Encyclopaedia of Islam, THREE

Get access Subject: Middle East And Islamic Studies

Edited by Kate Fleet, Gudrun Krämer, Denis Matringe, John Nawas and Devin J. Stewart.

With Roger Allen, Edith Ambros, Thomas Bauer, Johann Büssow, Carl Davila, Ruth Davis, Ahmed El Shamsy, Maribel Fierro, Najam Haider, Konrad Hirschler, Nico Kaptein, Alexander Knysh, Corinne Lefèvre, Scott Levi, Roman Loimeier, Daniela Meneghini, Negin Nabavi, M'hamed Oualdi, D. Fairchild Ruggles, Ignacio Sánchez, and Ayman Shihadeh.

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The Third Edition of the Encyclopaedia of Islam is an entirely new work, which sets out the present state of our knowledge of the Islamic World and reflects the great diversity of current scholarship. It is a unique and invaluable reference tool, an essential key to understanding the world of Islam, and the authoritative source not only for the religion, but also for the believers and the countries in which they live. The new scope includes comprehensive coverage of Islam in the twentieth century and of Muslim minorities all over the world.

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Danubian Principalities

(1,973 words)

Author(s): Panaite, Viorel
The Danubian Principalities is a term conventionally used to designate the principalities of Wallachia and Moldavia, situated between the Carpathians, the Danube river, the Black Sea and the Dniester river, which were founded in the first part of the eighth/fourteenth century. The name was coined in the European diplomatic milieu of the second part of the twelfth/eighteenth century. In Ottoman documents after 1188/1774, the two principalities are frequently referred to as Eflak ve Boğdan voyvodalıkları (Eflāq ve Boghdān voyvodalıqları, the principalities of Wallachia and …
Date: 2021-07-19

Daqāyiqī Marvazī

(1,323 words)

Author(s): Casari, Mario
Shams al-Dīn Muḥammad Daqāyiqī Marvazī (fl. second half of the sixth/twelfth century) was a Persian writer and poet active in Khurāsān and Transoxania. The only biographical data we have are provided by Muḥammad ʿAwfī (late sixth/twelfth to the beginning of the seventh/thirteenth century), the Persian collector of tales and anthologist from Bukhara, who devotes a short passage to Daqāyiqī in his biographical collection of Persian poetry, Lubāb al-albāb (“The piths of intellects”; ʿAwfī, 1:212–5; 318–9; 347). Daqāyiqī appears to have been a distinguished man of …
Date: 2021-07-19

al-Daqqāq, Abū ʿAbdallāh

(837 words)

Author(s): Rodríguez Mediano, Fernando
Abū ʿAbdallāh Muḥammad al-Daqqāq al-Sijilmāsī (d. second half sixth/twelfth century) was a Moroccan Ṣūfī born in Sij̲ilmāsa and one of the teachers of the great Andalusī saint Abū Madyan (d. 594/1197). Many of his assertions, such as openly proclaiming his sanctity, were criticised by some ʿulamāʾ and Ṣūfīs, which led Vincent Cornell to suggest that he may have followed the doctrines of the Malāmatiyya (“adepts of blame,” malāma), who were Ṣūfīs who thought that all outward appearance of religiosity was ostentation and that real piety should remain hidden, reac…
Date: 2021-07-19

al-Daqqāq, Abū ʿAlī

(878 words)

Author(s): Nguyen, Martin
Al-Ḥasan b. ʿAlī b. Muḥammad b. Isḥāq b. ʿAbd al-Raḥīm b. Aḥmad Abū ʿAlī l-Daqqāq (d. 405/1015) was a Ṣūfī mystic of Nīshāpūr who owes his posthumous fame largely to his renowned disciple and son-in-law Abū l-Qāsim al-Qushayrī (d. 465/1072–3), a major Central Asian religious scholar, Ṣūfī manualist, and hagiographer. Little is known of al-Daqqāq’s early life, beyond the facts that he was a native of Nīshāpūr and that his nisba al-Daqqāq (the miller) probably indicates a family trade. More is known about his religious education, especially in Ṣūfism. Al-Daqqāq’s silsila (spiritual gen…
Date: 2021-07-19

