Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition

Get access Subject: Middle East and Islamic Studies
Edited by: P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel and W.P. Heinrichs

The Encyclopaedia of Islam (Second Edition) Online sets out the present state of our knowledge of the Islamic World. It is a unique and invaluable reference tool, an essential key to understanding the world of Islam, and the authoritative source not only for the religion, but also for the believers and the countries in which they live. 

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[see ḥawwāʾ ].


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[see bayyina ].


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[see yābura ].

Ewliyā Čelebi

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Author(s): Mordtmann, J.H. | Duda, H.W.
b. Derwīs̲h̲ Meḥmed Ẓilli̊ , b. 10 Muḥarram 1020/25 March 1611 in the Unkapan quarter of Istanbul, seems to have died not before the last third of 1095/1684 (cf. WZKM, li (1948-52), 226, Anm. 137, and TM, xii (1955), 261). For a period of almost forty years (from 1050/1640, perhaps even earlier, to 1087/1676), after he had already started his wanderings in Istanbul in the year 1040/1630-1, he described a series of long journeys within the Ottoman Empire and in the neighbouring lands, undertaken (or allegedly undertaken) sometimes …


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Author(s): Mélikoff, I.
, ( G̲h̲azī Evrenos ) makes his appearance in history after the emirate of Ḳarasi̊ had been occupied by the Ottomans (after 735/1334-5), and given by sultan Ork̲h̲ān as tīmār to his eldest son Süleymān Pas̲h̲a, into whose service came the begs of the amīrs of Ḳarasi̊, Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ī İl-Begi, Ed̲j̲e Beg, G̲h̲āzī Fāḍil and Evrenos. According to the genealogical tree of the family, confirmed by a deed of waḳf (published by Ö. L. Barkan, in Vakıflar Dergisi , ii, Ankara 1942, 342-3), the father of Evrenos is said to have been ʿĪsā Beg, later called Prangi because he died in…

Ewrenos Og̲h̲ullari̊

(883 words)

Author(s): Mélikoff, I.
G̲h̲āzī Evrenos had seven sons, whose names are given by the chronicles and the waḳf deeds, and several daug̲h̲ters, one of ¶ whom married the Grand Vizier Čandarli̊ Ḵh̲alīl Pas̲h̲a and became the mother of Bāyezīd II’s Grand Vizier, Čandarli̊ Ibrāhīm Pas̲h̲a. Two of his sons became famous in history, ʿAlī and ʿĪsā. ʿAlī was at first head of the aḳi̊nd̲j̲i̊s under the command of his father, then sand̲j̲ak begi. During the interregnum he adopted the cause of Mūsā Čelebī, and was sent by him to join his father who was living in retirement at Yenid̲j̲e-i Vardar; but…

Exchange Value

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[see ʿiwād ].


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[see tafsīr ].


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[see wud̲j̲ūd ].


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[see ruḳya ].


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[see nafaḳa ].


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[see kaffāra ].


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[see imtiyāzāt ].


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Author(s): İnalcık, Halil
, from the Arabic iyāla , “management, administration, exercise of power” (cf. Turkish translation of Fīrūzābādī’s Ḳāmūs by ʿĀṣim, Istanbul 1250/1834, iii, 135); in the Ottoman empire the largest administrative division under a beglerbegi [ q.v.], governor-general. In this sense it was officially used after ¶ 1000/1591. The assumption that under Murād III the empire was divided up into eyālets (M. d’Ohsson, Tableau général de l’empire ottoman , vii, 277) must be an error since the term does not occur in the documents of the period. Instead we always find beglerbegilik and wilāyet ( wilāy…


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[see taʾrīk̲h̲ ].


(532 words)

Author(s): Sümer, F.
( Eymür ), name of an Og̲h̲uz tribe ( boy ). They are mentioned in a legendary account of the pagan Og̲h̲uz as being the only tribe of the Üč-ok group from whom sprang rulers, but the historical references to them so far known go back only to the 10th/16th century, when they formed part of Türkmen confederations in the Ottoman Empire, in Persia, and south-east of the Caspian Sea. (1) The Eymir of the Ottoman domains were in two main branches, the one living among the Türkmen of Aleppo, the other with the Dulkadi̊rli̊ confederation ( ulus ). The former consisted, in the reign¶ of Süleymān I, of fou…


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[see istanbul ].


(556 words)

Author(s): İz, Fahır
, abāḥ al-Dīn Raḥmī , modern Turkish, until 1934 Sabahatti̇n Rahmi̇ , afterwards Sabahattin Eyuboğlu , Turkish essayist, writer and translator (1908-73). Born in Akçaabat (Polathane) near Trabzon, the son of Raḥmī Eyyūbog̲h̲lu, a civil servant, he was educated in Trabzon. He then went to France on a government scholarship and studied French literature and aesthetics in Dijon, Lyon and Paris universities (1928-32). Becoming lecturer ( doçent ) in French literature in the University of Istanbul (1933-9), he was invited, together with some of…


(227 words)

Author(s): İz, Fahır
, Bedrī Raḥmī , modern Turkish Bedri̇ Rahmi̇ Eyuboğlu , Turkish poet, writer and painter (1913-75), younger brother of the following. He was born in Görele, near Trabzon on the Black Sea. Educated at Trabzon lycée and the Istanbul Academy of Fine Arts, he spent two years in Paris for further study in painting. On his return (1933) he was appointed to the staff of the Istanbul Academy of Fine Arts, where he taught until his death from cancer on 21 September 1975. His writings and sketches began to appear in ϒeni adam in 1933. As a painter he became interested in folk arts and crafts and…
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