Encyclopaedia of Islam, THREE

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The Third Edition of the Encyclopaedia of Islam is an entirely new work, which sets out the present state of our knowledge of the Islamic World and reflects the great diversity of current scholarship. It is a unique and invaluable reference tool, an essential key to understanding the world of Islam, and the authoritative source not only for the religion, but also for the believers and the countries in which they live. The new scope includes comprehensive coverage of Islam in the twentieth century and of Muslim minorities all over the world.

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al-Dabbāgh, ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz

(953 words)

Author(s): Lory, Pierre
ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz b. Masʿūd  al-Dabbāgh al-Idrīsī al-Ḥasanī (1090–1132/1679–1719, in Fez) was an unusual mystic. He is treated in the prosopographical literature (see Muḥammad b. al-Ṭayyib al-Qādirī, Nashr al-mathānī li-ahl al-qarn al-ḥādī ʿashar wa-l-thānī, ed. Muḥammad Ḥajjī and Aḥmad Tawfīq, Rabat 1977–86, 3:245–6), but most of what we know about him comes from the lengthy book devoted to him by his disciple Aḥmad b. al-Mubārak al-Lamaṭī (d. 1156/1743; al-Qādirī, 4:40–2), al-Dhahab al-Ibrīz min kalām Sayyidī al-Ghawth ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz al-Dabbāgh (“Pure gold from the words …
Date: 2021-07-19

al-Ḍabbī, Abū Jaʿfar

(836 words)

Author(s): Ávila, María Luisa
Abū Jaʿfar Aḥmad b. Yaḥyā b. Aḥmad b. ʿAmīra al-Ḍabbī was an Andalusī scholar well known as the author of Bughyat al-multamis fī taʾrīkh rijāl ahl al-Andalus, a biographical dictionary of scholars that complements Jadhwat al-muqtabis by al-Ḥumaydī (d. 488/1095). Al-Ḍabbī was born in Vélez (in the present-day province of Almería) in about 550/1155 and lived most of his life in Murcia. He died in that city when a wall fell on him in one of his vegetable gardens, in 599/1203. He came early to the world of knowledge: he was not yet ten when he attended lessons by Abū ʿAbdallāh b…
Date: 2021-07-19

Dabīr, Mirzā Salāmat ʿAlī

(1,429 words)

Author(s): Naim, Choudhri M.
Mirzā Salāmat ʿAlīDabīr” (1803–75) was an Indian poet born in Delhi, who was known especially for his marthiyas (elegies, threnodies) in Urdu. His father, Mirzā Ghulām Ḥusayn (1190–?/1776-?), who reportedly earned his living as a trader, belonged to a family of Shīʿī scholars who had migrated to Delhi from Shiraz and were related to the well-known poet Ahlī-yī Shīrāzī (d. 1942/1535 or 943/1536). Early in the nineteenth century, the family moved to Lucknow, where Salāmat ʿAlī studied the traditional subjects wit…
Date: 2021-07-19

Dabistān-i madhāhib

(827 words)

Author(s): Moin, A. Azfar
The Dabistān-i madhāhib (“School of religions”) is an encyclopaedic work in Persian, which was composed anonymously in mid-eleventh/seventeenth-century India. It describes and classifies various world religions—Zoroastrianism, Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, Islam, Judaism, and Christianity—and several related sects and esoteric groups active in early modern India, Iran, and Central Asia. Combining extensive textual knowledge, oral reports, and personal observations of the author, the Dabistān opens a unique window on the religious climate of the time. Scholars have deb…
Date: 2021-07-19

al-Dabūsī, Abū Zayd

(1,071 words)

Author(s): Wheeler, Brannon M.
Abū Zayd ʿUbaydallāh b. ʿUmar b. ʿĪsā al-Dabūsī (b. c. 367/978, d. 430/1039 or 432/1041, in Bukhara) was a Ḥanafī jurist best known for his theoretical work in explaining juristic disagreements (ʿilm al-khilāf) among the founding authorities of the Ḥanafī school and between the Ḥanafī school and the other major Sunnī law schools. His nisba, al-Dabūsī, is taken from the city of Dabūsiyya (also Dabūsa), located between Bukhara and Samarqand. Some biographers, including Ibn al-ʿImād (d. 1089/1679), give his name as ʿAbdallāh rather than ʿUbaydallāh. All biographical notices credit …
Date: 2021-07-19


(1,507 words)

Author(s): Yavari, Neguin
The Dābūyid dynasty of ispahbads (local princes) ruled over the northern Iranian province of Ṭabaristān until they were deposed in 144/761 by the ʿAbbāsids. Centred in Sārī, the reign of the Dābūyids coincided with the latter part of the Sāsānid’s reign (554–69) over neighbouring Iranian territory and that of the Umayyads (41–132/661–749) who were the first Muslim dynasty. There is a paucity of information on the beginnings of Dābūyid rule but what little information is available is provided primarily by the two local histories of Ṭabaristān by Ibn Isf…
Date: 2021-07-19


(863 words)

Author(s): Macdonald, Michael C. A.
Dadanitic is the name now given to a group of Ancient North Arabian (ANA) inscriptions centred on the oasis of Dadan (biblical Dedān, modern al-ʿUlā), in northwestern Arabia but with scattered examples elsewhere, principally around the nearby, rival oasis of Taymāʾ. Macdonald (Reflections, 33) showed that the previous division of these inscriptions into “Dedanite” and “Lihyanite” was based on a mistaken analysis of the script. The ANA scripts belong to the “South Semitic script family” (Macdonal…
Date: 2021-07-19

Dāgh Dihlavī

(2,578 words)

Author(s): Shafi, Muhammad | Farooqi, Mehr A.
Dāgh (lit., scar, stain, mark, sorrow) is the nom de plume (takhallus) of Navāb Mīrzā Khān Dihlavī, originally called Ibrāhīm, a pre-eminent modern Urdu poet. He was the son of Navāb Shams al-Dīn Khān of Jhirkā Firūzpūr—who belonged to the aristocratic Lohārū family, to which the great poet Ghālib (d. 1869) was also related by marriage—and Vazīr Begam (usually called Chhotʾī Begam). Navāb Mīrzā Khān was born in Chāndnī Chawk, Delhi, on 12 Dhū l-Ḥijja 1246/25 May 1831 (see his horoscope in Jalva-yi Dāgh, 9). In 1837, his father was hanged by the British and his property confisc…
Date: 2021-07-19


(8,251 words)

Author(s): Kemper, Michael
Daghestan (Dāghistān) is a republic of the Russian Federation. Located in the northeastern Caucasus, it has an area of 50,300 square kilometres and borders Kalmykia and the Stavropol region in the north, Chechnya and Georgia in the west, Azerbaijan in the south, and the Caspian Sea in the east. Daghestan’s geography ranges from coastal plain to foothills to alpine areas. The population of 2,910,249 (2010 census) includes speakers of Turkic languages (Kumyks, 14.9 percent; Azeris, 4.5 percent; N…
Date: 2021-07-19


(4,031 words)

Author(s): Babadjanov, Bakhtiyar
Dahbīdiyya is the name (nisba) of a family which, in the historiography and hagiography of Central Asia, was applied to descendants of Jalāl al-Dīn Khvājagī al-Kāsānī, later called al-Dahbīdī, known also as Makhdūm-i Aʿẓam b. Jamāl al-Dīn (d. 949/1542). He was a well-known shaykh of the Naqshbandiyya ṭarīqa (Ar., lit., way, hence Ṣūfī order), a pupil of Muḥammad b. Burhān al-Dīn al-Samarqandī, better known as Muḥammad Qāḍī (d. 922/1516), who was, in his turn, a pupil of Khvāja ʿUbaydallāh Aḥrār (d. 895/1490), the famous shaykh of the Naqshbandiyya (a widespread ṭarīqa whose eponymous…
Date: 2021-07-19


(815 words)

Author(s): Babou, Cheikh Anta
The use of the word dahira in a religious context appears to be unique to the Ṣūfī turuuq (orders, from Ar. ṭuruq, pl. of ṭarīqa, lit., way) of Senegal. The Arabic word dāʾira has meanings involving mathematical concepts (e.g., ring, circuit, circumference) and administrative notions (e.g., district, bureau, agency) (Wehr, 347). In Morocco, for example, a dahira (local spelling) is a local police unit above the commissariat; in Algeria, a daïra (local spelling) is a district or “circle,” the second largest administrative unit, below the wilaya (wilāya, governorate). The connotati…
Date: 2021-07-19

Dahiratoul Moustarchidina wal Moustarchidaty

(1,696 words)

