Encyclopaedia of Islam, THREE

Get access Subject: Middle East And Islamic Studies

Edited by Kate Fleet, Gudrun Krämer, Denis Matringe, John Nawas and Devin J. Stewart.

With Roger Allen, Edith Ambros, Thomas Bauer, Johann Büssow, Carl Davila, Ruth Davis, Ahmed El Shamsy, Maribel Fierro, Najam Haider, Konrad Hirschler, Nico Kaptein, Alexander Knysh, Corinne Lefèvre, Scott Levi, Roman Loimeier, Daniela Meneghini, Negin Nabavi, M'hamed Oualdi, D. Fairchild Ruggles, Ignacio Sánchez, and Ayman Shihadeh.

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The Third Edition of the Encyclopaedia of Islam is an entirely new work, which sets out the present state of our knowledge of the Islamic World and reflects the great diversity of current scholarship. It is a unique and invaluable reference tool, an essential key to understanding the world of Islam, and the authoritative source not only for the religion, but also for the believers and the countries in which they live. The new scope includes comprehensive coverage of Islam in the twentieth century and of Muslim minorities all over the world.

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(4,276 words)

Author(s): Bori, Caterina
Al-Dhahabī (b. Rabīʿ II 673/October 1274, d. at the beginning of Dhū l-Qaʿda 748/February 1348) was a widely respected historian, ḥadīth expert, and biographer who lived in Damascus in the early Mamlūk period. 1. Life Shams al-Dīn Abū ʿAbdallāh Muḥammad b. Aḥmad b. ʿUthmān b. Qāymāẓ b. ʿAbdallāh al-Turkumānī al-Fāriqī al-Dimashqī al-Shāfiʿī, known as al-Dhahabī or Ibn al-Dhahabī (the Golden One or the Son of the Golden One) for his father’s craft as a goldsmith. Originally based in Mayyāfāriqīn (northeast of Diyār Bakr), his fami…
Date: 2021-07-19


(1,263 words)

Author(s): van den Bos, Matthijs E. W.
The Dhahabiyya is one of the three main Shīʿī Ṣūfī orders in Iran (the others are the Khāksār and three autonomous branches in the Niʿmatallāhiyya line). Its name referred initially to several distinct groups (Zarrīnkūb, 183) and is usually, but problematically, connected with the word dhahab (gold) (see Algar, who indicates, for instance, that reference to the order as silsilat al-dhahab, in reflection of the first eight Shīʿī Imāms in their spiritual genealogy, does not distinguish the Dhahabiyya from other orders, including Sunnī Ṣūfī orders). Its silsila (“chain” of spiritual…
Date: 2021-07-19

Dhaka architecture

(1,074 words)

Author(s): Hasan, Perween
Dhaka (Dhākā, formerly Dacca) became the capital of the newly conquered Mughal province of Bengal (now Bangladesh) in the early eleventh/seventeenth century and remained the provincial capital for most of the time until 1129/1717, when the administration moved to Murshidābād. Its foundations, however, predate that period. It has again been the capital of the independent state of Bangladesh since 1971. Its strategic and commercial importance was and is due to its location on the north bank of the…
Date: 2023-02-24


(844 words)

Author(s): Joshi, Harit
Dhāt (lit., personal) was one of the two numbers—the other being suvār (cavalry)—that denoted the manṣab (rank) of an individual serving in the Mughal administration. It reflected his position in the government hierarchy and determined the salary he received for himself and his household according to meticulously prepared schedules of pay scales and after mandatory deductions. The manṣabdār (rankholder) was remunerated separately for recruiting a fixed number of horses and mounted soldiers as per the suvār component, which accounted for the larger share of his total sa…
Date: 2023-01-04


(4,081 words)

Author(s): Gril, Denis
Dhawq means “taste” in the literal and figurative senses. In the Qurʾān, the damned “taste” punishment, and, in the Sunna, the believers “taste” the sweetness of faith. Philosophers and physicians endeavour to explain the physiology of taste and what can alter it. It is within Ṣūfism, however, that this term has found its most pervasive use, as it expresses the ineffable and incommunicable nature of spiritual, amorous, contemplative, and cognitive experience. Its metaphorical use is still, for the masters of Ṣūfism, an invitation to taste what words cannot describe. 1. Arabic langua…
Date: 2021-07-19

Dhawq, Ibrāhīm

(1,160 words)

Author(s): Naim, Choudhri M.
Shaykh Muḥammad Ibrāhīm Dhawq (b. 1789, d. 1854), renowned in his time for his Urdu poetry, was born to a humble family in Delhi. His elders had reportedly converted to Islam not long before, as indicated by their sobriquet, Shaykh, a social class name adopted by many Indian converts to Islam in premodern times. His father, Shaykh Muḥammad Ramaḍān, had moved to Delhi from Shāhpūr, a small town in what is now the district of Muẓaffarnagar, just north of the capital, to take up service on the domesti…
Date: 2021-07-19


