Encyclopaedia of Islam, THREE

Get access Subject: Middle East And Islamic Studies

Edited by Kate Fleet, Gudrun Krämer, Denis Matringe, John Nawas and Devin J. Stewart.

With Roger Allen, Edith Ambros, Thomas Bauer, Johann Büssow, Carl Davila, Ruth Davis, Ahmed El Shamsy, Maribel Fierro, Najam Haider, Konrad Hirschler, Nico Kaptein, Alexander Knysh, Corinne Lefèvre, Scott Levi, Roman Loimeier, Daniela Meneghini, Negin Nabavi, M'hamed Oualdi, D. Fairchild Ruggles, Ignacio Sánchez, and Ayman Shihadeh.

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The Third Edition of the Encyclopaedia of Islam is an entirely new work, which sets out the present state of our knowledge of the Islamic World and reflects the great diversity of current scholarship. It is a unique and invaluable reference tool, an essential key to understanding the world of Islam, and the authoritative source not only for the religion, but also for the believers and the countries in which they live. The new scope includes comprehensive coverage of Islam in the twentieth century and of Muslim minorities all over the world.

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(984 words)

Author(s): d'Hubert, Thibaut
Dobhāshī denotes an idiom characteristic of a trend of Bengali Muslim literature that developed in the second half of the twelfth/eighteenth century and lasted until the first decades of the twentieth. Dobhāshī means literally “(made) of two languages,” referring to the composite nature of this literary idiom: this interpretation is privileged, but another one could be the language ‘of the interpreter’, or dobhāsh/dobhāshī—an Indic term also used in Persian and Western languages to designate native interpreters in South Asia (Hobson-Jobson, s.v. “Dubash, Dobash, Debash”). Dobhā…
Date: 2021-07-19

Döger (Ghuzz)

(959 words)

Author(s): Yıldız, Sara Nur
The Döger (or Döğer, Töger, Düger, Düğer, Tüger) were an Oghuz (also called Ghuzz) tribe (boy) that played an important role in the politics of late mediaeval northern Syria and the Jazīra. One of the earliest references to the Döger is in Maḥmūd al-Kāshgharī’s Dīwān lughāt al-turk (“Compendium of the languages of the Turks,” ca. 476/1075), which lists them as one of the twenty-two Oghuz tribal divisions. The Döger also appear as one of the twenty-four Oghuz tribal divisions recorded in Rashīd al-Dīn’s Jāmiʿ al-tavārīkh (“Compendium of chronicles”), where it is stated that they…
Date: 2021-07-19


(1,904 words)

Author(s): Şaul, Mahir
The Dogon, numbering about 600,000 in Mali and Burkina Faso, live mostly off cereal farming and occupy an unusual habitat, the Bandiagara escarpment, which rises 300 to 600 metres above the adjacent plain and extends 160 kilometres east of and parallel to the Inner Niger Delta. Studies since the 1930s by French ethnologist Marcel Griaule (d. 1956) and his collaborators (Dieterlen; de Ganay; Calame-Griaule; Paulme) have made the Dogon famous amongst a widely-read public and in African art circles;…
Date: 2021-07-19


(2,301 words)

Author(s): Tabbaa, Yasser
A dome is an architectural feature that resembles the hollow upper half of a sphere, a rounded vault covering an interior space. Highlighting the functional and expressive dimensions of the dome rather than its technical features, this article begins with a brief etymology, with the sections that follow organised according to the four main functional types of domes used in the Islamic lands: religious, funerary, palatial, and utilitarian. 1. Etymology Qubba (pl. qibāb or qubāb) is the most common word for dome in Arabic. The term may have been derived from the verb qabba, which indicate…
Date: 2021-07-19

Dome of the Rock

(2,368 words)

Author(s): Milwright, Marcus
The Dome of the Rock (Qubbat al-Ṣakhra) is the first significant architectural achievement of the Islamic period. The building surrounds an exposed rock on the highest point of the Temple Mount (al-Ḥaram al-Sharīf) in Jerusalem. It shares the platform with several other structures, most notably the Dome of the Chain (Qubbat al-Silsila) to the east and the al-Aqṣā Mosque to the south. The architecture and decoration of the Dome of the Rock can be summarised briefly (see Creswell 1:65–131; Allen). The central dome is supported on a circular drum, the upper b…
Date: 2021-07-19


(1,233 words)

Author(s): Ruffini, Giovanni R.
Dongola was a major Nubian city in the mediaeval period, which served as the capital of the Nubian kingdom of Makouria from at least the first/seventh to the eighth/fourteenth century. Now called Old Dongola, it is on the east bank of the Nile, roughly eighty kilometres upriver from the modern city of Dongola, the capital of Sudan’s Northern State. The site of Old Dongola has been the subject of continuous archaeological excavations since the early 1960s, which have revealed extensive ecclesiastical, secular, and military remains. Indigenous mediaeval Nubian sources, written in …
Date: 2021-07-19