Author(s): Samson-Ndaw, Fabienne
The Dahiratoul Moustarchidina wal Moustarchidaty (Ar., dāʾirat al-mustarshidīna wa-l-mustarshidāti, lit., the circle of those men and women who follow the straight path) is a Senegalese Islamic movement that originated in the Tijāniyya (a Ṣūfī order founded in Tlemcen, Algeria, in 1195/1781 by Aḥmad b. Muḥammad al-Tījānī, d. 1815, who had a great influence on North Africa and sub-Saharan Africa). Created in the 1970s in Tivaouane (Wolof, Tiwawane), a city in western Senegal, near Thiès, and in the Tījānī zāwiya (Ṣūfī lodge) of the Sy family of marabouts, it was originally…
Date: 2021-07-19

Dahlak Islands

(462 words)

Author(s): Erlich, Haggai
The Dahlak Islands are a group of 124 islands in the Red Sea, off the port of Massawa, in present-day Eritrea. Only four are inhabited; the main island is Dahlak al-Kabir. The islands have been known from ancient times for their marine life and pearl fishery. For the Christian kingdom of Aksumite Ethiopia (c. 100 to 940 C.E.), they served as a bridgehead for invasions of Arabia until they were occupied by the Muslims in 83/702. From then on they served instead as a bridgehead of Islam into the Hor…
Date: 2021-07-19

Daḥlān, Aḥmad b. Zaynī

(636 words)

Author(s): Peskes, Esther
Aḥmad b. Zaynī b. Aḥmad Daḥlān (d. 1304/1886) was a sayyid of the Ḥasanid line (that is, a descendant of the prophet Muḥammad through his grandson al-Ḥasan) and one of the most influential scholars in Mecca through the 1870s until his death. He was born in Mecca sometime between 1231/1816 and 1233/1818 and died in Medina. He completed his education in the jurisprudential tradition of the four schools of law ( madhhab, pl. madhāhib) in Sunnī Islam solely in Mecca, where he also made a career as a scholar of the Shāfiʿī school. A moderate Ṣūfī (mystic) in the style of …
Date: 2021-07-19

Dahlan, Haji Ahmad

(1,053 words)

Author(s): Kaptein, Nico
Kyai Haji Ahmad Dahlan (1868–1923) was a Javanese religious official attached to the Yogyakarta sultanate, who founded the reformist Muhammadiyah movement in Yogyakarta in 1912. He was born in the kauman, the quarter for devout Muslims near the Great Mosque, in the royal city of the sultanate of Yogyakarta, into a family of the upper class of the sultanate’s religious apparatus. At birth he was given the name Muhammad Darwish. His father, Kyai Haji Abu Bakar bin Kyai Mas Sulaiman, was a religious scholar (Javanese kyai), who worked as a preacher (Jav. ketib) of the royal palace, and hi…
Date: 2021-07-19

Daḥlān, Iḥsān Jampes

(977 words)

Author(s): Zamhari, Arif
Iḥsān b. Muḥammad Daḥlān (1901–52), also known as Kyai Iḥsān Jampes, was a prominent Javanese Muslim scholar ( kyai) and a prolific writer, recognised especially for his Arabic writings on Ṣūfism. He was born in Jampes, Kediri, East Java. His father was also a Muslim scholar and the founder of the Jampes pesantren (Islamic boarding school). Iḥsān Daḥlān grew up in the pesantren milieu and began his education under the tutelage of his father. He then went on to study with a number of prominent Muslim scholars in different pesantrens in Java, including his uncle, Kyai Khazin of Pesant…
Date: 2021-07-19


(4,194 words)

Author(s): Crone, Patricia
Dahrīs were thinkers in the early Islamic world whose cosmology left little or no room for God. Usually translated ‘materialists” or “eternalists,” the term has also been used in a generic sense for anyone, such as a modern scientist, who deems the universe to be explicable without reference to divine intervention. 1. The early Dahrīs The Dahrīs are first mentioned in Iraq in the 120s/740s. By profession they seem mostly to have been doctors, astrologers, alchemists, and others interested in the workings of the natural world. In intellectual style they were mutakallims. They specialis…
Date: 2021-07-19

Dāʿī (in Ismāʿīlī Islam)

(2,135 words)

Author(s): Walker, Paul E.
Dāʿī (s), in Ismāʿīlī Islam, were the agents of the daʿwa (the mission appealing for adherence and support), the earliest records of which date from about 261/875, in Iraq, concerning the activities of the Qarāmiṭa, led by Ḥamdān Qarmaṭ (d. 321/933) and his brother-in-law ʿAbdān (d. 286/899). It is likely, however, that the movement had already been in existence for some time. Somewhat later, we begin to find names of dāʿīs, many of whom were converted by a certain al-Ḥusayn al-Ahwāzī, who was apparently acting on instructions from a central headquarters in Salami…
Date: 2021-07-19


(883 words)

Author(s): Cook, David B.
The Dajjāl is a malevolent creature in human form, who appears at the end of the world as the apocalyptic opponent of Jesus. The Arabic word dajjāl (lit., “cheat, impostor”) is probably cognate with the Syriac dagalo (deceiver), which is used frequently for the Antichrist. The Dajjāl is not mentioned or alluded to in the Qurʾān but appears in apocalyptic works and canonical ḥadīth collections. The Dajjāl is usually said to be Jewish and to come from the eastern part of the Muslim world, either Isfahan or various other cities in Iraq, Fars, or Khurāsān. He i…
Date: 2021-07-19

Dakanī, Maʿṣūm ʿAlī Shāh

(1,835 words)

Author(s): van den Bos, Matthijs E. W.
Sayyid Mīr ʿAbd al-Ḥamīd Maʿṣūm ʿAlī Shāh Dakanī (b. c. 1147/1734–5, d. end twelfth/eighteenth century) was an Indian-born spiritual master of the Niʿmatallāhī Ṣūfī order who revived Niʿmatallāhī Ṣūfism in Persia in the second half of the twelfth/eighteenth century (the Niʿmatallāhiyya, historically influential in Central Asia and India but today mostly in Iran, with significant groups in the West, goes back to Shāh Niʿmatallāh Valī, d. 843/1431, a Syrian-born Iranian mystic and author who settled in K…
Date: 2021-07-19

Dakanī, Riḍā ʿAlī Shāh

(1,131 words)

Author(s): van den Bos, Matthijs E. W.
Riḍā ʿAlī Shāh Dakanī (b. c.1142–3/1730, d. 1214/1799–1800) was the last of the Deccan-based aqṭāb (lit., poles, that is, heads of the order; Ar. pl. of quṭb) in the Niʿmatallāhī Ṣūfī order, as recognised in the salāsil (“chains” of spiritual authority, Ar. pl. of silsila) of its current branches (Gramlich, 1:27–57). The leadership of the Niʿmatallāhī order had been transferred from Persia to the Deccan in the first half of the ninth/fifteenth century (Algar, Niʿmat-Allāhiyya, 46), and would return there thanks to Riḍā ʿAlī Shāh (the Niʿmatallāhiyya, historically infl…
Date: 2021-07-19


(1,878 words)

Author(s): Cantone, Cleo
Dakar, the modern capital of Senegal, is a port city situated on the Cap Vert peninsula, on the Atlantic coast. Founded by the Lebu community (the Wolof-speaking ethnic group inhabiting the Cap Vert peninsula) in the ninth/fifteenth century, Ndakaru, as it was called then, was both a fishing village and an independent republic that maintained commercial relations with Europe’s encroaching colonial powers. As the Lebu migrated eastwards, they founded Kunun, Tengeej (Rufisque), Bargny and Dakar, replacing a Sossé village (Brigaud, Delcour). In colonial times…
Date: 2021-07-19

Dakhinī Urdū

(1,895 words)

Author(s): Gricourt, Marguerite
Dakhinī (or Dakhanī, Dakkinī, lit., southern) is a southern form of Hindi- Urdu that was, and to some extent still is, spoken in the Deccan. The mixed language of northern India, Hindi or Hindavī, migrated south with itinerant religious men as early as the fifth/eleventh century and with troops during the military expeditions led by the sultan of Delhi, ʿAlāʾ al-Dîn Khaljī (r. 695–715/1296–1316). When Muḥammad b. Tughluq (r. 725–52/1325–51), the second sultan of the following dynasty, the Tughluqids (r. 720…
Date: 2021-07-19


(981 words)

Author(s): Joosse, N. Peter
Al-Dakhwār (d. 628/1230), known as Muhadhdhab al-Dīn ʿAbd al-Raḥīm b. ʿAlī, was a pre-eminent and influential physician of the Ayyūbid period (582–658/1186–1260) in Damascus. A great admirer of the works of Galen, he was a prodigy in treating patients and ventured into the field of medications for diseases that were difficult to cure. Born and raised in Damascus, he started out as an oculist, like his father ʿAlī and his brother Ḥāmid, while working as a copyist of manuscripts. He studied medicine under the physicians Raḍī al-Dīn al-Raḥbī (d. 631/1233), Muwaffaq al-Dīn Ibn…
Date: 2021-07-19


