Encyclopaedia of Islam, THREE

Get access Subject: Middle East And Islamic Studies

Edited by Kate Fleet, Gudrun Krämer, Denis Matringe, John Nawas and Devin J. Stewart.

With Roger Allen, Edith Ambros, Thomas Bauer, Johann Büssow, Carl Davila, Ruth Davis, Ahmed El Shamsy, Maribel Fierro, Najam Haider, Konrad Hirschler, Nico Kaptein, Alexander Knysh, Corinne Lefèvre, Scott Levi, Roman Loimeier, Daniela Meneghini, Negin Nabavi, M'hamed Oualdi, D. Fairchild Ruggles, Ignacio Sánchez, and Ayman Shihadeh.

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The Third Edition of the Encyclopaedia of Islam is an entirely new work, which sets out the present state of our knowledge of the Islamic World and reflects the great diversity of current scholarship. It is a unique and invaluable reference tool, an essential key to understanding the world of Islam, and the authoritative source not only for the religion, but also for the believers and the countries in which they live. The new scope includes comprehensive coverage of Islam in the twentieth century and of Muslim minorities all over the world.

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Sri Lanka

(1,943 words)

Author(s): McGilvray, Dennis B.
Sri Lanka, known to Arab seafarers as Sarandīb, the place where Adam fell from Paradise, and to European colonial powers as Ceylon, is an island nation with a dominant Sinhala-speaking Theravada Buddhist majority and several Tamil-speaking religious minorities. 1. Muslim groups in Sri Lanka The Muslims of Sri Lanka, 9.7 percent of the total population of 20.2 million (2012 census), are the third largest religious community in the island, after the Sinhala Buddhists (70.2 percent) and the Tamil Hindus (12.6 percent). Christians (Sinhala an…
Date: 2021-07-19

Sub-Saharan African literature, ʿAjamī

(3,226 words)

Author(s): Ngom, Fallou | Zito, Alex
ʿAjamī (also Ajami or Aʿjami, hereafter Ajami) comes from the Arabic ʿajam, which originally denoted obscure or incomprehensible speech, unclear or improper Arabic, or non-Arab or foreigner. Like the Greek βάρβαροι (barbarians), the word ʿajam carried connotations of feeble-mindedness and cultural inferiority. The term and its nisba adjective ʿajamī were also used to refer to Persians. The meaning of the word evolved to refer to the practice of writing non-Arabic languages using a modified Arabic script. The term evokes a whole family of literary traditions in various l…
Date: 2021-07-19


(866 words)

Author(s): Rapoport, Yossef
Suhrāb, author of the fourth/tenth-century geographical treatise K. ʿAjāʾib al-aqālīm al-sabʿa (“The book of the marvels of the seven climes”), is best known for his illustrated instructions for the construction of a world map on a rectangular grid. Nothing is known about the author except that in the introduction he calls himself Suhrāb, so he was presumably of Persian origin. Le Strange dated the work to 289–334/902–45, on the basis of its account of the palaces of Baghdad. The treatise has survived in a unique British Library manuscript, dated 709/1309, where it is given the title K. ʿA…
Date: 2021-07-19

Sulṭān Ḥusayn Bāyqarā

(1,019 words)

Author(s): Subtelny, Maria E.
Sulṭān Ḥusayn b. Manṣūr b. Bāyqarā Mīrzā was born in Herat in Muḥarram 842/June–July 1438. He was named after his maternal grandfather, Sulṭān Ḥusayn, and he included the name of his paternal grandfather, Bāyqarā, in his own name. His name, with honorifics, was Muʿizz al-Dīn Abū l-Ghāzī Sulṭān Ḥusayn-i Bāyqarā Mīrzā. In 856/1452 he joined the retinue of his Tīmūrid cousin Abū l-Qāsim Bābur in Herat but shortly thereafter, evidently dissatisfied with his patron, he took advantage of the opportunity af…
Date: 2021-07-19