Donkey (eschatological aspects)

(336 words)

Author(s): Cook, David B.
The donkey appears in Muslim eschatology as the principal method of locomotion for the Dajjāl (Antichrist) during the brief period of his rule at the end of the world. Use of the donkey for the Antichrist figure is in opposition to the use of the donkey in the biblical tradition, where it is generally held to be one of the signs of the messianic figure (cf. Jesus’ triumphal entry into Jerusalem, Matt. 21:5). The most probable reason for this difference has to do with the difference in attitude towards the donkey: in the Qurʾānic tradition the donkey (ḥimār) is considered to be emblematic of…
Date: 2021-07-19


(2,436 words)

Author(s): Baer, Marc D.
Dönme (Turk. convert) is the name of an ethno-religious group formed by Ottoman Jews who followed the example of the messianic claimant Shabbatai Tzevi (d. 1676) and converted to Islam. Many Jews from northern Europe to southern Yemen considered Tzevi to be the messiah. Most lost faith in him when he accepted Islam in the presence of Sultan Mehmed IV (Sulṭān Meḥmed IV, r. 1058–99/1648–87) at Edirne (16 October 1666) and adopted the name Aziz Mehmed Efendi (ʿAzīz Meḥmed Efendi). Some, who became …
Date: 2021-07-19

Doughty, Charles Montagu

(667 words)

Author(s): Pouillon, François
Charles Montagu Doughty (b. 1843, Theberton, Suffolk, d. 1926, Sissinghurst, Kent) was an explorer of the Arabian Bedouin world. In addition to his travels, he published six large volumes of epic poetry, today totally forgotten. Despite a solid cultural background in biblical studies and the classical humanities at Cambridge University, he did not follow the training path typical of an orientalist. Doughty studied geology, concluding with a master’s dissertation on the glaciers of Norway. His sigh…
Date: 2021-07-19


(2,263 words)

Author(s): Strohmaier, Gotthard
The modern term “ doxography” refers to a kind of philosophical literature that originated in Greek antiquity and had the aim of giving an unbiased account of the teachings of the various philosophical schools. In the European Renaissance and later it provided valuable information about the pre-Socratics and later thinkers who stood outside the mainstream of Aristotelianism and Neoplatonism, and thus it served to stimulate new ideas. In Islam the role of the translated texts was different, as in them the ancient authorities were more and more brought into line with Muslim beliefs. There…
Date: 2021-07-19

Drama, Urdu

(817 words)

Author(s): Suvorova, Anna
Urdu drama, a literary and artistic phenomenon in existence for the last two centuries, has its roots in Urdu narrative genres (mathnavī, dāstān, qiṣṣa), Indian traditional performances (rāslīlā, naut’ankī), and popular farce. It was also heavily affected by Western dramaturgy. The poetic rules and aesthetic norms that made Urdu classical poetry unique did not apply to drama, and some scholars regarded Urdu drama as an “exotic plant moved to the Urdu soil” (Saksena, 346). The history of Urdu drama begins in Lucknow, with Amānat’s (d. 1858) Indar sabhā (“Indra’s court”), staged in …
Date: 2021-07-19


(3,664 words)

Author(s): Canby, Sheila R.
Drawings from Islamic lands encompass a range of works, from unfinished or preliminary sketches, to diagrams, to finished pictorial compositions. In the pre-modern period, they appear as illustrations in manuscripts and single-page pictures incorporated into albums. The Arabic word used for “drawing” is rasm. Other words, such as mashq, “exercise,” or “drawing letters”; ṣūra, “representation”; ṭarḥ, “design”; qalam, “pen”, and naqsh, “painting” or “drawing”; and the Arabic verbs raqama, “to write”; ṣawwara, mashaqa, and naqqasha, appear in Iranian artists’ signatures …
Date: 2021-07-19


(4,248 words)

Author(s): Kinberg, Leah
Dreams have fascinated and perplexed the Islamic community from its earliest days. Maintaining the dream lore of the Arab tribes of pre-Islamic times and fascinated by a variety of foreign legacies, while being committed to the sacred texts of the Qurʾān and ḥadīth, mediaeval Islamic scholars produced a vast amount of dream literature, most of which was dedicated to the interpretation of dreams (taʿbīr). In Qurʾānic and post-Qurʾānic texts, four terms denote “dream”: manām, ḥulm, ruʾyā, and bushra (Kinberg, Dreams and sleep, 546; Fahd, Ruʾyā (1), 645; Mirza, 16, 28, n. 4; Lamoreaux, Ear…
Date: 2021-07-19


(2,616 words)

