Encyclopaedia of Islam, THREE

Get access Subject: Middle East And Islamic Studies

Edited by Kate Fleet, Gudrun Krämer, Denis Matringe, John Nawas and Devin J. Stewart.

With Roger Allen, Edith Ambros, Thomas Bauer, Johann Büssow, Carl Davila, Ruth Davis, Ahmed El Shamsy, Maribel Fierro, Najam Haider, Konrad Hirschler, Nico Kaptein, Alexander Knysh, Corinne Lefèvre, Scott Levi, Roman Loimeier, Daniela Meneghini, Negin Nabavi, M'hamed Oualdi, D. Fairchild Ruggles, Ignacio Sánchez, and Ayman Shihadeh.

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The Third Edition of the Encyclopaedia of Islam is an entirely new work, which sets out the present state of our knowledge of the Islamic World and reflects the great diversity of current scholarship. It is a unique and invaluable reference tool, an essential key to understanding the world of Islam, and the authoritative source not only for the religion, but also for the believers and the countries in which they live. The new scope includes comprehensive coverage of Islam in the twentieth century and of Muslim minorities all over the world.

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al-Darjīnī, Aḥmad

(1,114 words)

Author(s): García Sanjuán, Alejandro
Abū l-ʿAbbās Aḥmad b. Saʿīd b. Sulaymān b. ʿAlī b. Ikhlāf al-Darjīnī was a Maghribī chronicler of Berber origins. He belonged to the Ibāḍī community, the dominant division of the Khārijīs, the third branch of Islam. He belonged to a prestigious family of ʿulamaʾ from the region of Jabal Nafūsa, in Tripolitania. His direct ancestors were among the region’s most revered ʿazzāba (this term, related to the idea of celibacy, is used to refer to men of wisdom in the Ibāḍī community). His grandfather Sulaymān was an eminent sage, as shown by his nickname al-ʿAzz…
Date: 2021-07-19

Dār al-Nadwa

(689 words)

Author(s): Munt, Harry
The Dār al-Nadwa (Council House) was a compound in Mecca, north of the Kaʿba, supposedly founded by Quṣayy to host various administrative and ritual functions. Most reports identify it as a meeting place where weighty matters concerning Mecca and Quraysh could be discussed, hence its name, but other uses are also listed (e.g., Ibn Saʿd, 1/1:39–40; al-Azraqī, 1:109–10), including its use for the conclusion of marriages, declarations of war, circumcision of boys, and the seclusion of menstruating wo…
Date: 2021-07-19

Darphane

(700 words)

Author(s): Bölükbaşı, Ömerül Faruk
The darphane ( ḍarbkhāne, mint) was one of the longest established institutions in the Ottoman Empire, founded in the early days of the state. As the empire’s boundaries expanded in Anatolia and Balkans, mints were opened in important administrative centres, near mines, in settlements on trade routes, and elsewhere. By the second half of the tenth/sixteenth century, Ottoman darphanes numbered more than fifty, and the most important was in Istanbul. During the financial crisis that began in the 990s/1580s under the effect of international monetary and m…
Date: 2021-07-19

Darqāwa

(1,412 words)

Author(s): El Hour, Rachid
Darqāwa or Darqāwiyya is a Moroccan Ṣūfī order (or brotherhood, ṭarīqa, lit., “path”) that attracted devotees also in other Arab countries such as Algeria, Egypt (especially in the city of Ṭanṭā), Tunisia, and Libya. It also became popular in the Ḥijāz, particularly in Mecca and Medina, and has spread as far as Iraq. In Tripoli, it became known as al-Madaniyya, after Muḥammad b. Ḥamza b. Ẓāfir al-Madanī (d. 1847), who introduced there the principles of Muḥammad al-Arabī al-Darqāwī in 1820. The order was founded at the end of the twelfth/eighteenth century by Mawlāy al-ʿArab…
Date: 2021-07-19

Dars-i Niẓāmī

(1,642 words)

Author(s): Ahmed, Asad Q.
The Dars-i Niẓāmī, often referred to as the “Niẓāmī curriculum,” is in fact a method of education, rather than a curriculum, that has been prevalent in South Asian madrasas (Muslim colleges) since the mid-twelfth/eighteenth century. The method of instruction, often associated with a loosely defined curriculum and set of texts, is attributed to Mullā Niẓām al-Dīn al-Sihālawī (d. 1161/1748), a leading scholar of rationalist disciplines such as philosophy and logic and a member of the Indian Farangī Maḥallī family of scholars…
Date: 2021-07-19

Darul Arqam

(713 words)