(3,148 words)

Author(s): Friedmann, Yohanan
The Arabic term dhimma means “treaty” or “obligation.” The Qurʾān uses the word in its denunciation of idolaters who do not fulfil their obligations to the believers (Q 9:8, 10). In prophetic tradition (ḥadīth) and in Islamic legal literature the term dhimma is used for the obligation of Muslims in general and of Muslim rulers in particular to grant protection to non-Muslims living under their rule. The religious communities granted this protection were designated “protected people” ( ahl al-dhimma, or dhimmīs). In most periods of Islamic history, dhimmīs were allowed to continue …
Date: 2021-07-19


(1,216 words)

Author(s): Agius, Dionisius A.
The dhow is a traditional wooden sailing vessel with characteristics typical of craft from the Western Indian Ocean. There are many different types of dhow: they vary from region to region and fall into different categories depending on their hull design, size, and function; some have a generic name, while for others it is more specific. In the days of sail the dhow had many different functions: it was used for trading, pearling, slave trafficking, piracy, or warfare, whereas today its use is confined mainly to fishing. There are around fifty names and sub-names for the various ty…
Date: 2021-07-19

Dhū l-Faqār

(1,491 words)

Author(s): Bellino, Francesca
Dhū l-Faqār (lit., provided with notches or grooves, and so resembling the vertebrae of a spine) was one of the swords of the Prophet. Dhū l-Faqār is not mentioned in the Qurʾān but was, according to Muslim tradition, used by the Prophet in battle. It was considered one of the objects called the “legacy of the Prophet”( mīrāth rasūl Allāh). Later, it was associated with ʿAlī b. Abī Ṭālib and became a sign of the mahdī and a symbol of the Last Days. The name “Dhū l-Faqār” (also Dhū l-Fiqār, al-Zabīdī, Tāj al-ʿArūs, 13:341) is explained by the presence on the sword of incisions, notches,…
Date: 2021-07-19

Dhū l-Kifl

(780 words)

Author(s): Rippin, Andrew
Dhū l-Kifl is a person, perhaps a prophet, of uncertain identity, mentioned twice in the Qurʾān. Investigations into the meaning of the name have not helped further to identify him. Not always understood as a prophet in the Muslim tradition, he is often held simply to have been a believer who is to be admired for his patience—in reference to Q 21:85, where he is mentioned alongside Ishmael and Idrīs (who is usually called Enoch) as having that quality. He is also one of the “best” believers—based…
Date: 2021-07-19

Dhū l-Nūn al-Miṣrī

(1,135 words)

Author(s): Mojaddedi, Jawid
Dhū l-Nūn Abū l-Fayḍ Thawbān b. Ibrāhīm al-Miṣrī (d. Giza, in 245/859 or 248/862) was an early mystic leader of Nubian origin, who is celebrated for his knowledge of a wide range of disciplines, including medicine and alchemy. He was most commonly known by his laqab (honorific title) Dhū l-Nūn (lit., he of the fish, i.e., Jonah), which, rather than Thawbān, may have been his given name. Dhū l-Nūn appears in the earliest accounts of Ṣūfism as the leading figure of his generation, despite coming from Akhmīm, in Upper Egypt, a region which is under-represented in …
Date: 2021-07-19

Dhū l-Rumma

(1,633 words)

Author(s): Papoutsakis, Nefeli
Dhū l-Rumma is the nickname of Abū l-Ḥārith Ghaylān b. ʿUqba (c. 77–117/696–735), a great Bedouin poet of the Umayyad era. This nickname, meaning “the one with the frayed cord”, was most probably given to him because of an amulet he wore as a child. He belonged to the ʿAdī tribe, a member of the Ribāb confederation settled in Yamāma and the adjacent desert of al-Dahnāʾ, in the eastern part of the Arabian Peninsula. He was born and spent most of his life there, although he made frequent visits to Basra and Kufa. Very little is known about his life, and the narratives regarding him found …
Date: 2021-07-19

Dialectic in the religious sciences

(6,322 words)

Author(s): Young, Walter Edward
Islamicate theories of dialectic in the religious sciences, developing mostly under the Arabic rubrics of jadal (dialectical disputation), khilāf (juristic disagreement), munāẓara (dialectical investigation), and ādāb al-baḥth wa-l-munāẓara (protocols of dialectical inquiry and investigation), promulgated rational methods and systematic procedures for scholarly disputation, that is, logics and protocols for debate. Theorists and practitioners envisaged dialectic as a formal, dialogical, question-and-answer method of truth…
Date: 2021-08-13

Didactic poetry, Arabic

(815 words)