Dār ʿadl (modern)

(1,394 words)

Author(s): Layish, Aharon
The institution of dār ʿadl (lit. “the house of a virtuous person”) occupies an ill-defined zone between sharīʿa and customary law. In Islamic law, an ʿadl is a “virtuous witness,” that is, a witness who possesses moral and religious integrity (ʿadāla). In private law ʿadāla is required of a court witness (shāhid) and of anyone likely to be called upon to testify (Tyan, Histoire, 166, 226, 242, 248, 256; Tyan, ʿAdl, 209). In customary law, the term dār ʿadl refers to a tribal arbitrator who has been deputised by a qāḍī to serve as his trusted agent. The ʿadl’s function is to examine the beha…
Date: 2021-07-19

Dār al-ʿadl (premodern)

(1,942 words)

Author(s): Rabbat, Nasser
Dār al-ʿadl means “house of justice” in Arabic. In about 558/1163, Nūr al-Dīn Maḥmūd b. Zankī (r. 541–69/1147–74) ordered the construction in his capital, Damascus, of a special building for public hearings of grievances ( qaḍāʾ al-maẓālim, or al-naẓar fī l-maẓālim) and named it the Dār al-ʿAdl or Dār Kashf al-Maẓālim (House for the Review of Grievances). This was the first use of the term dār al-ʿadl. In total, seven Houses of Justice were constructed in Damascus, Aleppo, and Cairo between the sixth/twelfth and eighth/fourteenth centuries. They have all disap…
Date: 2021-07-19

al-Dārānī, Abū Sulaymān

(797 words)

Author(s): van Ess, Josef
Abū Sulaymān ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. Aḥmad b. ʿAṭiyya al-ʿAnsī al-Dārānī (d. c.215/830) was an early mystic. His family belonged to a South Arabian tribe that had settled in Umayyad Syria, but he spent some time in Iraq; a brother of his lived in Baghdad, probably as a merchant (cf. al-Khaṭīb al-Baghdādī, Taʾrīkh Baghdād, Cairo 1349/1931, 8:366, no. 4464). He was said to have originated in Wāsiṭ, and he certainly visited the Ṣūfī colony in ʿAbbādān, near Baṣra, possibly under the influence of ʿAbd al-Wāḥid b. Zayd from Baṣra. In his later years he live…
Date: 2021-07-19


(1,352 words)

Author(s): Brown, Jonathan A.C.
Abū Ḥasan ʿAlī b. ʿUmar b. Aḥmad b. Mahdī al-Dāraquṭnī (306–85/918–95) was a leading Sunnī ḥadīth scholar of the fourth/tenth century. Known as “the imām of his time” in ḥadīth, later Sunnī scholars often saw al-Dāraquṭnī as the last great ḥadīth scholar of the halcyon days of the Sunnī tradition. Al-Khaṭīb al-Baghdādī (d. 463/1071), who was a great admirer, referred to him as “one of the forefathers (mutaqaddimīn).” Born in Baghdad, al-Dāraquṭnī took his unusual nisba from Dār al-Quṭn, the large quarter of the city in which his family lived. Al-Dāraquṭnī, whose family…
Date: 2021-07-19

Dārā Shikūh

(1,184 words)

Author(s): Gandhi, Supriya
Dārā Shikūh (1024–69/1615–59) was the eldest son of Mughal emperor Shāh Jahān (r. 1037–68/1628–58) and a Qādirī Ṣūfī adept, who sought to combine duties of rulership with a project of spiritual self-cultivation that culminated in a sustained pursuit of Indic religious knowledge. Dārā Shikūh’s execution after a struggle for imperial succession in which his brother Awrangzīb (r. 1068–1118/1658–1707) prevailed, cut short his activities of authorship, translation, and patronage of art and letters. As heir to the throne, Dārā Shikūh was rewarded with the governorship of …
Date: 2021-07-19