(676 words)

Author(s): Peirce, Leslie
A Persian word meaning son-in-law, dāmād was a title given to high-ranking officials married to princesses of the Ottoman dynasty. The practice of marrying sisters, daughters, and granddaughters of the reigning sultan to statesmen began in earnest in the late ninth/fifteenth century, as dynastic marriages with other ruling houses waned. Sultans of the tenth/sixteenth century drew many of their viziers from among the dynasty’s dāmāds; six of the grand viziers of Sulṭān Süleymān I (r. 926–74/1520–66) were dāmāds. Emerging during the empire’s high imperial phase (1453 to 1566), dāmād-…
Date: 2021-07-19

Damad İbrahim Paşa

(1,320 words)

Author(s): Polat, Süleyman
Damad İbrahim Paşa (Dāmād İbrāhīm Paşa, d. 1010/1601) was of Bosnian origin. After rising to the post of silahdar ( silāḥdār, sword-bearer) in the sultan’s harem, he was appointed ağa (āghā) of the janissaries (commander in chief of the janissaries) at the beginning of Safer (Ṣafar) 988/end of March 1580 and then beylerbeyi ( beglerbegi, governor-general) of Rumeli on 3 Safer (Ṣafar) 990/27 February 1582 (BOA KK, no. 239, p. 279). At the end of Zilkade (Dhū l-Qaʿda) 990/December 1582, he was given the rank of vizier, and in Zilhicce (Dhūl-Ḥijja) 990/January 1583, he was appointed beylerbey…
Date: 2021-07-19

al-Dāmaghānī, Abū ʿAbdallāh

(912 words)

Author(s): Wheeler, Brannon M.
Abū ʿAbdallāh Muḥammad b. ʿAlī b. Muḥammad al-Ḥusayn b. ʿAbd al-Malik b. ʿAbd al-Wahhāb al-Dāmaghānī (d. 478/1085) was a well known Ḥanafī jurist and chief qāḍī (judge) of Baghdad. In later accounts sometimes referred to as “the elder” (al-kabīr), Abū ʿAbdallāh was the first in a long family line of al-Dāmaghānīs to hold the position of qāḍī or other administrative positions in Baghdad, up through the beginning of the seventh/thirteenth century. Al-Dāmaghānī was born in 398/1007 in Dāmghān, in the northeast Iranian province of Qūmis. He studied law under Abū l-Ḥasa…
Date: 2021-07-19

al-Damanhūrī, Aḥmad

(999 words)

Author(s): El-Rouayheb, Khaled
Aḥmad b. ʿAbd al-Munʿim al-Damanhūrī (1101–92/1689–90–1778) was a pre-eminent Islamic scholar of twelfth/eighteenth-century Egypt. Born in the Lower Egyptian town of Damanhūr and orphaned at an early age, he went to Cairo to study. He later wrote an extensive record of his studies, listing his teachers and the works that he studied with each. The list reveals that he studied not only the expected religious and linguistic sciences but also logic, philosophy, mathematics, astronomy, medicine, and the …
Date: 2021-07-19

Damascus, Ottoman

(4,350 words)

Author(s): Rafeq, Abdul-Karim
Damascus (Dimashq) was occupied by the Ottoman sultan Selim (Selīm) I (r. 918–26/1512–20) on 1 Ramaḍān 922/28 September 1516. Selim had already defeated the army of the Mamlūk sultan at Marj Dābiq, north of Aleppo, on 25 Rajab 922/24 August 1516, and then occupied Aleppo, where he was declared Khādim al-Ḥaramayn al-Sharīfayn (Servitor of the Two Holy Sanctuaries), in the  khuṭba (sermon) during the Friday prayer. The Damascenes, as well as the rest of the Syrians, did not oppose the Ottomans, who overwhelmed them with firepower, nor did they defend the …
Date: 2021-07-19


(1,375 words)

Author(s): Cooper, John P.
Damietta (Ar. Dumyāṭ) is a port city in Egypt on the main eastern tributary of the Nile Delta. The city gives its name to the Nile branch on which it is located and the governorate of which it is the capital. The population of the governorate is 1.4 million (2017 figures from the Egyptian Central Agency for Public Mobilization and Statistics). Damietta stands approximately one to two metres above sea level, and twelve kilometres from the river’s mouth. It is known today for its modern container port, liquefied natural gas complex, fishing and furniture industries, and domestic tourism. Littl…
Date: 2021-07-19


(846 words)

Author(s): McGregor, Richard J.
The Damirdāshiyya is a Cairo branch of the Khalwatiyya Ṣūfī order, whose founder was Muḥammad Damirdāsh (or Damirdāsh al-Muḥammadī, d. 929/1523) (the Khalwatiyya was founded during the eighth/fourteenth century in northwestern Persia, and prominent initiates of the order went on to establish separate branches, especially in Turkey, eastern European lands under Ottoman rule, and across North Africa). Damirdāsh was originally from Azerbaijan but pursued his career in Egypt. He had arrived as one of…
Date: 2021-07-19


(398 words)

Author(s): Ficquet, Éloi
Danākil is the common Arabic name for the ʿAfar population of northeastern Africa. This is a plural form in Arabic derived from the name of an ʿAfar sub-group, the Dankali. From the seventh/thirteenth to the eleventh/seventeenth century, the Dankali ruled the coastal and hinterland areas of the Red Sea, from the Bori peninsula to the area of Baylul, in the southern tip of present-day Eritrea. According to Ethiopian sources, their kingdom was a partner of the Ethiopian Christian kingdom in the ni…
Date: 2021-07-19

Dandanakan, battle of

(571 words)

Author(s): Mallett, Alex
The battle of Dandanakan (Ar. Dandānaqān or Dandānqān) was fought between the Ghaznavids and the Seljuks (Saljūqs) in 431/1040 on a plain outside the now-lost town of Dandanakan, about 40 miles southwest of Marw. The battle was the culmination of several years of conflict between the two sides, with the Seljuks, approaching from the Central Asian steppes, attempting to wrest control of Khurāsān from the Ghaznavids, based to the southeast at Ghazna, in modern-day Afghanistan. The immediate cause of the battle was the Seljuk takeover of Khurāsān several months before t…
Date: 2021-07-19


(698 words)

Author(s): Vikør, Knut S.
The Dandarāwiyya is a Ṣūfī order widespread across the Middle East, East Africa, and southeast Asia. The order takes its name from the Egyptian Muḥammad Aḥmad al-Dandarāwī (d. 1911), who, around 1860, met the Ṣūfī teacher Ibrāhīm al-Rashīd (d. 1874) and became his pupil. Al-Rashīd was the youngest pupil of the Moroccan Ṣūfī Aḥmad b. Idrīs (d. 1839), and the order that al-Dandarāwī began to spread is usually known as the Rashīdiyya Idrīsiyya Aḥmadiyya, or simply the Aḥmadiyya; the name “Dandarāwiyya” seems to have been most prevalent in Egypt, Sudan, and Syria. Al-Dandarāwī did not prod…
Date: 2021-07-19


(957 words)

Author(s): Penelas, Mayte
Abū ʿAmr ʿUthmān b. Saʿīd b. ʿUthmān b. Saʿīd b. ʿUmar al-Umawī b. al-Ṣayrafī al-Dānī (b. 371/981–2, d. 444/1053) was an outstanding Andalusī figure in Qurʾān readings and the founder of an influential school in this discipline. He was known, in his time, as Ibn al-Ṣayrafī (perhaps because his father or grandfather was a money changer) and later as al-Dānī, for having settled in Denia, although he was born in Córdoba in 371/981–2. He travelled to the East in Muḥarram 397/1006, spending three years in al-Qayrawān, Cairo, and Mecca b…
Date: 2021-07-19


(1,361 words)

Author(s): Tottoli, Roberto
Daniel (Dāniyāl) is not included among the pre-Islamic patriarchs and prophets that are mentioned or alluded to in the Qurʾān. Later religious, historical, and geographical literature does, however, preserve various confusing reports about at least two characters named Daniel, one resembling the sage mentioned in Ezekiel 14:14, the other living during the captivity of the Israelites. Early reports say that Daniel the Elder (al-akbar) lived after Noah and before Abraham and that he could predict events astrologically, for which reason a Book of divination (Kitāb al-jafr) was ascr…
Date: 2021-07-19

Daniel al-Qūmisī

(1,698 words)

