Encyclopaedia of Islam, THREE

Get access Subject: Middle East And Islamic Studies

Edited by Kate Fleet, Gudrun Krämer, Denis Matringe, John Nawas and Devin J. Stewart.

With Roger Allen, Edith Ambros, Thomas Bauer, Johann Büssow, Carl Davila, Ruth Davis, Ahmed El Shamsy, Maribel Fierro, Najam Haider, Konrad Hirschler, Nico Kaptein, Alexander Knysh, Corinne Lefèvre, Scott Levi, Roman Loimeier, Daniela Meneghini, Negin Nabavi, M'hamed Oualdi, D. Fairchild Ruggles, Ignacio Sánchez, and Ayman Shihadeh.

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The Third Edition of the Encyclopaedia of Islam is an entirely new work, which sets out the present state of our knowledge of the Islamic World and reflects the great diversity of current scholarship. It is a unique and invaluable reference tool, an essential key to understanding the world of Islam, and the authoritative source not only for the religion, but also for the believers and the countries in which they live. The new scope includes comprehensive coverage of Islam in the twentieth century and of Muslim minorities all over the world.

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Dede Korkut

(1,636 words)

Author(s): Boeschoten, Hendrik E.
Dede Korkut (Grandpa Korkut) is the Anatolian version of the name of a legendary figure known more commonly as Qorqud Ata (Father Qorqud), after whom the famous Book of Dede Korkut (Kitāb-ı Dedem Qorqud) is titled. An Anatolian compilation of heroic stories of singular quality from the early sixteenth century, this work is the sole comprehensive medieval source for Turkic epic traditions, which makes it critically important for analyzing inner-Turkic exchange on the level of storytelling and other traditions, as well as acculturation processes in Anatolia and Transcaucasia. Qorqud …
Date: 2021-07-19

Deedat, Ahmed

(806 words)

Author(s): Sadouni, Samadia
Ahmed Hoosen Deedat (1918–2005), a South African Muslim TV preacher known for his conferences, public debates, and disputes on religion, was born in Surat, India. In 1927, at the age of nine, he emigrated to join his father, a tailor employed in Durban, South Africa; his mother died after his departure. In Durban, Deedat was quick in learning English and proved zealous in school, which he attended up to the sixth grade but was forced to leave due to financial pressures. He started working at the age of sixteen (Deedat). In recounting his experiences in South Africa, Deedat emphasised…
Date: 2021-07-19


(2,460 words)

Author(s): Street, Anthony D.
The Arabic terms ḥadd and ta ʿrīf are both used in philosophical and theological writings to mean “ definition.” Ḥadd is generally used in the strict sense of “real definition” (see below), whereas taʿrīf is used in a broader sense, subsuming both definition and other ways of making something known. Ḥadd, literally “limit,” has as one of its primary senses the distinction of one thing from another (“he distinguished, or separated by some mark or note… a thing from another thing” Lane, s.v. ḥadd). Taʿrīf means “the making to know,” and includes—aside from ḥadd—“description” (rasm), which …
Date: 2021-07-19


(656 words)

Author(s): Bouquet, Olivier
Defterdar (“record keeper”) was an office in the financial administration of the Ottoman Empire, whose functions became increasingly important between the end of the eighth/fourteenth and the middle of the ninth/fifteenth century. The term was developed as an extension of the financial office of the mustawfī in the states of the mediaeval Near East. The terms başdefterdar ( başdefterdār, chief financial administrator) and defterdars (lower-level treasury officials) are mentioned in the kanunname ( qānūnnāme, law code) of Mehmed II (Meḥmed, r. 848–50/1444–6 and 855–86…
Date: 2021-07-19


(1,594 words)

Author(s): Anetshofer, Helga
Dehhani (Dehhānī) was a Turkish poet of the eighth/fourteenth-century Beylik period, who died before 803/1401. Mehmed Fuad Köprülü (d. 1966) made Dehhani popular under the name Hoca (Khoca) Dehhani. However, Kenzü’l-kübera ( Kenzü’l-küberāʾ, 803/1401) by Şeyhoğlu (Şeykh-oghlu, d. 817/1414?) is the only source to call him thus (just as it has “Hoca Mesud” and “Hoca Gülşehri” for Mesud b. Ahmed (Mesʿūd b. Aḥmed) and Gülşehri (Gülşehrī), Şeyhoğlu, 47, 58, 144). Information on Dehhani’s life is scarce and questionable. In his kaside (qaṣīde), Dehhani suggests that he was origina…
Date: 2021-07-19

Delhi, architecture

(3,188 words)