Author(s): Feener, R. Michael
The Darul Arqam is one of the most highly visible—and controversial—organisations associated with the modern Malaysian daʿwa (Islamic proselytising) movement. Growing out of daʿwa study group in the late 1960s, the organisation established its first communal centre in 1973 under the leadership of Ashaari Muhammad (d. 2010) at Sungai Pencala, on the outskirts of Kuala Lumpur. Members were easily identified by their distinctive forms of dress: long robes and turbans for men, and full face veils covering all save the eye…
Date: 2021-07-19

Darülfünun, Ottoman

(1,037 words)

Author(s): İhsanoğlu, Ekmeleddin M.
The Darülfünun (Dār al-Fünūn), today’s Istanbul University, was envisioned by Ottoman reformers as an institution of higher learning that would be distinct from medreses ( madrasas), which taught traditional sciences, ulum (ʿulūm). They coined the name, which literally means “house of sciences,” to denote a modern university. The gap in technical knowledge between Western Europe and the Ottomans caused by the Industrial Revolution compelled them to create such an institution, within the framework of a public education policy inspired by the French enseignement public. The moder…
Date: 2021-07-19

Darü’l-Hikmeti’l İslamiye

(789 words)

Author(s): Hanioğlu, M. Şükrü
The Darü’l-Hikmeti’l İslamiye (Dār al-Ḥikmat al-Islāmiyya) was a high council that operated within the office of the şeyhülislam (shaykh al-Islām), the Meşihat (Mashīkhat). It was established by an imperial decree issued on 5 March 1918. The legal memorandum explaining the main motives that prompted the establishment of the council and the issuing of the law enumerates the council’s duties as follows: to promulgate and circulate the high virtues of Islam; to protect religious institutions in the best possible way;…
Date: 2021-07-19

Darul Islam

(1,832 words)

Author(s): Formichi, Chiara
Darul Islam (DI) was an armed revolutionary movement led by S. M. Kartosuwiryo (1905–62), which began in West Java (Indonesia) in 1947–8, with the dual goals of defending the area against the returning Dutch colonial power and establishing an Islamic state (Negara Islam Indonesia, NII) in independent Indonesia. DI emerged from intellectual and militant circles surrounding the Islamic organisations Masyumi, Partai Sarekat Islam Indonesia (PSII), and Persatuan Islam (Persis). It also won support am…
Date: 2021-07-19

Dār al-ʿUlūm

(1,432 words)

Author(s): Kalmbach, Hilary
Dār al-ʿUlūm, “House of Knowledge” or “House of Science,” is a term that refers to modern institutions of higher Islamic learning. (For historical precedents, see Dār al-ʿIlm, Dār al-Ḥikma, and Bayt al-Ḥikma.) Cairo’s Dār al-ʿUlūm was founded in 1872 as a government-run school of higher education, training students recruited from religious schools to be teachers of both Arabic and primary-school subjects in the government’s civil schools. In 1946 the school became a faculty of Cairo University, specialising in Arabic and Islam…
Date: 2021-07-19

Darüşşafaka

(409 words)

Author(s): Somel, Akşin
The Darüşşafaka (“the Abode of Compassion”) was the first Muslim private high school in Istanbul. Muslim private educational initiatives developed as reactions to the effects of the Reform Edict (İslahat Fermanı) of 1272/1856 and to the limited success of the state to expand modern schools. Certain Muslim Turkish civil servants, alerted by the quality gap between government schools and non-Muslim institutions, devoted themselves to the education of Muslim boys of modest origins. In 1280/1864 they…
Date: 2021-07-19

Darwīsh, Maḥmūd

(1,402 words)

Author(s): Milich, Stephan
Maḥmūd Darwīsh (1941–2008) was the most prominent of modern Palestinian poets and one of the major protagonists of modern Arabic literature. With his political poems he gave an internationally renowned voice to the Palestinian people and has often been called the “poet of resistance” (shāʿir al-muqāwama). Like other Palestinians of his generation, Darwīsh lived through different periods of exile and loss and his writings and biography reflect the plurality of the Palestinian condition after 1948. In the 1980s, Darwīsh’s works became part o…
Date: 2021-07-19

Darzī, Muḥammad b. Ismāʿīl

(728 words)

Author(s): Halm, Heinz
Anūshtakīn al-Bukhārī al-Darzī, called also Muḥammad b. Ismāʿīl, was one of the first three propagandists of the doctrine of the Druze sect (al-Darziyya, al-Durūz, sing. Durzī), which is named for him. His name indicates that he was a Turk from Central Asia and a tailor (Pers. darzī) by profession; the common vocalisation of his name, Darazī, seems to be incorrect (van Ess, 64f.). According to the Christian author Yaḥyā al-Anṭākī (d. 458/1065) al-Darzī came to Cairo in 408/1017–8, but Yaḥyā sometimes confounds the different Druze protagonists al-Darzī, Ḥamz…
Date: 2021-07-19