Author(s): Ben-Shammai, Haggai
Daniel al-Qūmisī (often referred to as Daniel b. Moshe, fl. third/ninth–tenth centuries) was a scholar and leader of the Karaite movement (a Jewish movement that denied the authority of the rabbinic tradition) and the second-earliest Karaite author, whose works have survived in part. He influenced the development of the Karaite group known as the “Mourners of Zion” (see below). He was born in Dāmghān, in the province of Qūmis, in northeastern Iran, apparently in the middle of the third/ninth century. Little is known about Daniel’s life. From his writing…
Date: 2021-07-19


(582 words)

Author(s): Kılıç, Atabey
Danişi, Süleymanegizade Piri Çelebi (Dānişī, Süleymānegīzāde Pīrī Çelebi, d. 969/1561), was a tenth/sixteenth-century divan ( dīvān, high-culture) poet from Kayseri. His date of birth is unknown, and the best information about him, even if superficial, comes from tenth/sixteenth-century tezkires ( tedhkires, poets’ biographies). Türk dili ve edebiyatı ansiklopedisi states that his original name was Mehmed (Meḥmed) and that he was known as Süleymanegizade Pir (Süleymānegīzāde Pīr) Çelebi, while contemporary tezkires (Aşık [ʿĀşıq] Çelebi; Kınalızade Hasan [Qınalızā…
Date: 2021-07-19


(753 words)

Author(s): Anetshofer, Helga
The Danişmendname ( Dānişmendnāme, “The book of Danişmend”) is an eighth/fourteenth-century Anatolian Turkish religious-heroic narrative that celebrates the exploits of the legendary champion Melik Danişmend Gazi (Dānişmend Ghāzī) on the Byzantine-Turkish frontiers. The Danişmendname, or Kıssa-i Melik Danişmend ( Qıṣṣa-ı Melik Dānişmend, “The story of king Danişmend”), was conceived as the second part of an Anatolian “epic cycle”—or rather cycle of tales—on the Islamisation and Turkicisation of Anatolia and the Balkans (along with the Battalname ( Baṭṭālnāme, “The book …
Date: 2021-07-19


(3,948 words)

Author(s): Methodieva, Milena
The Danube is the second longest river in Europe. Following the Ottoman conquest of the territory between its delta at the Black Sea and Hungary, it acquired major strategic importance for the empire. The river became a theatre of war and an area of contestation between the Ottomans and their European adversaries and was of commercial and economic as well as military importance. The river was one of the main routes that connected Istanbul with Europe. In the nineteenth century, the Danube came to…
Date: 2023-09-21

Danubian Principalities

(1,973 words)

Author(s): Panaite, Viorel
The Danubian Principalities is a term conventionally used to designate the principalities of Wallachia and Moldavia, situated between the Carpathians, the Danube river, the Black Sea and the Dniester river, which were founded in the first part of the eighth/fourteenth century. The name was coined in the European diplomatic milieu of the second part of the twelfth/eighteenth century. In Ottoman documents after 1188/1774, the two principalities are frequently referred to as Eflak ve Boğdan voyvodalıkları (Eflāq ve Boghdān voyvodalıqları, the principalities of Wallachia and …
Date: 2021-07-19

Daqāyiqī Marvazī

(1,323 words)

Author(s): Casari, Mario
Shams al-Dīn Muḥammad Daqāyiqī Marvazī (fl. second half of the sixth/twelfth century) was a Persian writer and poet active in Khurāsān and Transoxania. The only biographical data we have are provided by Muḥammad ʿAwfī (late sixth/twelfth to the beginning of the seventh/thirteenth century), the Persian collector of tales and anthologist from Bukhara, who devotes a short passage to Daqāyiqī in his biographical collection of Persian poetry, Lubāb al-albāb (“The piths of intellects”; ʿAwfī, 1:212–5; 318–9; 347). Daqāyiqī appears to have been a distinguished man of …
Date: 2021-07-19

al-Daqqāq, Abū ʿAbdallāh

(837 words)

Author(s): Rodríguez Mediano, Fernando
Abū ʿAbdallāh Muḥammad al-Daqqāq al-Sijilmāsī (d. second half sixth/twelfth century) was a Moroccan Ṣūfī born in Sij̲ilmāsa and one of the teachers of the great Andalusī saint Abū Madyan (d. 594/1197). Many of his assertions, such as openly proclaiming his sanctity, were criticised by some ʿulamāʾ and Ṣūfīs, which led Vincent Cornell to suggest that he may have followed the doctrines of the Malāmatiyya (“adepts of blame,” malāma), who were Ṣūfīs who thought that all outward appearance of religiosity was ostentation and that real piety should remain hidden, reac…
Date: 2021-07-19

al-Daqqāq, Abū ʿAlī

(878 words)

Author(s): Nguyen, Martin
Al-Ḥasan b. ʿAlī b. Muḥammad b. Isḥāq b. ʿAbd al-Raḥīm b. Aḥmad Abū ʿAlī l-Daqqāq (d. 405/1015) was a Ṣūfī mystic of Nīshāpūr who owes his posthumous fame largely to his renowned disciple and son-in-law Abū l-Qāsim al-Qushayrī (d. 465/1072–3), a major Central Asian religious scholar, Ṣūfī manualist, and hagiographer. Little is known of al-Daqqāq’s early life, beyond the facts that he was a native of Nīshāpūr and that his nisba al-Daqqāq (the miller) probably indicates a family trade. More is known about his religious education, especially in Ṣūfism. Al-Daqqāq’s silsila (spiritual gen…
Date: 2021-07-19

Dār ʿadl (modern)

(1,394 words)

Author(s): Layish, Aharon
The institution of dār ʿadl (lit. “the house of a virtuous person”) occupies an ill-defined zone between sharīʿa and customary law. In Islamic law, an ʿadl is a “virtuous witness,” that is, a witness who possesses moral and religious integrity (ʿadāla). In private law ʿadāla is required of a court witness (shāhid) and of anyone likely to be called upon to testify (Tyan, Histoire, 166, 226, 242, 248, 256; Tyan, ʿAdl, 209). In customary law, the term dār ʿadl refers to a tribal arbitrator who has been deputised by a qāḍī to serve as his trusted agent. The ʿadl’s function is to examine the beha…
Date: 2021-07-19

Dār al-ʿadl (premodern)

(1,942 words)

Author(s): Rabbat, Nasser
Dār al-ʿadl means “house of justice” in Arabic. In about 558/1163, Nūr al-Dīn Maḥmūd b. Zankī (r. 541–69/1147–74) ordered the construction in his capital, Damascus, of a special building for public hearings of grievances ( qaḍāʾ al-maẓālim, or al-naẓar fī l-maẓālim) and named it the Dār al-ʿAdl or Dār Kashf al-Maẓālim (House for the Review of Grievances). This was the first use of the term dār al-ʿadl. In total, seven Houses of Justice were constructed in Damascus, Aleppo, and Cairo between the sixth/twelfth and eighth/fourteenth centuries. They have all disap…
Date: 2021-07-19

al-Dārānī, Abū Sulaymān

(797 words)

Author(s): van Ess, Josef
Abū Sulaymān ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. Aḥmad b. ʿAṭiyya al-ʿAnsī al-Dārānī (d. c.215/830) was an early mystic. His family belonged to a South Arabian tribe that had settled in Umayyad Syria, but he spent some time in Iraq; a brother of his lived in Baghdad, probably as a merchant (cf. al-Khaṭīb al-Baghdādī, Taʾrīkh Baghdād, Cairo 1349/1931, 8:366, no. 4464). He was said to have originated in Wāsiṭ, and he certainly visited the Ṣūfī colony in ʿAbbādān, near Baṣra, possibly under the influence of ʿAbd al-Wāḥid b. Zayd from Baṣra. In his later years he live…
Date: 2021-07-19


(1,352 words)

Author(s): Brown, Jonathan A.C.
Abū Ḥasan ʿAlī b. ʿUmar b. Aḥmad b. Mahdī al-Dāraquṭnī (306–85/918–95) was a leading Sunnī ḥadīth scholar of the fourth/tenth century. Known as “the imām of his time” in ḥadīth, later Sunnī scholars often saw al-Dāraquṭnī as the last great ḥadīth scholar of the halcyon days of the Sunnī tradition. Al-Khaṭīb al-Baghdādī (d. 463/1071), who was a great admirer, referred to him as “one of the forefathers (mutaqaddimīn).” Born in Baghdad, al-Dāraquṭnī took his unusual nisba from Dār al-Quṭn, the large quarter of the city in which his family lived. Al-Dāraquṭnī, whose family…
Date: 2021-07-19

Dārā Shikūh

(1,184 words)

Author(s): Gandhi, Supriya
Dārā Shikūh (1024–69/1615–59) was the eldest son of Mughal emperor Shāh Jahān (r. 1037–68/1628–58) and a Qādirī Ṣūfī adept, who sought to combine duties of rulership with a project of spiritual self-cultivation that culminated in a sustained pursuit of Indic religious knowledge. Dārā Shikūh’s execution after a struggle for imperial succession in which his brother Awrangzīb (r. 1068–1118/1658–1707) prevailed, cut short his activities of authorship, translation, and patronage of art and letters. As heir to the throne, Dārā Shikūh was rewarded with the governorship of …
Date: 2021-07-19