Author(s): van Gelder, Geert Jan
Arabic didactic poetry, taken in a broad sense, intends to instil morals or impart information. By this definition much of Arabic poetry is didactic, such as the gnomic verse found at the end of the Muʿallaqa poem of the pre-Islamic poet Zuhayr b. Abī Sulmā and the aphorisms that punctuate countless qaṣīdas and epigrams throughout the centuries. The dīwān of al-Mutanabbī (d. 354/965) especially has always been a beloved treasure trove of quotable wisdom, in the form of one-line maxims. In the terminology of the traditional Arabic classification of poet…
Date: 2021-07-19

Didactic poetry, Ottoman and modern Turkish

(1,222 words)

Author(s): Horata, Osman
Ottoman and modern Turkish didactic poetry, referred to in Turkish as hikemi, talimî, and öğretici, aims to inform, teach, and provide moral education. The content of Ottoman and modern Turkish didactic poetry ranges from religious, Ṣūfī, and moral themes to scientific and encyclopaedic topics. Such treatises, called in classical Ottoman literature nasihat-name ( naṣīḥat-nāme, on advice), are categorised by topic, for example, siyaset-name ( siyāset-nāme, on government and politics), fütüvvet-name ( fütüvvet-nāme, on devotion to duty), menakıb-name ( menāqıb-nāme, on grea…
Date: 2021-07-19

Dietary law

(2,676 words)

Author(s): Francesca, Ersilia
1. Qurʾānic dietary rules The Qurʾān emphasises that food has been made for the benefit of mankind, and it invites one to “eat of the good things (ṭayyibāt) that We have provided for you” (Q 2:172; also 20:81, 16:14, 6:142, 2:168, and 5:87–8). By implication, all foods are considered lawful (ḥalāl) unless specifically prohibited by the Qurʾān or the sunna of the Prophet. Foodstuffs that are impure (khabāʾith) or unclean (najas) are prohibited (ḥarām) (Q 7:157). The Qurʾān explicitly forbids carrion (mayta), blood, pork, and animals dedicated to any deity other than God (Q 16…
Date: 2021-07-19

Dihkhudā, ʿAlī-Akbar

(1,162 words)

Author(s): Perry, John R.
Mīrzā ʿAlī-Akbar Dihkhudā (b. 1879, Tehran; d. 1956, Tehran) was a scholar, journalist, and politician during Iran’s Constitutional Revolution (1905–11), which led to the establishment of a parliament in Iran under the Qājār dynasty (r. 1210–1344/1795–1925). Dihkhudā came from a landowning family in Qazvīn, as reflected in his nickname (lit., village headman)—and its vernacular forms Dakhaw and Dikhaw—which became his journalistic sobriquet. He was educated by two leading liberal mujtahids (legal authorities with the power to reason independently), Shaykh Ghulām …
Date: 2021-07-19

al-Dihlawī, Shāh Walī Allāh

(2,938 words)

Author(s): Masud, Muhammad Khalid
Shāh Walī Allāh al-Dihlawī b. Shāh ʿAbd al-Raḥīm b. Shāh Wajīh al-Dīn (1114–76/1703–62) was an outstanding Indian Muslim thinker of the eighteenth century, who applied critical thinking to Muslim tradition and called for reform, influenced revivalist reformist movements in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, and continues to be source of inspiration for Muslim intellectuals . Born in Phalit, District Muẓaffar Nagar, India, he was given the name Aḥmad at birth by his maternal relatives. His father later named him Quṭb al-Dīn. ʿAẓīm al-Dīn was hi…
Date: 2021-07-19


(2,459 words)

Author(s): Paul, Jürgen
Dihqān (pl. dahāqīn) was the term for a member of a class of lesser nobles in Sāsānid and early Muslim Iran, for local lords in Iran and Transoxiana, and for a peasant in modern Persian, Tajik, and the Central Asian Turkic languages. The stratum of lesser local lords appears to have been growing from the sixth century C.E. in the Sāsānid empire. At the time of the Arab-Muslim conquest of Iraq and Iran, they held hereditary responsibility for the management of local affairs in the countryside, working for a subdistrict (rustāq, nāḥiya). Their military role is less well attested, and th…
Date: 2021-07-19

Dik al-Jinn

(651 words)

Author(s): Weipert, Reinhard
Dīk al-Jinn was the sobriquet of Abū Muḥammad ʿAbd al-Salām b. Raghbān al-Ḥimṣī (b. 161/778, d. 235–6/849–51), an Arab poet who was born in Ḥimṣ and spent his whole life there, never leaving Syria. The reason for his nickname— dīk al-jinn is the name of a small creeping insect—remains obscure (see his Dīwān, ed. al-Ḥajjī, 6f., for four traditional and rather far-fetched explanations). His personality and his life are likewise little known, because the sources are ambiguous: On the one hand we have Dīk al-Jinn the libertine and debauchee, who enjo…
Date: 2021-07-19
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