the Ottoman Empire. More commonly, dustūr was used in the sense of “rule” or “regulation”, and in particular the code of ru…


(688 words)

Author(s): De Jong, F.
, Ibrāhīm al-Ras̲h̲īd b. Ṣāliḥ al-Dunḳulāwī al-S̲h̲āʿiḳī , Sūfī s̲h̲ayk̲h̲ of Nubian extraction and belonging to the S̲h̲ād̲h̲iliyya order, and a disciple and k̲h̲alīfa [ q.v.] of Aḥmad b. Idrīs [ q.v.]. He was born in 1228/1813 in Duwayh near Dunḳulā (Dongola) on the Nubian Nile and belonged to the tribe of the S̲h̲āʾiḳiyya. He joined the religious community of Aḥmad b. Idrīs in 1246/1830 in the town of Ṣabyā in ʿAsīr [ q.v.], where the latter had sought refuge from prosecution for heresy by the Meccan ʿulamāʾ , and succeeded him as leader of the Ahmadiyya (al-Idrisiyya) ṭarīḳa

Duyūn-i ʿUmūmiyye

(706 words)

Author(s): Lewis, B.
, the Ottoman public debt, more particularly the debt administration set up in 1881. The Ottoman government had made its first attempts to raise money by internal loans in ¶ the late 18th and early 19th centuries (see ashām and ḳāʾime ). The needs and opportunities of the Crimean War brought a new type of loan, floated on the money markets of Europe. The first such foreign loan was raised in London in 1854, the second in the following year. They were for £ 3,000,000 at 6% and £ 5,000,000 at 4% respectively. Betwee…


(5 words)

[see d̲j̲ahannam ].

Düzme Muṣṭafā

(7 words)

[see muṣṭafā düzme ].
▲   Back to top   ▲