Darb al-Arbaʿīn

(406 words)

Author(s): Vikør, Knut S.
Darb al-Arabaʿīn was a major trans-Saharan trade route between Darfur (in western Sudan) and Egypt. The name (lit., the forty-days road) may refer to forty daily stages into which the trip, about 1,700 kilometres long, was divided. The trip took from fifty to sixty days to complete, with the required resting periods. The southern terminus was Kobbei (Ar. Kubayh), about one day’s travel north of the capital, al-Fāshir. The trade on this route made Kobbei the main commercial hub of Darfur, with six to eight thousand inhabitants, mostly from abroad,…
Date: 2021-07-19


(747 words)

Author(s): Aksan, Virginia H.
The Dardanelles is a strait in northwestern Turkey that unites the Marmara and the Aegean Seas and divides Europe from Asia. It is about 62 kilometres in length, and has a width ranging from 1250 meters to 8 kilometres and an average depth of 55 metres. Its name derives from classical myth, as does its other appellation, Hellespont, which was used by the ancient Greeks and later Byzantines. The Ottomans called it Ak Deniz Boğazı (Aq Deniz Boghazı), Kale-i Sultaniyye (Qalʿe-i Sulṭāniyye Boghazı), or, as today, Çanak-kale Boğhazı). The shores of the Dardanelles are studded with sites…
Date: 2021-07-19

Dardic and Nūristānī languages

(1,120 words)

Author(s): Strand, Richard
The Dardic and Nūristānī languages are Indo-European languages of the Indo-Iranian branch, spoken across the Hindu Kush and Karakoram Ranges, from Afghanistan’s Parwān Province in the west to the upper reaches of the Indus Valley in the east. Except for Kashmirī, with around 5.5 million speakers, these languages are spoken by populations ranging from a few thousand or fewer to more than half a million. Some smaller communities of these languages are recently or nearly extinct, their mother tongues h…
Date: 2021-07-19

al-Dardīr, Aḥmad, and Dardīriyya

(981 words)

Author(s): McGregor, Richard J.
Aḥmad al-Dardīr, Abū al-Barakāt Aḥmad b. Muḥammad b. Aḥmad b. Abī Ḥāmid al-ʿAdawī al-Mālikī al-Azharī al-Khalwatī (d. Cairo 1201/1786) was an Egyptian jurist and mystic. Born in the village of Banī ʿAdī, near al-Manfalūṭ, in the southern Egyptian province of Asyūṭ, al-Dardīr went, as a young man, to Cairo, where he entered al-Azhar University, the world’s chief centre of Sunnī learning. Here he studied law and eventually acceded to the position of shaykh of the Mālikī rite. Al-Dardīr taught various religious sciences at al-Azhar and was administrator of the riwāq (residence hall) o…
Date: 2021-07-19

Dār al-Funūn (Iran)

(674 words)

Author(s): Ringer, Monica
The Dār al-Funūn (The Academy of Applied Sciences), the first state-sponsored European-style technical school modelled on examples of Ottoman reform efforts, was established in Iran in 1267/1851 by Mīrzā Taqī Khān Amīr Kabīr (d. 1268/1852), Nāṣir al-Dīn Shāh Qājār’s (r. 1264–1313/1848–96) prime minister. The school was a central component in Amīr Kabīr’s objective of modernizing and centralizing the Qājār government, and enabling the state to prevent increasing European military, economic and political involvement in I…
Date: 2021-07-19


(4 words)

Author(s): Prunier, Gérard
Gérard Prunier
Date: 2018-05-15

Dār al-Ḥikma

(661 words)

Author(s): Halm, Heinz
The Dār al-Ḥikma (“House of Wisdom,” called also Dār al-ʿIlm, “House of Knowledge”), was an institution of learning in Cairo, founded in 395/1005 by the Fāṭimid caliph al-Ḥākim (r. 386–411/996–1021). It was located north of the Western (or Little) Palace, facing the still extant Aqmar Mosque. The books of the palace libraries were moved there, and public lectures were held by jurists, Qurʾān readers, specialists in prophetic traditions (ḥadīth), astronomers, grammarians, philologists, logicians, and physicians. In Ramaḍān 400/April-May 1010, al-Ḥākim incorporate…
Date: 2021-07-19

Dār al-Iftāʾ wa-l-Ishrāf ʿalā l-Shuʾūn al-Dīniyya

(777 words)

Author(s): Al-Atawneh, Muhammad | Abdulaev, Sabina
Dār al-Iftāʾ wa-l-Ishrāf ʿalā l-Shuʾūn al-Dīniyya (“The Institute for the Issuance of Legal Opinions and the Supervision of Religious Affairs”) in Saudi Arabia was founded in 1953 by King Suʿūd b. ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz (r. 1953–64) as part of a process of extending state control to various elements of social life, including those formerly regulated by religious scholars. Dār al-Iftāʾ was the first institution officially authorised to interpret the sharīʿa (Islamic law) and to issue fatwās (Islamic legal opinions) in Saudi Arabia after more than two centuries during which muftīs (Islamic ju…
Date: 2023-08-14


(557 words)

Author(s): Brown, Jonathan A.C.
Abū Muḥammad ʿAbdallāh b. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān al-Dārimī (b. 181/797, d. in Dhū al-Ḥijja 255/November 869 or 250/864–5) was a leading scholar of the Sunnī movement in Khurāsān. Of Arab ancestry and a native of Samarqand, he travelled throughout the Middle East in search of knowledge, voyaging to Egypt, the Hijaz, Syria, and Iraq. He studied with and heard ḥadīths from the greatest Sunnī scholars of his day: Yazīd b. Hārūn (d. 206/821), Abū ʿĀṣim al-Nabīl (d. 212/827), and Muḥammad b. Yūsuf al-Firyābī (212/827) were among his major sources. He also transmitted ḥadīths from Khalīfa b. al-Khay…
Date: 2021-07-19

al-Dārimī, Abū Saʿīd

(564 words)

Author(s): Abrahamov, Binyamin
Abū Saʿīd ʿUthmān b. Saʿīd b. Khālid b. Saʿīd al-Sijistānī al-Dārimī (b. 200/815, d. between 280 and 282/893–5) was a prominent traditionist, jurist, and theologian. His teachers were Aḥmad b. Ḥanbal (d. 241/855), ʿAlī b. al-Madīnī (d. 234/848), Isḥāq b. Rāhawayh (d. 237/851), and Yaḥyā b. Maʿīn (d. 233/847) in the science of traditions, al-Buwayṭī (d. 231/846) in jurisprudence, and Ibn al-Aʿrābī (d. 231/846) in adab (belles-lettres). He composed two polemical treatises, al-Radd ʿalā l-Jahmiyya (“Refutation of the Jahmites”) and al-Radd ʿalā Bishr al-Marīsī (“Refutation of Bis…
Date: 2021-07-19

Dār al-Islām and dār al-ḥarb

(6,215 words)

Author(s): Albrecht, Sarah
The division of the world into dār al-Islām , the “territory of Islam,” and dār al-ḥarb , the “territory of war,” along with related concepts such as dār al-ʿahd, the “territory of treaty,” is a categorisation introduced by Islamic legal scholars in the first centuries of Islam. The precise definition of these categories has been interpreted in a variety of ways throughout Islamic history and plays a key role in Islamic legal debates about Muslim/non-Muslim relations. 1. General Commonly translated, respectively, as the “house, abode, or land of Islam” and the “house, abo…
Date: 2021-07-19

al-Darjīnī, Aḥmad

(1,114 words)

Author(s): García Sanjuán, Alejandro
Abū l-ʿAbbās Aḥmad b. Saʿīd b. Sulaymān b. ʿAlī b. Ikhlāf al-Darjīnī was a Maghribī chronicler of Berber origins. He belonged to the Ibāḍī community, the dominant division of the Khārijīs, the third branch of Islam. He belonged to a prestigious family of ʿulamaʾ from the region of Jabal Nafūsa, in Tripolitania. His direct ancestors were among the region’s most revered ʿazzāba (this term, related to the idea of celibacy, is used to refer to men of wisdom in the Ibāḍī community). His grandfather Sulaymān was an eminent sage, as shown by his nickname al-ʿAzz…
Date: 2021-07-19

Dār al-Nadwa

(689 words)