Author(s): Asher, Catherine B.
Delhi (Dilhī), located on the west bank of the Jumna River and bounded on three sides by the Aravalli hills, has been associated traditionally with the Indian capital of the first Afghan overlord, the Ghūrid ruler Muʿizz al-Dīn Muḥammad b. Sām, and his chief officer, Quṭb al-Dīn Aybak (r. 588–607/1192–1210), through the establishment of the Delhi Sultanate (607–932/1211–1526), until its demise in the early tenth/sixteenth century. Although not always the capital of the succeeding dynasty, the Mu…
Date: 2021-07-19

Delhi Sultanate architecture

(3,387 words)

Author(s): Asher, Catherine B.
The architecture of the Delhi Sultanate (607–932/1210–1526) is associated primarily with Delhi, from the reign of Iltutmish, its first sultan (r. 607–33/1211–36), through the defeat in 932/1526 of the Lodī dynasty by the Mughal emperor Bābur. While centred on Delhi, the sultanate also included North Indian successor states that developed even before Delhi’s decline caused by Tīmūr’s sack in Rabīʿ II 801/December 1398. Sultanate architecture was revived briefly during the Sūrī interregnum, from 937/1540 to 962/1555, when the Mughals were temporarily ousted from India. 1. Aybak The…
Date: 2021-07-19

Deli Birader, Gazali

(751 words)

Author(s): Kuru, Selim S.
Deli Birader, Gazali (d. 941/1535), was an Ottoman scholar and poet from Bursa. His name was Mehemmed (Meḥemmed), and his penname Gazali (Ghazālī). Deli Birader, Brother Madcap, was his nickname. After completing his education in Istanbul, he first worked as a teacher (müderris) at the Bayezid Paşa Medresesi in Bursa and then attended the court of the Ottoman prince Korkud (Qorqud, d. 918/1513, a poet and musician and the eldest son of Sultan Bayazid II), in Manisa, as editor of the prince’s works. After Korkud’s death by execution, Gazali was retired to the Geyikli Baba tekke (Ṣūfī lodge…
Date: 2021-07-19

Deli Orman

(1,131 words)

Author(s): Parveva, Stefka
Deli Orman (today’s Ludogorie) is a historic-geographical region in present-day northeastern Bulgaria. Its exact boundaries are not clear, but it borders on Dobrudja to the east-northeast (the dividing line runs along the upper reaches of the Suha River, roughly from the town of Tutrakan to the Frangensko plateau), and it reaches the valley of the Beli Lom River to the west and the valley of the Provadiyska River to the south. The name “Deli Orman,” which is of Turkish origin and means wild or primeval forest, derives from the region’s wooded landscape. In ancient times, the area was i…
Date: 2021-07-19


(851 words)

Author(s): Ricklefs, M. C.
Demak, a town on the north coast of Java, is customarily believed to be the site of the earliest mosque built in Java and the seat of the first Javanese sultanate. Demak’s origins are obscure. It seems likely that the town was founded in the late fifteenth century by non-Javanese, probably by a Chinese Muslim known in one chronicle as Cek Ko-po. At the time it was a significant port-site, but silting over the following centuries has left it at some distance from the sea today. According to later Javanese chronicles—extant only in versions from the eighteenth century and after—as …
Date: 2021-07-19

Demir Baba Tekke

(851 words)

Author(s): Georgieva, Gergana
Demir Baba Tekke is the main religious centre of the Alevi/Kızılbaş community in the Deliorman region of northeastern Bulgaria and is located near the village of Sveshtari, in the region of Razgrad. The tekke dates from the second half of the tenth/sixteenth century and is one of several Alevi tekkes erected in Bulgaria in that period: Akyazılı Baba (Tekke village near Varna), Otman Baba (Tekke village near Haskovo), Kademli Baba (Sokol village near Nova Zagora), and Musa Baba (Izbul village near Shumen). They were founded during the state-enf…
Date: 2021-07-19

Demirel, Süleyman

(1,024 words)

Author(s): Heper, Metin
Süleyman Demirel (1924–2015) was a prominent Turkish politician, prime minister, and president. He came from a modest but respected family of peasant farmers and was the first major Turkish leader of truly peasant origins. After graduating from Istanbul Technical University in 1949 as a civil engineer, he became general director of Devlet Su İşleri (State Water Works) in 1955, at the age of only thirty-one. Demirel joined the Adalet Partisi (Justice Party, AP) in 1962 and became party chairman in November 1964. Following the AP’s victory in the 10 November 19…
Date: 2021-07-19


(703 words)

