Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition

Get access Subject: Middle East and Islamic Studies
Edited by: P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel and W.P. Heinrichs

The Encyclopaedia of Islam (Second Edition) Online sets out the present state of our knowledge of the Islamic World. It is a unique and invaluable reference tool, an essential key to understanding the world of Islam, and the authoritative source not only for the religion, but also for the believers and the countries in which they live. 

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(5 words)

[see ard̲j̲īs̲h̲ ].


(6 words)

[see aya solūḳ ]. ¶


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[see Ḥamāsa ].


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[see al-salaf wa ’l-k̲h̲alaf ].


(5 words)

[see hid̲j̲āʾ ].


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[see kitābāt , also k̲h̲aṭṭ , naḳs̲h̲ ].


(7 words)

[see naʿt , ṣifa ].


(7 words)

[see al-istiwāʾ , khaṭṭ ].


(5 words)

[see inṣāf ].


(5 words)

[see irbīl ].


(2,340 words)

Author(s): Decei, A. | Tayyib Gökbilgin, M.
, Erdīl or Erdelistān , from the Hungarian Erdély ( erdö elve = beyond the forest); Ardeal in Rumanian; Siebenbürgen in German; the Latin name Terra Ultrasilvas and later Transsilvania being a translation of the Hungarian—the province of Transylvania which now constitutes the western portion of Rumania. In Ottoman sources the name of Erdel occurs first in the Rūznāme-i Süleymānī in the course of a description of the reception into the Ottoman army of King Yanos̲h̲ of the wilāyet of Engurūs ( i.e., of the Hungarians), who is described as having been formerly the Bey of Erdel (cf. Ferīdūn Bey, M…

Erd̲j̲iyas (or Erd̲j̲iyes) Dag̲h̲Ȋ

(383 words)

Author(s): Taeschner, F.
(modern spelling Erciyas), the Argaeus Mons of antiquity, referred to by Ḥamd Allāh Mustawfī ( Nuzha , 98, 181) as Ard̲j̲āst-kūh, the highest mountain in Central Anatolia. It is an extinct volcano, with a height of 3,916 m. (= 12,847 ft.), which rises rather suddenly from the surrounding plain of an average height of 1000 m. (= 3,280 ft.). It is some 20 km. (12½ m.) to the south of the town of Kayseri, almost precisely 38° 30′ N., 35° 30′ E., and…


(594 words)

Author(s): Mordtmann, J.H. | Taeschner, F.
, Turkish adaptation of the place-name Heraclea, given to a number of places in Turkey, of which the most important are: 1) Karadeniz Ereğlisi (Ereğli on the Black Sea), Heraclea Pontica, hence formerly (as in Ḏj̲ihānnümā , 653) known as Bendereğli: a small town on the coast of the Black Sea, 41° 17′ N., ¶ 31° 25′ E., in the region of the coalfields formerly named after it, but now called after Zonguldak. The kaza , now in the vilâyet of Zonguldak, was once in the sand̲j̲aḳ (or liwāʾ ) of Bolu. This used to belong to the eyālet of Anadolu, and in the 19th century to the wilāyet o…


(1,238 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
(Ärätnä, Ärdäni ?), name of a chief of Uyg̲h̲ur origin, who made his fortune in Asia Minor as an heir of the Ilk̲h̲ānid régime. The name is perhaps to be explained by Sanskrit ratna ‘jewel’, ¶ common among the Oyg̲h̲ur after the spread of Buddhism (communication from L. Bazin); this was of course no bar to the family becoming Muslim, like all the Mongols and Turks in the Ilk̲h̲ānid state. Eretna, who was probably an officer in the service of Čūbān/Čoban [see čūbānids ], settled in Asia Minor as a follower of the latter’s son, Tīmūrtās̲h̲, was appointed go…


(5 words)

[see ṣaḥrāʾ ].


(1,058 words)

Author(s): Darkot, Besim
( Arg̲h̲anī , sometimes Argani , in European sources Arghana until recent times), centre of a kaza in the vilâyet of Diyār-Bakr [ q.v.], called for a time ʿOt̲h̲māniyya (Osmaniye), situated on the highroad from Diyār-Bakr to Harput. 18 kms. to the north-west, on the river Tigris, lies the mining town of Erg̲h̲ani-Maʿden(i), which is the centre of a kaza of the vilâyet of Elazi̊g̲h̲ (El-ʿAzīz) called after Erg̲h̲ani. Although the two towns lie apart, they are confused in some sources. The name ʿOt̲h̲māniyya given to Erg̲h̲ani had to be abandoned because it gave rise to confus…


(281 words)

Author(s): Boratav, P.N.
, the name of a plain surrounded by mountains, mentioned in the legend of the origin of the Mongols. An associated legend in the Chinese Chronicle of Pei-shih (ed. in about 629) explains the origins of the Tʾu-chüeh as follows. This people lived on the shores of the Western Sea, Hsi-hai. They were massacred by a neighbouring people. Only a young boy survived, ¶ although wounded. A she-wolf who protected and fed him became pregnant by him. She led him through a grotto to a plain surrounded by mountains. There she gave birth to ten boys who were the ancestors…

Ergin, Osman

(727 words)

Author(s): İz, Fahīr
( ʿOt̲h̲mān Nūrī ) Turkish scholar and publicist, was born in 1883 in Imrin, a village (now a district centre) in the wilāyet of Malatya. His father Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ī ʿAlī, of a family of humble farmers, tried his fortune in trade and after many journeys, including one in Rumania, settled in Istanbul, where he opened a coffee-house. The little Osman, who had memorized the Ḳurʾān in the village, was brought to Istanbul in 1892 where, after attending various modern schools, he entered the Dār ül-S̲h̲afa…


(286 words)

Author(s): Ménage, V.L.
( Argiri , Ergeri ), Ottoman name of Argyrokastro, Alb. Gjinokastër, principal town of Albanian Epirus (40° 13′ N., 20° 13′ E.) near the foot of the eastern slopes of the Mali Gjerë; overlooking the wide and fertile valley of the Drin, a tributary of the Voyutsa (Vijose), it controls the route from Valona into Northern Greece. The town, near the site of the ancient Hadrianopolis, probably takes its name from that of an Illyrian tribe. The district came under Ottoman control in the reign of Bāyezīd I. In the defter of 835/1431 ‘Argiri-ḳaṣri̊’ (its district being called wilāyet-i Zenebis̲h̲ , i.e…


(264 words)

Author(s): İz, Fahır
, Saʿd al-Dīn Nüzhet , modern Turkish Sadetti̇n Nüzhet Ergun , Turkish scholar and literary historian (1901-46). Born in Bursa, he was educated at the Faculty of Letters of Istanbul ¶ University and taught Turkish literature in various secondary schools in Anatolia and later in Istanbul, where he also worked as a librarian. He started his career as a scholar while he was a teacher in the Konya lycée, with a book on the folk-lore of Konya. A hard-working and prolific scholar, his works are based on first-hand research into wh…
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