Darb al-Arbaʿīn

(406 words)

Author(s): Vikør, Knut S.
Darb al-Arabaʿīn was a major trans-Saharan trade route between Darfur (in western Sudan) and Egypt. The name (lit., the forty-days road) may refer to forty daily stages into which the trip, about 1,700 kilometres long, was divided. The trip took from fifty to sixty days to complete, with the required resting periods. The southern terminus was Kobbei (Ar. Kubayh), about one day’s travel north of the capital, al-Fāshir. The trade on this route made Kobbei the main commercial hub of Darfur, with six to eight thousand inhabitants, mostly from abroad,…
Date: 2021-07-19


(747 words)

Author(s): Aksan, Virginia H.
The Dardanelles is a strait in northwestern Turkey that unites the Marmara and the Aegean Seas and divides Europe from Asia. It is about 62 kilometres in length, and has a width ranging from 1250 meters to 8 kilometres and an average depth of 55 metres. Its name derives from classical myth, as does its other appellation, Hellespont, which was used by the ancient Greeks and later Byzantines. The Ottomans called it Ak Deniz Boğazı (Aq Deniz Boghazı), Kale-i Sultaniyye (Qalʿe-i Sulṭāniyye Boghazı), or, as today, Çanak-kale Boğhazı). The shores of the Dardanelles are studded with sites…
Date: 2021-07-19

Dardic and Nūristānī languages

(1,120 words)

Author(s): Strand, Richard
The Dardic and Nūristānī languages are Indo-European languages of the Indo-Iranian branch, spoken across the Hindu Kush and Karakoram Ranges, from Afghanistan’s Parwān Province in the west to the upper reaches of the Indus Valley in the east. Except for Kashmirī, with around 5.5 million speakers, these languages are spoken by populations ranging from a few thousand or fewer to more than half a million. Some smaller communities of these languages are recently or nearly extinct, their mother tongues h…
Date: 2021-07-19

al-Dardīr, Aḥmad, and Dardīriyya

(981 words)

Author(s): McGregor, Richard J.
Aḥmad al-Dardīr, Abū al-Barakāt Aḥmad b. Muḥammad b. Aḥmad b. Abī Ḥāmid al-ʿAdawī al-Mālikī al-Azharī al-Khalwatī (d. Cairo 1201/1786) was an Egyptian jurist and mystic. Born in the village of Banī ʿAdī, near al-Manfalūṭ, in the southern Egyptian province of Asyūṭ, al-Dardīr went, as a young man, to Cairo, where he entered al-Azhar University, the world’s chief centre of Sunnī learning. Here he studied law and eventually acceded to the position of shaykh of the Mālikī rite. Al-Dardīr taught various religious sciences at al-Azhar and was administrator of the riwāq (residence hall) o…
Date: 2021-07-19

Dār al-Funūn (Iran)

(674 words)

Author(s): Ringer, Monica
The Dār al-Funūn (The Academy of Applied Sciences), the first state-sponsored European-style technical school modelled on examples of Ottoman reform efforts, was established in Iran in 1267/1851 by Mīrzā Taqī Khān Amīr Kabīr (d. 1268/1852), Nāṣir al-Dīn Shāh Qājār’s (r. 1264–1313/1848–96) prime minister. The school was a central component in Amīr Kabīr’s objective of modernizing and centralizing the Qājār government, and enabling the state to prevent increasing European military, economic and political involvement in I…
Date: 2021-07-19


(4 words)

Author(s): Prunier, Gérard
Gérard Prunier
Date: 2018-05-15

Dār al-Ḥikma

(661 words)

