Encyclopaedia of Islam, THREE

Get access Subject: Middle East And Islamic Studies

Edited by Kate Fleet, Gudrun Krämer, Denis Matringe, John Nawas and Devin J. Stewart.

With Roger Allen, Edith Ambros, Thomas Bauer, Johann Büssow, Carl Davila, Ruth Davis, Ahmed El Shamsy, Maribel Fierro, Najam Haider, Konrad Hirschler, Nico Kaptein, Alexander Knysh, Corinne Lefèvre, Scott Levi, Roman Loimeier, Daniela Meneghini, Negin Nabavi, M'hamed Oualdi, D. Fairchild Ruggles, Ignacio Sánchez, and Ayman Shihadeh.

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The Third Edition of the Encyclopaedia of Islam is an entirely new work, which sets out the present state of our knowledge of the Islamic World and reflects the great diversity of current scholarship. It is a unique and invaluable reference tool, an essential key to understanding the world of Islam, and the authoritative source not only for the religion, but also for the believers and the countries in which they live. The new scope includes comprehensive coverage of Islam in the twentieth century and of Muslim minorities all over the world.

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Taifa Kingdoms

(1,999 words)

Author(s): García Sanjuán, Alejandro
The period of the so-called Ṭāʾifa kingdoms (fifth/eleventh-early seventh/thirteenth centuries) was a turning point in the evolution of al-Andalus, one that provoked radical changes that profoundly affected the balance of power between Muslims and Christians in Iberia. Muslim power in Iberia peaked with the emirate/caliphate of Córdoba (138–422/756–1031), when all Islamic territories there were under the direct control of the Umayyad rulers. Although independent, the Christian powers in the north remained largely subdued thanks to …
Date: 2023-09-21

Ṭalḥa b. ʿUbaydallāh

(1,283 words)

Author(s): Madelung, Wilferd
Ṭalḥa b. ʿUbaydallāh, a prominent early Companion of Muḥammad, is considered to have been among the first eight converts to Islam and one of the ten mubashshara to whom the Prophet promised Paradise. He belonged to the Banū ʿAmr b. Kaʿb, the leading clan of the Taym b. Murra of the Quraysh, and was a second-degree cousin of Abū Bakr, with whom he was already closely associated before the advent of Islam. Abū Bakr, who was some twenty years his elder, may have trained him in the caravan trade in Syria, a business he later pursued successfully. By his own account, he first learned of the adve…
Date: 2021-07-19

Tamīm b. al-Muʿizz

(1,623 words)

Author(s): Poonawala, Ismail K.
The poet prince Tamīm b. al-Muʿizz (d. 374/985), a son of the fourth Fāṭimid caliph-Imām, al-Muʿizz li-Dīn Allāh (r. 341–65/953–75), was renowned as a poet of elegance and refinement. He was born on 24 Rajab 337/27 January 949, in al-Mahdiyya, in present-day Tunisia, the city founded by the first Fāṭimid caliph-Imām al-Mahdī as his new capital (al-Maqrīzī, al-Muqaffā, 2:588). Soon the capital was moved to the new city of al-Manṣūriyya, built in 337/948 by the third Fāṭimid caliph- imām, al-Manṣūr bi-llāh (r. 334–41/946–53), and it was there that Tamīm grew up and received…
Date: 2021-07-19

Tayyarzade Ata Bey

(897 words)

Author(s): Erdoğdu, A. Teyfur
Tayyarzade Ata Bey (Ṭayyār-zāde ʿAṭāʾallah Aḥmad Beg), an Ottoman historian and poet, was born in Istanbul in 1225/1810. He was the son of a palace official, Tayyar (Ṭayyār, d. 1248–9/1833), who was a head lala ( lālā, tutor to young princes). Ata Bey was appointed as a clerk at Tophane (Ṭopkhāne, the state’s main ordnance factory) in 1240/1824. The following year, in 1241/1825, he was assigned to the imperial larder (Kiler-i hassa/kilār-ı khaṣṣa) at the palace, by order of Sultan Mahmud (Maḥmūd) II (r. 1223–55/1808–39). In 1249/1834, …
Date: 2021-07-19

Tazmamart

(1,392 words)

Author(s): El Guabli, Brahim
Tazmamart (Ar., Tāzmāmārt) was a secret prison, where military personnel and a few civilians were forcibly detained for various periods between 1973 and 1991, when an international human-rights campaign forced Morocco to release the survivors and demolish the two buildings where they had been imprisoned (Hayʾat al-Inṣāf, 63). Despite the evidence collected by human-rights activists in France during 1980s, the Moroccan authorities denied the existence of Tazmamart until 1991 (Dalle, 513). Named for a southeastern Moroccan village in the present-day governorate of Er…
Date: 2023-01-04