Author(s): Vagelpohl, Uwe
The Presocratic philosopher Democritus (d. c. 370 B.C.E.) is, together with his predecessor Leucippus (fl. 5th c. B.C.E.), credited with the theory of atomism, according to which the world is composed of an infinite number of tiny solid, indivisible particles of varying shapes that are in constant motion. Because of the variety of ways in which his name was transliterated in Arabic, Democritus became known in the Islamic world under a number of names (e.g., Dimuqrāṭ, Dīmuqrāṭīs, Dhīmūqrīṭūs, and Dhūmuqrāṭīs). Reports about Democritus, who was…
Date: 2021-07-19

Demokrat Parti

(1,147 words)

Author(s): Karpat, Kemal H.
The Demokrat Parti (DP, Democrat Party) was established on 7 January 1946 by Celal Bayar (d. 1986), Adnan Menderes (d. 1961), M. Fuat Köprülü (d. 1966), and Refik Koraltan (d. 1974). All had been members of the Cumhuriyet Halk Partisi (CHP, Republican People’s Party), which had ruled Turkey as a single, all-powerful party since its inception in 1923. The dissent that led to the establishment of the DP began with opposition to the so-called Land Reform Law, intended, among other aims, to reduce lan…
Date: 2021-07-19

Denmark, Muslims in

(1,092 words)

Author(s): Nielsen, Jørgen S.
The presence of Muslims in Denmark is a result of the immigration since the Second World War of people seeking work and asylum. Traditionally Denmark has been a very homogenous society in terms of language, religion, law, and culture. Historically the national Lutheran church (Folkekirken) holds a privileged position in the constitution and with respect to the state and public funding. The church is administered by a government department, and is financed partly by a church tax paid by members and pa…
Date: 2021-07-19

Deobandīs in Africa

(1,032 words)

Author(s): Moosa, Ebrahim
The South Asian diaspora includes Deobandīs who have settled in Africa. The name of the movement derives from that of the Indian city of Deoband, northeast of Delhi, where, in the mid-nineteenth century, a reformist madrasa, Dār al-ʿUlūm, was founded by prominent Sunnī scholars in reaction to British colonialism in India, which they considered a threat to Islam. Deobandism today is an orthodox Sunnī tradition (maslak) with a transnational presence. South Asian merchants and professionals of Gujarati Indian ancestry are the major adherents of Deobandism in Africa, …
Date: 2021-07-19


(696 words)

Author(s): Yanagihashi, Hiroyuki
Deposit (wadīʿa) in Islamic law is a gratuitous contract by virtue of which the owner of a thing ( mūdiʿ or mustawdiʿ, depositor) charges another person ( mūdaʿ or mustawdaʿ, depositary) with safeguarding it until the owner requires the depositary to return it. Deposit is formed by offer and acceptance and becomes valid when the depositary takes possession of the object. The deposit is, however, non-binding—that is, either party may cancel it unilaterally at any time. The depositary is, in principle, not liable for any damage or loss that occurs to the deposit. This is …
Date: 2021-07-19

Dermagandhul, Serat

(1,085 words)

Author(s): Ricklefs, M. C.
Serat Dermagandhul was one of three anti-Islamic tracts in Javanese evidently written in East Java in the 1870s in reaction to Islamic reform movements. Islamic reform’s progress among Javanese from about the 1850s produced some resistance. A social group known as the abangan emerged, who attenuated their commitment to Islam and its rituals and came to be regarded as merely nominal Muslims. Anti-Islamic tracts were also written depicting Islam as a foreign import not suited to the Javanese. In 1870 a version of the chronicle Babad Pajajaran appeared in the Javanese weekly Bramartani, d…
Date: 2021-07-19


(3,151 words)

Author(s): Papas, Alexandre
Dervish is a general term for various types of marginal mystics. Its etymon is the Persian word darvīsh (lit. “poor, needy”), but it has commonly been used to denote practitioners of religious poverty. The mediaeval Ṣūfī tradi…
Date: 2021-07-19

Devil (Satan)

(4,433 words)

Author(s): Lange, Christian
In Islam, the Devil (Satan) is not, as a rule, seen as the source of absolute evil operating independently of God. His role in Muslim exegetical, mythical, ethical, mystical, and literary traditions is rich and variegated. This entry deals with the Qurʾānic image of the Devil; the mythic biography of the Devil as fleshed out in exegetical literature and in the ḥadīth; the Devil’s role in ethical and ascetic literature; the Devil as muse in poetry and music; the Devil as tragic figure in Muslim mystical thought; and modern literary framings of the Devil, up to the beginning of the twenty-first century. 1. In the Qurʾān…
Date: 2021-07-19
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