Dātā Ganj Bakhsh, shrine of

(1,502 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Linus
The shrine of Dātā Ganj Bakhsh in Lahore, Pakistan, is the resting place of the Ṣūfī saint ʿAlī b. ʿUthmān al-Hujwīrī (d. between 465/1072 and 469/1077). It is today Pakistan’s largest Ṣūfī shrine, in numbers of annual visitors and in the size of the shrine complex. The shrine was nationalised in 1960 and is today administered by the Department of Awqaf and Religious Affairs of the Punjab (Pakistan). Al-Hujwīrī (also spelt Hajweri, Hajveri, Hajvery), was born in Ghazni, in present-day Afghanistan, and is known for his sole surviving book, the Kashf al-maḥjūb (“Revelation of the veil”)…
Date: 2021-07-19

Dāʾūd al-Anṭākī

(932 words)

Author(s): Veit, Raphaela
Dāʾūd b. ʿUmar al-Ḍarīr (al-Akmah) al-Anṭākī (d. 1008/1599) was an Arab physician born in Antioch. Although Dāʾūd was blind from birth, he apparently travelled a great deal, lived in Cairo and Damascus, and died in Mecca. He is reported to have learnt Greek on the advice of a Persian scholar who cured him of a long-term lameness: the traditions of the ancient Greek authors were still important in the tenth/sixteenth century. Dāʾūd wrote several medical treatises on subjects ranging from classical medicine to superstition and magic. He is famous for his large medical handbook, the Tadhkira…
Date: 2021-07-19

Daud Beureu’eh

(895 words)

Author(s): Reid, Anthony
Mohammad Daud Beureu’eh (1899–1987), from Aceh (Sumatra), was a religious reformer, revolutionary leader, and eventual rebel against Jakarta (1953–61). Mohammad Daud was educated entirely in religious schools in his native Pidie District, in Aceh, Sumatra. An outstanding orator and mobiliser open to new currents in religious education, he began in 1930 to establish reformist schools under the name Jamiatul Diniyah. The popular following aroused by his sermons helped create a religious network outside the control of the ulèëbalang (territorial aristocracy) through whom Du…
Date: 2021-07-19

Daura

(811 words)

Author(s): Last, Murray
Daura, in present-day Katsina State, in Northern Nigeria, is famous for three claims: that it is the legendary source of the seven Hausa and seven non-Hausa states in northern Nigeria; that it is the first Hausa city to fall to the jihād of Shaykh ʿUthmān (d. 1817), in about 1806; and that it is the only emirate to be restored to its original Hausa dynasty after the British colonial conquest of 1903. The legend about the origins of Hausa-speaking peoples dates to about the tenth/sixteenth century. It focuses on a warrior-prince, Bayajidda, from Baghdad, who came to …
Date: 2021-07-19

Dāvar, ʿAlī-Akbar

(1,655 words)

Author(s): Enayat, Hadi
ʿAlī-Akbar Khān Dāvar (b. Tehran, 1885; d. Tehran, 10 February 1937) was the son of Kalb-ʿAlī Khān Ardalān, a minor official at the Qājār court. After graduating with a degree in the humanities from the Dār al-Funūn in 1909, he became involved in the Democrat Party (Firqa-yi dimukrāt-i Īrān), which considered the establishment of a secular judiciary a key reform and a major goal. Along with a group of young Democrats, by the end of the year he had been recruited by Muḥammad Riḍā Musāvāt (1865–1925…
Date: 2022-09-21

David

(1,802 words)

Author(s): Reynolds, Gabriel Said
David, the Biblical king of the Israelites, is described in the Qurʾān as a divinely-appointed leader and the recipient of a divine book (al-zabūr). In later Islamic traditions, inspired by Qurʾānic references to David’s repentance, he is praised for his rigor in prayer and fasting. He is also presented as a figure of righteous authority, who was at once a king and a prophet. David is particularly important to the religious architecture of Islamic Jerusalem. 1. David in the Qurʾān The Qurʾānic Arabic form of David is Dāwud or Dāwūd, differing from Koine Greek Δαυίδ and Syriac Dawīd (which f…
Date: 2021-07-19

Daʿwa, modern practices

(2,614 words)

Author(s): Millie, Julian
The range of meanings of the term daʿwa (call, invitation) expanded greatly in the second half of the twentieth century, when it became the label for the reinvigoration of public participation occurring in Muslim populations at that time and for the changes being promoted by the Islamic social movements that motivated that turn. The literature explored below concerns daʿwa in its long established, textually-based sense: it signifies acts of communication intended to “call people to the way of the Lord” (Q 16:125) and “command right and forbid wrong” (Q…
Date: 2021-07-19
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