Author(s): Munt, Harry
The Dār al-Nadwa (Council House) was a compound in Mecca, north of the Kaʿba, supposedly founded by Quṣayy to host various administrative and ritual functions. Most reports identify it as a meeting place where weighty matters concerning Mecca and Quraysh could be discussed, hence its name, but other uses are also listed (e.g., Ibn Saʿd, 1/1:39–40; al-Azraqī, 1:109–10), including its use for the conclusion of marriages, declarations of war, circumcision of boys, and the seclusion of menstruating wo…
Date: 2021-07-19


(700 words)

Author(s): Bölükbaşı, Ömerül Faruk
The darphane ( ḍarbkhāne, mint) was one of the longest established institutions in the Ottoman Empire, founded in the early days of the state. As the empire’s boundaries expanded in Anatolia and Balkans, mints were opened in important administrative centres, near mines, in settlements on trade routes, and elsewhere. By the second half of the tenth/sixteenth century, Ottoman darphanes numbered more than fifty, and the most important was in Istanbul. During the financial crisis that began in the 990s/1580s under the effect of international monetary and m…
Date: 2021-07-19


(1,412 words)

Author(s): El Hour, Rachid
Darqāwa or Darqāwiyya is a Moroccan Ṣūfī order (or brotherhood, ṭarīqa, lit., “path”) that attracted devotees also in other Arab countries such as Algeria, Egypt (especially in the city of Ṭanṭā), Tunisia, and Libya. It also became popular in the Ḥijāz, particularly in Mecca and Medina, and has spread as far as Iraq. In Tripoli, it became known as al-Madaniyya, after Muḥammad b. Ḥamza b. Ẓāfir al-Madanī (d. 1847), who introduced there the principles of Muḥammad al-Arabī al-Darqāwī in 1820. The order was founded at the end of the twelfth/eighteenth century by Mawlāy al-ʿArab…
Date: 2021-07-19

Dars-i Niẓāmī

(1,642 words)

Author(s): Ahmed, Asad Q.
The Dars-i Niẓāmī, often referred to as the “Niẓāmī curriculum,” is in fact a method of education, rather than a curriculum, that has been prevalent in South Asian madrasas (Muslim colleges) since the mid-twelfth/eighteenth century. The method of instruction, often associated with a loosely defined curriculum and set of texts, is attributed to Mullā Niẓām al-Dīn al-Sihālawī (d. 1161/1748), a leading scholar of rationalist disciplines such as philosophy and logic and a member of the Indian Farangī Maḥallī family of scholars…
Date: 2021-07-19

Darul Arqam

(713 words)

Author(s): Feener, R. Michael
The Darul Arqam is one of the most highly visible—and controversial—organisations associated with the modern Malaysian daʿwa (Islamic proselytising) movement. Growing out of daʿwa study group in the late 1960s, the organisation established its first communal centre in 1973 under the leadership of Ashaari Muhammad (d. 2010) at Sungai Pencala, on the outskirts of Kuala Lumpur. Members were easily identified by their distinctive forms of dress: long robes and turbans for men, and full face veils covering all save the eye…
Date: 2021-07-19

Darülfünun, Ottoman

(1,037 words)

Author(s): İhsanoğlu, Ekmeleddin M.
The Darülfünun (Dār al-Fünūn), today’s Istanbul University, was envisioned by Ottoman reformers as an institution of higher learning that would be distinct from medreses ( madrasas), which taught traditional sciences, ulum (ʿulūm). They coined the name, which literally means “house of sciences,” to denote a modern university. The gap in technical knowledge between Western Europe and the Ottomans caused by the Industrial Revolution compelled them to create such an institution, within the framework of a public education policy inspired by the French enseignement public. The moder…
Date: 2021-07-19

Darü’l-Hikmeti’l İslamiye

(789 words)

Author(s): Hanioğlu, M. Şükrü
The Darü’l-Hikmeti’l İslamiye (Dār al-Ḥikmat al-Islāmiyya) was a high council that operated within the office of the şeyhülislam (shaykh al-Islām), the Meşihat (Mashīkhat). It was established by an imperial decree issued on 5 March 1918. The legal memorandum explaining the main motives that prompted the establishment of the council and the issuing of the law enumerates the council’s duties as follows: to promulgate and circulate the high virtues of Islam; to protect religious institutions in the best possible way;…
Date: 2021-07-19

Darul Islam

(1,832 words)

Author(s): Formichi, Chiara
Darul Islam (DI) was an armed revolutionary movement led by S. M. Kartosuwiryo (1905–62), which began in West Java (Indonesia) in 1947–8, with the dual goals of defending the area against the returning Dutch colonial power and establishing an Islamic state (Negara Islam Indonesia, NII) in independent Indonesia. DI emerged from intellectual and militant circles surrounding the Islamic organisations Masyumi, Partai Sarekat Islam Indonesia (PSII), and Persatuan Islam (Persis). It also won support am…
Date: 2021-07-19

Dār al-ʿUlūm

(1,432 words)

Author(s): Kalmbach, Hilary
Dār al-ʿUlūm, “House of Knowledge” or “House of Science,” is a term that refers to modern institutions of higher Islamic learning. (For historical precedents, see Dār al-ʿIlm, Dār al-Ḥikma, and Bayt al-Ḥikma.) Cairo’s Dār al-ʿUlūm was founded in 1872 as a government-run school of higher education, training students recruited from religious schools to be teachers of both Arabic and primary-school subjects in the government’s civil schools. In 1946 the school became a faculty of Cairo University, specialising in Arabic and Islam…
Date: 2021-07-19


(409 words)

Author(s): Somel, Akşin
The Darüşşafaka (“the Abode of Compassion”) was the first Muslim private high school in Istanbul. Muslim private educational initiatives developed as reactions to the effects of the Reform Edict (İslahat Fermanı) of 1272/1856 and to the limited success of the state to expand modern schools. Certain Muslim Turkish civil servants, alerted by the quality gap between government schools and non-Muslim institutions, devoted themselves to the education of Muslim boys of modest origins. In 1280/1864 they…
Date: 2021-07-19

Darwīsh, Maḥmūd

(1,402 words)

Author(s): Milich, Stephan
Maḥmūd Darwīsh (1941–2008) was the most prominent of modern Palestinian poets and one of the major protagonists of modern Arabic literature. With his political poems he gave an internationally renowned voice to the Palestinian people and has often been called the “poet of resistance” (shāʿir al-muqāwama). Like other Palestinians of his generation, Darwīsh lived through different periods of exile and loss and his writings and biography reflect the plurality of the Palestinian condition after 1948. In the 1980s, Darwīsh’s works became part o…
Date: 2021-07-19

Darzī, Muḥammad b. Ismāʿīl

(728 words)

Author(s): Halm, Heinz
Anūshtakīn al-Bukhārī al-Darzī, called also Muḥammad b. Ismāʿīl, was one of the first three propagandists of the doctrine of the Druze sect (al-Darziyya, al-Durūz, sing. Durzī), which is named for him. His name indicates that he was a Turk from Central Asia and a tailor (Pers. darzī) by profession; the common vocalisation of his name, Darazī, seems to be incorrect (van Ess, 64f.). According to the Christian author Yaḥyā al-Anṭākī (d. 458/1065) al-Darzī came to Cairo in 408/1017–8, but Yaḥyā sometimes confounds the different Druze protagonists al-Darzī, Ḥamz…
Date: 2021-07-19

Dātā Ganj Bakhsh, shrine of

(1,502 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Linus
The shrine of Dātā Ganj Bakhsh in Lahore, Pakistan, is the resting place of the Ṣūfī saint ʿAlī b. ʿUthmān al-Hujwīrī (d. between 465/1072 and 469/1077). It is today Pakistan’s largest Ṣūfī shrine, in numbers of annual visitors and in the size of the shrine complex. The shrine was nationalised in 1960 and is today administered by the Department of Awqaf and Religious Affairs of the Punjab (Pakistan). Al-Hujwīrī (also spelt Hajweri, Hajveri, Hajvery), was born in Ghazni, in present-day Afghanistan, and is known for his sole surviving book, the Kashf al-maḥjūb (“Revelation of the veil”)…
Date: 2021-07-19

Dāʾūd al-Anṭākī

(932 words)

Author(s): Veit, Raphaela
Dāʾūd b. ʿUmar al-Ḍarīr (al-Akmah) al-Anṭākī (d. 1008/1599) was an Arab physician born in Antioch. Although Dāʾūd was blind from birth, he apparently travelled a great deal, lived in Cairo and Damascus, and died in Mecca. He is reported to have learnt Greek on the advice of a Persian scholar who cured him of a long-term lameness: the traditions of the ancient Greek authors were still important in the tenth/sixteenth century. Dāʾūd wrote several medical treatises on subjects ranging from classical medicine to superstition and magic. He is famous for his large medical handbook, the Tadhkira…
Date: 2021-07-19

Daud Beureu’eh

(895 words)

