Encyclopaedia of Islam, THREE

Get access Subject: Middle East And Islamic Studies

Edited by Kate Fleet, Gudrun Krämer, Denis Matringe, John Nawas and Devin J. Stewart.

With Roger Allen, Edith Ambros, Thomas Bauer, Johann Büssow, Carl Davila, Ruth Davis, Ahmed El Shamsy, Maribel Fierro, Najam Haider, Konrad Hirschler, Nico Kaptein, Alexander Knysh, Corinne Lefèvre, Scott Levi, Roman Loimeier, Daniela Meneghini, Negin Nabavi, M'hamed Oualdi, D. Fairchild Ruggles, Ignacio Sánchez, and Ayman Shihadeh.

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The Third Edition of the Encyclopaedia of Islam is an entirely new work, which sets out the present state of our knowledge of the Islamic World and reflects the great diversity of current scholarship. It is a unique and invaluable reference tool, an essential key to understanding the world of Islam, and the authoritative source not only for the religion, but also for the believers and the countries in which they live. The new scope includes comprehensive coverage of Islam in the twentieth century and of Muslim minorities all over the world.

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al-Rashīd, Mawlāy

(1,310 words)

Author(s): Kitlas, Peter
Mawlāy al-Rashīd b. al-Sharīf b. ʿAlī b. Muḥammad b. ʿAlī was the first ʿAlawī sultan (r. 1069–82/1659–72) of Morocco. As in the case of the Saʿdī dynasty (r. 916–1069/1510–1659), the ʿAlawī claim to the sultanate was founded on their sharīfian lineage, that is, as descendants of the prophet Muḥammad. In the inland trading town of Sijilmāsa, Mawlāy al-Rashīd’s ancestor, Ḥasanī Shurafāʾ (or al-Ḥasan al-Dākhil; d. 676/1277), had founded a Ṣūfī lodge (zāwiya) several generations before the ʿAlawī ascension to power. In the power vacuum left by the fractured Saʿdī stat…
Date: 2021-07-19

Red Sea

(3,781 words)

Author(s): Miran, Jonathan
The Red Sea is the northernmost tropical sea in the world and is about two thousand kilometres long, with an average width of 280 kilometres and an area of approximately 438,000 square kilometres. It is bordered by the present-day states of Israel, Jordan, Saudi Arabia, Yemen, Egypt, Sudan, Eritrea, Djibouti, and the self-declared Republic of Somaliland in the Gulf of Aden. The climate of the Red Sea’s arid littoral regions is oppressively hot and humid, and rain along the coasts is either scarce,…
Date: 2023-10-16

Reşid Rahmeti Arat

(1,090 words)

Author(s): Sertkaya, Osman Fikri
Reşid Rahmeti Arat, originally named Gabdurraşid Rachmatullin, was born on 15 May 1900, the son of Gabdurraşid İsmetullin and Mahpeyker, in the village of Eski Ücüm, which lies approximately 50 km northwest of Kazan, the capital of the Republic of Tatarstan. Between 1906 and 1910 he attended primary school in Eski Ücüm, and then went to secondary school in Kızılyar (Petropavlovsk) from 1910–3. He took Russian lessons privately in 1913–4, attended a business school in 1914–5, and went to high schoo…
Date: 2021-07-19