Author(s): Firro, Kais M.
The religious doctrine (madhhab) of the Druzes (Durūz) is an offshoot of Shīʿī-Ismāʿīlī doctrine that developed during the fourth/tenth century, when the Ismāʿīlīs established the Fāṭimid state in Tunisia and then conquered Egypt, in 359/969. Most of the classical Sunnī theologians and chroniclers have classified the Druze faith with the al-bāṭiniyya or the Shīʿī ghulāt (extremists) sects, who use taʾwīl (interpretation) to reach the bāṭin (inner meaning) of the Qurʾānic verses. Some of them depicted the ghulāt as unethical people with an alien faith that set them outsi…
Date: 2021-07-19

al-Duʿājī, ʿAlī

(435 words)

Author(s): Granara, William
ʿAlī al-Duʿājī (1909–49), a pioneer of modern Arabic Tunisian literature and a cultural icon, combined artistic experimentation with a politics of struggling for national independence against French colonial rule. Although he was creative in several media, he is best remembered as the father of the modern Tunisian short story. ʿAlī al-Duʿājī was born in Tunis in 1909. His father, a wealthy merchant, died when ʿAlī was four years old, leaving him a substantial trust fund. Growing up fatherless and as an only son, ʿAlī was pampered by a househol…
Date: 2021-07-19


(1,990 words)

Author(s): Monnot, Guy
Dualism is any doctrine holding that the universe originates from two independent and opposed principles. Islam recognised and fought against several forms of dualism, whose followers are called dualists, in Arabic thanawiyya. This word does not appear in the Qurʾān or in the ḥadīth, but it does occur in the title of two lost works, by, respectively, Abū l-Hudhayl (d. 227/841?) and al-Kindī (d. c. 256/870). This abstract technical term became current in the fourth/tenth century, but it seems to have been preceded by another term, which occurs in the title al-Radd ʿalā aṣḥāb al-ithnayn (“…
Date: 2021-07-19

Dūbayt in Arabic

(533 words)

Author(s): Talib, Adam
The dūbayt in Arabic is a poetic quatrain, corresponding to its more famous Persian counterpart, the rubāʿī. In the Arabic tradition, the poem is counted as a two-liner (with a Persian name) whereas in Persian it is a quatrain (with an Arabic name). The dūbayt (or dūbaytī) form is distinct from other quatrains composed of either two lines (four hemistichs) of qarīḍ verse, four lines of rajaz verse, or four lines in the vernacular ( mawāliyā, for example). The dūbayt has its own metre and may display either monorhyme throughout (a-a-a-a) or the third line may be excluded fr…
Date: 2021-07-19

al-Dukālī, ʿAbd al-Wāḥid

(2,442 words)

Author(s): Amri, Nelly
ʿAbd al-Wāḥid al-Dukālī (fl. ninth-tenth/fifteenth-sixteenth centuries) was a scholar and Ṣūfī of Moroccan origin who resided in Missalāta, Tripolitania, where his tomb is still venerated. He is best known as the master of ʿAbd al-Salām al-Aṣmar al-Faytūrī in the chain that connects him to the Tunisian saint Ibn ʿĀrūs (d. 868/1463). His teachings are best known to us through al-Faytūrī. His zāwiya, a centre for teaching the Qurʾān and religious sciences, is still famous. 1. Life Biographical information about the shaykh is scarce; he is known above all as the master of ʿAbd…
Date: 2021-07-19

Dukayn al-Rājiz

(507 words)

Author(s): Hämeen-Anttila, Jaakko
Dukayn al-Rājiz (d. 105/723) was an Umayyad poet writing in the rajaz metre. All sources before the sixth/twelfth century know only one rājiz by the name of Dukayn, that is, Dukayn b. Rajāʾ al-Fuqaymī. Ibn ʿAsākir (d. 571/1176) and, following him, Yāqūt (d. 626/1229) distinguish between him and Dukayn b. Saʿīd (d. 109/727—the dates for the two Dukayns are given only by Yāqūt, from an unknown source), but the existence of the latter Dukayn is doubtful, and two trivial rajaz pieces, a five-verse poem in the ramal metre and a poem usually attributed to the pre-Islamic poet al-Samawʾ…
Date: 2021-07-19


(7,891 words)

Author(s): Venzke, Margaret L.
Dulkadir (Dhū l-Qadr) was a Turkoman dynasty that established a principality ( beylik, beglik) under the auspices of the Mamlūks in the unstable borderlands between northern Syria and southeastern Anatolia which was to last 185 years (738–928/1337–1522), and see twelve reigns under eleven rulers. Internecine rivalries, territorial ambitions, and fear for their position undergird their relationships with their more powerful neighbours. Their most enduring relationship was with the Mamlūks, but their relations…
Date: 2021-07-19
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