Encyclopaedia of Islam, THREE

Get access Subject: Middle East And Islamic Studies

Edited by Kate Fleet, Gudrun Krämer, Denis Matringe, John Nawas and Devin J. Stewart.

With Roger Allen, Edith Ambros, Thomas Bauer, Johann Büssow, Carl Davila, Ruth Davis, Ahmed El Shamsy, Maribel Fierro, Najam Haider, Konrad Hirschler, Nico Kaptein, Alexander Knysh, Corinne Lefèvre, Scott Levi, Roman Loimeier, Daniela Meneghini, Negin Nabavi, M'hamed Oualdi, D. Fairchild Ruggles, Ignacio Sánchez, and Ayman Shihadeh.

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The Third Edition of the Encyclopaedia of Islam is an entirely new work, which sets out the present state of our knowledge of the Islamic World and reflects the great diversity of current scholarship. It is a unique and invaluable reference tool, an essential key to understanding the world of Islam, and the authoritative source not only for the religion, but also for the believers and the countries in which they live. The new scope includes comprehensive coverage of Islam in the twentieth century and of Muslim minorities all over the world.

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Painting, Ottoman

(3,802 words)

Author(s): Fetvaci, Emine
The history of Ottoman painting is closely connected to the broader histories of painting in the Islamic world and Europe; like these other traditions, it has changed significantly with time. An inventory of the books in the Topkapı Palace treasury from 909/1503–4 attests to the presence not only of Ottoman but also of Artuqid, Īlkhānid, Turkmen, and Tīmūrid illustrated works in imperial collections (Necipoğlu, Kafadar, and Fleischer). Ottoman artists built on these traditions (Grube; Yoltar; Bağcı …
Date: 2023-10-16

Pakubuwana X

(914 words)

Author(s): Florida, Nancy
Born Radèn Mas Gusti Sayidin Malikul Kusna in 1866, I. S. K. S. (Ingkang Sinuhun Kangjeng Susuhunan) Pakubuwana (Pakubuwono) X ruled the Keraton (kingdom or palace) of Surakarta, in what is now Central Java, Indonesia, from 1893 until his death in 1939. His full title was Sampéyan Dalem Ingkang Sinuhun Kangjeng Susuhunan Pakubuwana Sénapati ing Ngalaga Ngabdurrahman Sayidin Panatagama ingkang kaping Sadasa (“His Majesty, the Most Revered King, Axis of the Cosmos, Commander in the Battlefield, Servant of the Most G…
Date: 2023-01-04


(837 words)

Author(s): Joshi, Harit
Pargana was an administrative term ultimately of Sanskrit origin that was employed in the Indo-Muslim regimes to denote a conglomeration of villages (dih, mawḍaʿ). The date of its creation is uncertain—it was probably based on earlier territorial divisions—although its first attested use seems to be in two mid-eighth/fourteenth-century sources, the Futūh al-salāṭīn (“Victories of the sultans”) of ʿIṣāmī (ʿIṣāmī, 108, 398, 450, 597) and the Inshāʾ-i Māhrū (“Letters of Māhrū”) of Ibn Māhrū (Ibn Māhrū, 23, 146), a collection of administrative letters written by a…
Date: 2023-08-14


(1,111 words)

Author(s): Joshi, Harit
Sulṭān Parvīz (d. 1035/1625) was the second son of the Mughal emperor Jahāngīr (r. 1014–37/1605–27). Parvīz’s short but eventful political career provides an insight into Mughal court politics and the challenges faced by the princely institution as the empire pursued expansion in the early decades of the eleventh/seventeenth century. He was born in Kabul to Sāhib Jamāl (lit., mistress of beauty, d. 1008/1599) probably in Dhū l-Ḥijja 997/end October or early November 1589, during the thirty-fourth year of the reign of his paternal grandfather, …
Date: 2023-08-14


(1,147 words)

Author(s): Bouquet, Olivier
The use of paşa ( pāşā) as an Ottoman title emerged immediately after the reign of Osman I (ʿOthmān I, d. c. 724/1324), contrary to previous honorific designations used for upper dignitaries, such as emir (emīr), bey (beg), mirimiran (mīrimīrān), and vezir ( vezīr, vizier). This is probably one of the reasons why its etymology has been a matter of debate. According to Jean Deny, it probably derived from padişah ( pādishāh, emperor), with the possible influence of baskak ( bāsqāq, agent, tax collector), as suggested by Gerhard Doerfer. Alternative theories claim that it is a…
Date: 2021-07-19

Paul the Persian

(1,013 words)

Author(s): Watt, John W.
Paul the Persian (Syr. Paulos Pārsāyā, fl. sixth century C.E.) was the author of two works extant in Syriac on Aristotelian logic. One is dedicated to “King Khusraw,” presumably Khusraw I Anūshirwān (r. 531–79 C.E.), a patron of Greek philosophy. The other was translated from Persian to Syriac by Severus Sebokht (d. 47/666–7). Apart from the dedication to Khusraw, nothing certain is known of Paul’s life. The veracity of late reports (in the fourth/tenth-century Chronicle of Seert ( Histoire nestorienne inédite), 7/2:147, and in Barhebraeus (d. 685/1286), 3:97–8) that he bel…
Date: 2021-05-25