Author(s): Reid, Anthony
Mohammad Daud Beureu’eh (1899–1987), from Aceh (Sumatra), was a religious reformer, revolutionary leader, and eventual rebel against Jakarta (1953–61). Mohammad Daud was educated entirely in religious schools in his native Pidie District, in Aceh, Sumatra. An outstanding orator and mobiliser open to new currents in religious education, he began in 1930 to establish reformist schools under the name Jamiatul Diniyah. The popular following aroused by his sermons helped create a religious network outside the control of the ulèëbalang (territorial aristocracy) through whom Du…
Date: 2021-07-19


(811 words)

Author(s): Last, Murray
Daura, in present-day Katsina State, in Northern Nigeria, is famous for three claims: that it is the legendary source of the seven Hausa and seven non-Hausa states in northern Nigeria; that it is the first Hausa city to fall to the jihād of Shaykh ʿUthmān (d. 1817), in about 1806; and that it is the only emirate to be restored to its original Hausa dynasty after the British colonial conquest of 1903. The legend about the origins of Hausa-speaking peoples dates to about the tenth/sixteenth century. It focuses on a warrior-prince, Bayajidda, from Baghdad, who came to …
Date: 2021-07-19

Dāvar, ʿAlī-Akbar

(1,655 words)

Author(s): Enayat, Hadi
ʿAlī-Akbar Khān Dāvar (b. Tehran, 1885; d. Tehran, 10 February 1937) was the son of Kalb-ʿAlī Khān Ardalān, a minor official at the Qājār court. After graduating with a degree in the humanities from the Dār al-Funūn in 1909, he became involved in the Democrat Party (Firqa-yi dimukrāt-i Īrān), which considered the establishment of a secular judiciary a key reform and a major goal. Along with a group of young Democrats, by the end of the year he had been recruited by Muḥammad Riḍā Musāvāt (1865–1925…
Date: 2022-09-21


(1,802 words)

Author(s): Reynolds, Gabriel Said
David, the Biblical king of the Israelites, is described in the Qurʾān as a divinely-appointed leader and the recipient of a divine book (al-zabūr). In later Islamic traditions, inspired by Qurʾānic references to David’s repentance, he is praised for his rigor in prayer and fasting. He is also presented as a figure of righteous authority, who was at once a king and a prophet. David is particularly important to the religious architecture of Islamic Jerusalem. 1. David in the Qurʾān The Qurʾānic Arabic form of David is Dāwud or Dāwūd, differing from Koine Greek Δαυίδ and Syriac Dawīd (which f…
Date: 2021-07-19

Daʿwa, modern practices

(2,614 words)

Author(s): Millie, Julian
The range of meanings of the term daʿwa (call, invitation) expanded greatly in the second half of the twentieth century, when it became the label for the reinvigoration of public participation occurring in Muslim populations at that time and for the changes being promoted by the Islamic social movements that motivated that turn. The literature explored below concerns daʿwa in its long established, textually-based sense: it signifies acts of communication intended to “call people to the way of the Lord” (Q 16:125) and “command right and forbid wrong” (Q…
Date: 2021-07-19

Dawlat Khān Lodī

(880 words)

Author(s): Lefèvre, Corinne
Dawlat Khān Lodī (b. 958/1551, d. c. 1009–10/1600–2) belonged to the Shāhū Khayl clan of the Lodī tribe and dynasty who hailed from the mountainous region of Roh, south of Peshawar. His ancestors migrated to India during the time of Sulṭān Sikandar Lodī (r. 894–923/1489–1517) and entered the service of two Afghan dynasties who dominated successively the northern parts of the subcontinent, from the mid-ninth/fifteenth century to the mid-tenth/sixteenth century—the Lodīs from 855/1451 to 932/1526 an…
Date: 2021-07-19

Dawlatshāh Samarqandī

(606 words)

Author(s): Feuillebois, Ève
(Amīr) Dawlatshāh b. ʿAlāʾ al-Dawla Bukhtīshāh Samarqandī (b. c.842/1438, d. 900/1494 or 913/1507) was the author of Tadhkirat al-shuʿarā (“Memoir of the poets”), a book containing biographies of one hundred fifty poets, with quotations from their poetry and historical information. He belonged to the ruling, land-owning elite: his father, ʿAlāʾ al-Dawla Bukhtīshāh, was a confidant of the Tīmūrid Shāhrukh (r. 811–50/1409–47), and his brother, Amīr Raḍī al-Dīn ʿAlī, served Abū l-Qāsim Bābur (r. 851–61/1447–57) in Khurāsān. Dawlatshāh wa…
Date: 2021-07-19

Dawlatshāh Samarqandī

(801 words)

Author(s): Melvin-Koushki, Matthew
Amīr Dawlatshāh b. Amīr ʿAlāʾ al-Dawla Bukhtīshāh Ghāzī Samarqandī, takhalluṣ (pen name) ʿAlāʾī (b. c.842/1438, d. 900/1495 or 913/1507) was the author of the seminal Tadhkirat al-shuʿarāʾ, a biographical dictionary of 152 poets incorporating important historical information on Tīmūrid Iran. It is the second earliest work of this type to survive, preceded only by the Lubāb al-albāb of ʿAwfī (fl. early seventh/thirteenth century), of which Dawlatshāh was unaware. Like his father, Amīr ʿAlāʾ al-Dawla Bukhtīshāh, and his cousin Amīr Fīrūzshāh (d. 848/14…
Date: 2021-07-19


(1,662 words)

Author(s): Hatina, Meir
The dawsa (lit., stepping) was a Ṣūfī ritual associated with the Saʿdiyya order in which the shaykh rode his horse over the backs of his prostrate disciples. The Saʿdiyya was founded by Saʿd al-Dīn al-Jibāwī (d. 736/1335), from Ḥawrān, in Syria. 1. The Saʿdiyya order and the origins of the dawsa The genealogy of the order is disputed. Some scholars considered the Saʿdiyya an offshoot of either the Qādiriyya or the Rifāʿiyya order, while Saʿdī sources argued that it was a new order, whose Ṣūfī lineage went back to ʿAlī b. Abī Ṭālib (d. 40/661) an…
Date: 2022-08-02

Dāwūd b. Jirjīs

(774 words)

Author(s): Weismann, Itzchak
Dāwūd b. Sulaymān b. Jirjīs al-Mūsawī al-Baghdādī (b. 1812 or 1816, d. 1881) was born into a prosperous family in Baghdad and received a thorough religious education under his father. He was initiated into the Naqshbandī-Khālidī brotherhood by its local shaykh, ʿAbd al-Ghafūr al-Mushāhidī. (The widespread Naqshbandī Ṣūfī order was founded in Bukhārā by Bahāʾ al-Dīn Naqshband, d. 791/1389; its orthodox Khālidī branch was founded by the Kurdish shaykh Khālid Naqshbandī (d. 1827), himself trained in India in the Mujaddidī current initiated by Shaykh Aḥmad Sirhindī …
Date: 2021-07-19

Dawud b. Khalaf

(1,053 words)

Author(s): Melchert, Christopher
Abū Sulaymān Dāwūd b. ʿAlī b. Khalaf al-Iṣfahānī al-Ẓāhirī (d. 270/884) was an important Muslim jurisprudent. His grandfather seems to have been a client of the ʿAbbāsid caliph al-Mahdī (r. 158–69/775–85). Dāwūd was born in Kufa but grew up in Baghdad and was active primarily there. The sources give various years for his birth: 200/815–6, 201/816–17, 202/817–8, and 208/823–4. He was called “al-Iṣfahānī” because his family (or his mother alone) was originally from a village near Isfahan. His father worked as a scribe for the Ḥanafī qāḍī ʿAbdallāh b. Khālid in Isfahan, under the ca…
Date: 2021-07-19

Dāwūd al-Faṭṭānī

(683 words)

Author(s): Fathurahman, Oman
Dāwūd b. ʿAbdallāh b. Idrīs al-Faṭṭānī, or Dawud Fattani, also known as Tok Syeikh Dawud Fatani or Daud Patani (c.1153–c.1265/1740–1847), was one of the most prominent scholars of Pattani, in southern Thailand, active in the complex intellectual networks of Malay scholars and scholars of Mecca and Medina in the eighteenth and first half of the nineteenth century. He was engaged not only in proliferating the traditions of Islamic learning, but also in further disseminating Islamic renewal and reform in Southeast Asia (Azra, 122). Dāwūd al-Faṭṭānī was born probably in Parit Marh…
Date: 2021-07-19

Dāwūd al-Qayṣarī

(1,007 words)