Author(s): Halm, Heinz
The Dār al-Ḥikma (“House of Wisdom,” called also Dār al-ʿIlm, “House of Knowledge”), was an institution of learning in Cairo, founded in 395/1005 by the Fāṭimid caliph al-Ḥākim (r. 386–411/996–1021). It was located north of the Western (or Little) Palace, facing the still extant Aqmar Mosque. The books of the palace libraries were moved there, and public lectures were held by jurists, Qurʾān readers, specialists in prophetic traditions (ḥadīth), astronomers, grammarians, philologists, logicians, and physicians. In Ramaḍān 400/April-May 1010, al-Ḥākim incorporate…
Date: 2021-07-19

Dār al-Iftāʾ wa-l-Ishrāf ʿalā l-Shuʾūn al-Dīniyya

(777 words)

Author(s): Al-Atawneh, Muhammad | Abdulaev, Sabina
Dār al-Iftāʾ wa-l-Ishrāf ʿalā l-Shuʾūn al-Dīniyya (“The Institute for the Issuance of Legal Opinions and the Supervision of Religious Affairs”) in Saudi Arabia was founded in 1953 by King Suʿūd b. ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz (r. 1953–64) as part of a process of extending state control to various elements of social life, including those formerly regulated by religious scholars. Dār al-Iftāʾ was the first institution officially authorised to interpret the sharīʿa (Islamic law) and to issue fatwās (Islamic legal opinions) in Saudi Arabia after more than two centuries during which muftīs (Islamic ju…
Date: 2023-08-14


(557 words)

Author(s): Brown, Jonathan A.C.
Abū Muḥammad ʿAbdallāh b. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān al-Dārimī (b. 181/797, d. in Dhū al-Ḥijja 255/November 869 or 250/864–5) was a leading scholar of the Sunnī movement in Khurāsān. Of Arab ancestry and a native of Samarqand, he travelled throughout the Middle East in search of knowledge, voyaging to Egypt, the Hijaz, Syria, and Iraq. He studied with and heard ḥadīths from the greatest Sunnī scholars of his day: Yazīd b. Hārūn (d. 206/821), Abū ʿĀṣim al-Nabīl (d. 212/827), and Muḥammad b. Yūsuf al-Firyābī (212/827) were among his major sources. He also transmitted ḥadīths from Khalīfa b. al-Khay…
Date: 2021-07-19

al-Dārimī, Abū Saʿīd

(564 words)

Author(s): Abrahamov, Binyamin
Abū Saʿīd ʿUthmān b. Saʿīd b. Khālid b. Saʿīd al-Sijistānī al-Dārimī (b. 200/815, d. between 280 and 282/893–5) was a prominent traditionist, jurist, and theologian. His teachers were Aḥmad b. Ḥanbal (d. 241/855), ʿAlī b. al-Madīnī (d. 234/848), Isḥāq b. Rāhawayh (d. 237/851), and Yaḥyā b. Maʿīn (d. 233/847) in the science of traditions, al-Buwayṭī (d. 231/846) in jurisprudence, and Ibn al-Aʿrābī (d. 231/846) in adab (belles-lettres). He composed two polemical treatises, al-Radd ʿalā l-Jahmiyya (“Refutation of the Jahmites”) and al-Radd ʿalā Bishr al-Marīsī (“Refutation of Bis…
Date: 2021-07-19

Dār al-Islām and dār al-ḥarb

(6,215 words)

Author(s): Albrecht, Sarah
The division of the world into dār al-Islām , the “territory of Islam,” and dār al-ḥarb , the “territory of war,” along with related concepts such as dār al-ʿahd, the “territory of treaty,” is a categorisation introduced by Islamic legal scholars in the first centuries of Islam. The precise definition of these categories has been interpreted in a variety of ways throughout Islamic history and plays a key role in Islamic legal debates about Muslim/non-Muslim relations. 1. General Commonly translated, respectively, as the “house, abode, or land of Islam” and the “house, abo…
Date: 2021-07-19
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