Peçevi, İbrahim

(1,110 words)

Author(s): Woodhead, Christine
İbrahim Peçevi (İbrāhīm, 982–1059/1574–1649[?]) is one of the most well-known eleventh/seventeenth-century Ottoman historians. He was born in 982/1574 in the southern Hungarian town of Pécs from which he took his name (also found as Peçûyî and Peçûylu, from the Croatian form Peçuy). What little is known of his early life is drawn from brief references in his history (for which see index to Tarih-i Peçevi, ed. Derin and Çabuk, “müellif”). As both his great-grandfather Kara Davud (Dāʾūd) and his grandfather Cafer (Caʿfer) Bey served as alay beyi (provincial cavalry officer), Alaybe…
Date: 2022-09-21


(2,190 words)

Author(s): Golden, Peter B.
The Pechenegs were a mediaeval Central Eurasian Turkic tribal confederation. Their self-designation of “Bäčänäk” (Róna-Tas and Berta, 1:121–2) is of uncertain etymology and origins. Unrecorded in the Old Türk inscriptions under that name, they have been connected in whole or in part with the Kängäräs of the Kangha-Sogdiana-Syr Darya region, who were recorded in the Türk Kül Tegin Inscription (East side of the monument, line 39; Aydın, 64; Klĭashtornyĭ, 161–3) as allies of the Türks in 712–13. Their identification with the Beirujiuli (北褥九離; Early Middle Chinese: pǝk ŋuawk kuw’ liǝ…
Date: 2023-09-21


(1,371 words)

Author(s): Wieringa, Edwin P.
Pegon is a modified form of Arabic script that is used in the Javanese cultural zone for writing Javanese, but also Sundanese, Madurese, and even—though very rarely—Balinese (namely one manuscript kept in Leiden University Library, Cod. Or. 4716). Etymologically, the term derives from the Javanese pego, meaning “strange” (with respect to pronunciation), whereas the (Javanese) homonymous word pegon means “foreign” or “strange.” This script has the same adjustments made for writing Malay, known as Jawi, that is, the five consonants of /p/, /c/, /ng/, /n…
Date: 2021-05-25

Persatuan Islam (Persis)

(1,137 words)

Author(s): Federspiel, Howard
The Persatuan Islam ( Persis, Islamic Union), an Indonesian Islamic educational organisation founded in 1923, concentrated on elucidating Sunnī teachings, Islamic logic, and the use of a simple Indonesian vocabulary. Originating as a study group in Bandung, it evolved into a centre of Islamic propagation (tablīgh) and later founded a private Islamic school system in West Java. In the 1930s one group of its scholars left for Bangil, in East Java, where a boarding school (pesantren) and university were established. The Bandung centre always regarded the Sundanese populat…
Date: 2023-01-04

Persian grammar

(2,439 words)

Author(s): Paul, Ludwig
Persian grammar can vary, depending on the region and the historical period. The three regional dialects of the Persian language are Fārsī, Darī, and Tājīkī. Historical varieties include early (fourth–fifth/tenth–eleventh), classical (fifth–ninth/eleventh–fifteenth centuries), and modern. 1. Persian grammars and reference works No comprehensive grammatical description of the Persian language exists that includes, on the one hand, its regional variants (Fārsī, Darī, Tājīkī) and historical development and, on the other hand, consistency …
Date: 2021-07-19

Persian language

(2,594 words)

Author(s): Paul, Ludwig
The Persian language is spoken and used today as an official or state language in Iran, Afghanistan, and Tajikistan. In Islamic history and culture, it has played an important role, second only to that of Arabic. It evolved as an Islamic language in fourth/tenth-century Sāmānid Iran, written in a modified Arabic script and capable of expressing the most sophisticated concepts of Islamic civilisation. From the Middle Ages onwards, the eastern parts of the Islamic world were Islamicised from Iran an…
Date: 2023-02-24

Petitions, Ottoman Empire

(1,759 words)

Author(s): Ben-Bassat, Yuval
As was the case for other Islamic polities before it, the Ottoman Empire allowed its subjects to appeal to the ruler concerning wrongdoings in government and administration and ask for justice, a practice generally known since ʿAbbāsid times as maẓālim (wrongdoings, injustices; Nielsen, 1–7). Ottoman subjects, regardless of status, religion, or place of residence, had the right to submit a petition (Ott. Turk., arz-ı hal / arḍ-ı ḥāl, arzuhal / arḍuḥāl) to the sultan and beg for justice, a favour, or the sultan’s mercy, whether in person, through a representative o…
Date: 2023-08-14