Author(s): Hussain, Ali
Ṣharaf al-Dīn Dāwūd b. Maḥmūd b. Muḥammad al-Qayṣarī (d. 751/1350) was a prominent Muslim scholar and mystic of the Ottoman era. His exact birth date is unknown (c. 650–60/1252–61?), but the historical sources report that he was born in either Qaramān (near Konya, Turkey) or al-Sāwā (in central Persia), and most agree that he died in Iznik (premodern Nicaea, in the present-day province of Bursa, Turkey). Little is known of his early years. After receiving some education in the city of his birth, al-Qayṣarī travelled to Cairo, a major centre of Islamic learning…
Date: 2021-07-19

Dāwūd al-Ṭāʾī

(802 words)

Author(s): Berger, Lutz
Dāwūd al-Ṭāʾī (d. c.165/781–2) was an ascetic from Kufa, in southern Iraq. As with many early Islamic religious figures, sources on his life and thought are late and contradictory in detail but nonetheless allow a general appraisal of his personality. Dāwūd al-Ṭāʾī was part of the Kufan Murjiʾa circle, which is associated with the name of Abū Ḥanīfa (d. 150/767), the eponymous founder of the Ḥanafī school of law (the Murjiʾa was an early theological school opposed to the Kharijīs on questions related to sin and definitions of what is …
Date: 2021-07-19

Dāya Rāzī

(3,294 words)

Author(s): Algar, Hamid
Najm al-Dīn Abū Bakr ʿAbdallāh b. Muḥammad b. Shāhāwar b. Anūshīrwān Dāya Rāzī (573–654/1177–1256) was a prominent member of the Kubrawī Ṣūfī order (originating with Najm al-Dīn Kubrā, d. 618/1221), celebrated above all for his compendious Persian-language handbook of Ṣūfī theory and practice, Mirṣād al-ʿibād min al-mabdaʾ ilā l-maʿād (“The path of God’s bondsmen from origin to return”). His distinctive name “Dāya” (wetnurse) reflects the fancy that the novice on the Ṣūfī path is like a newborn in need of suckling in order to flourish, a simile developed at length in Mirṣād al-ʿibād (2…
Date: 2021-07-19

al-Daybulī, Abū Mūsā

(598 words)

Author(s): Basharin, Pavel
Abū Mūsā al-Daybulī (al-Dabīlī) was one of the visitors of the ecstatic Persian mystic Abū Yazīd al-Bisṭāmī (d. 261/875 or 264/877–8) who recorded his speeches. According to the Manāqib al-Bisṭāmī (“The (laudatory) biography of al-Bistami”) by Abū l-Faḍl al-Sahlajī (d. 475/1082–3), he was a follower of ʿAbd al-Raḥīm b. Yaḥyā al-Aswad al-Zāhid al-Daybulī (al-Sahlajī, Kitāb al-nūr, 54). When Abū Mūsā visited al-Bisṭāmī and heard his speeches, he extended his stay in the company of al-Bisṭāmī’s circle, and that was a benefit to him. Abū Mūsā learnt by …
Date: 2021-07-19

Ḍayfa Khātūn

(902 words)

Author(s): El-Azhari, Taef
Ḍayfa Khātūn (d. 640/1242) was an Ayyūbid queen and regent of Aleppo between 634/1236 and 640/1242 and the first Sunnī queen in Islamic history. Born in 581/1185 to al-ʿĀdil (r. 592–615/1196–1218), brother of the founder of the Ayyūbid sultanate, Salāḥ al-Dīn (Saladin, r. 567–89/1171–93), her ascent to the throne was a consequence of the ascent of her father in 597/1200 coupled with her own shrewdness. When al-ʿĀdil became sultan of the Ayyūbid realm (which spanned Egypt, Ḥijāz, Yemen, Syria, eas…
Date: 2021-07-19

Ḍayf, Shawqī

(670 words)

Author(s): Gamal, Adel S.
Aḥmad Shawqī ʿAbd al-Salām Ḍayf (1911–2005) was one of twentieth-century Egypt’s pre-eminent literary historians and teachers. He was born in Abū Ḥamām, a small village in Damietta Governorate and died in Cairo. As an infant, Ḍayf lost the sight in his left eye as a result of infection, a fate similar to that of another great Egyptian littérateur, Ṭāhā Ḥusayn (d. 1973), who later became his teacher. After a traditional childhood education in the Nile Delta, he was enrolled in the Zaqāzīq Religious I…
Date: 2021-07-19


(762 words)

Author(s): Shuval, Tal
Dayı (Dāyı; Dey in European writings) was a title used in Ottoman Tunisia and Algeria, which derived from the Turkish word dayı ( dāyı, “maternal uncle”). It designated a variety of functions ranging from petty officer to provincial governor. The circumstances of the title’s appearance in Tunisia in the tenth/sixteenth century are unclear. André Raymond seems to prefer Ibn Abī Dīnār’s account to al-Wazīr’s explanation, which is also given by Mehmet Zeki Pakalin. Ibn Abī Dīnār related that after the Janissaries revolted against the Bölükbaşıs in October 999–1000/1591, they chose dayıs…
Date: 2021-07-19

al-Daylamī, Muḥammad b. al-Ḥasan

(516 words)

Author(s): Thiele, Jan
Muḥammad b. al-Ḥasan al-Daylamī (d. 711/1311–2) was a Zaydī and Ṣūfī scholar. He was born in the Caspian region, a historical centre of Zaydism since the establishment of the community’s first Imāmate in 250/864. The date of his birth is unknown. He travelled to Yemen—which had, by the sixth/twelfth century, become the cultural centre of Zaydism—and sojourned in Ṣanʿāʾ during the reign of the Imām al-Mahdī li-Dīn Allāh Muḥammad b. Muṭahhar (d. 728/1328). During his residence in Yemen, al-Daylamī wrote Qawāʿid ʿaqāʾid Āl Muḥammad (“Fundamentals of the beliefs of the family of M…
Date: 2021-07-19


(1,468 words)

Author(s): Crone, Patricia
The Dayṣanīs were the followers of Bar Dayṣān (in Western sources Bardesanes, d. c.222 C.E.), an Edessene Christian who was deemed heretical within a century of his death. Muslim sources say very little about the Dayṣanīs as a Christian sect and rarely even know that they were Christians. They encountered them mainly as participants in disputations about kalām al-falsafa, natural science pursued in dialectical form, in which the focus was on cosmology as a rational edifice capable of standing alone, without scriptural support. “Dayṣanīs” were those who…
Date: 2021-07-19

Death in Islamic law

(1,895 words)

Author(s): Yanagihashi, Hiroyuki
Death produces certain effects in Islamic law. In addition to requiring the Muslim community to arrange a funeral, death extinguishes a person’s dhimma (the legal quality that enables a person to acquire rights and assume obligations), with the result that succession begins and some of his or her rights and obligations are extinguished, while others are assumed by heirs or others. In certain circumstances, a person not actually known to be dead is treated as dead in some respects. 1. Definition Al-Nawawī (d. 676/1277), a jurist of the (Sunnī) Shāfiʿī school of law, writes th…
Date: 2021-07-19

Debate literature, Arabic

(1,408 words)

Author(s): van Gelder, Geert Jan
Debate literature in Arabic, in a strict sense, is a text in which two or more inanimate things (objects, substances, abstract concepts) are personified or humanised and vie for precedence. It is already found in older Middle Eastern literatures such as Sumerian, Babylonian, and Syriac (see Reinink and Vanstiphout, eds.; and Jiménez). In Arabic such texts are generally called munāẓara, but several other terms are found, including mufākhara (“vaunting, boasting”) and muḥāwara (“discussion”). Because munāẓara also refers to non-literary, theological, legal, or other sch…
Date: 2021-07-19

Debate literature, Urdu

(2,389 words)

Author(s): Bruce, Gregory Maxwell
Debate literature in Urdu encompasses a wide range of disputative practices across a similarly wide range of discursive contexts. The word munāẓara (debate) has three relevant senses: public debates amongst religious and sectarian groups and the polemical literatures associated with them; debate as a branch of the rational sciences; and a literary motif used primarily in Urdu poetry involving an imaginary dialogue. Other Urdu words used to designate debate, including mubāḥatha, are introduced as well. 1. The semantics of munāẓara Munāẓara (also pronounced munāẓira, munāẓra; pl.…
Date: 2021-07-19


(1,201 words)

Author(s): Dressler, Markus
Dede (Turkish for “elder”) is an honorary title in Turkish dominated Sufi Islam, used prominently in the Mevlevi tradition, where it is attributed to fully initiated dervishes, and in the Kızılbaş-Alevi tradition, with which this entry is concerned. The office of dede, or dedelik, is a core institution of the socio-religious groups in Anatolia and adjacent regions, which were historically linked with two popular opposition movements of charismatic and antinomian Ṣūfī character that launched rebellions against the Seljuk and Ottoman centr…
Date: 2021-07-19
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