Encyclopaedia of Islam, THREE

Get access Subject: Middle East And Islamic Studies

Edited by Kate Fleet, Gudrun Krämer, Denis Matringe, John Nawas and Devin J. Stewart.

With Roger Allen, Edith Ambros, Thomas Bauer, Johann Büssow, Carl Davila, Ruth Davis, Ahmed El Shamsy, Maribel Fierro, Najam Haider, Konrad Hirschler, Nico Kaptein, Alexander Knysh, Corinne Lefèvre, Scott Levi, Roman Loimeier, Daniela Meneghini, Negin Nabavi, M'hamed Oualdi, D. Fairchild Ruggles, Ignacio Sánchez, and Ayman Shihadeh.

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The Third Edition of the Encyclopaedia of Islam is an entirely new work, which sets out the present state of our knowledge of the Islamic World and reflects the great diversity of current scholarship. It is a unique and invaluable reference tool, an essential key to understanding the world of Islam, and the authoritative source not only for the religion, but also for the believers and the countries in which they live. The new scope includes comprehensive coverage of Islam in the twentieth century and of Muslim minorities all over the world.

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al-Zarqāwī, Abū Muṣʿab

(959 words)

Author(s): Tønnessen, Truls Hallberg
Aḥmad Faḍīl al-Nazāl al-Khalāyla, better known by the alias Abū Muṣʿab al-Zarqāwī (1966–2006), was the founder and leader of the Iraqi affiliate of al-Qāʿida (al-Qaeda), known as al-Qāʿida in Iraq, the predecessor of the so-called Islamic State. Born in 1966 in the Jordanian city al-Zarqā as a member of the East Bank Bedouin tribe of Banī Ḥasan, al-Zarqāwī grew up in his native city. He dropped out of school when he was 17 and became involved in criminal activities. Indirectly, it was his involvement in crime that led him to religi…
Date: 2022-02-04

Zarrūq, Aḥmad

(1,781 words)

Author(s): Kugle, Scott
Aḥmad al-Burnūsī al-Fāsī “ Zarrūq” (846–99/1442–94) was a reform-oriented Ṣūfī, Mālikī jurist, and social critic in North Africa. 1. Life Aḥmad Zarrūq was born in Fez (Fās) and trained as a jurist with a Ṣūfī orientation under Muḥammad al-Qūrī (d. 872/1467–8). In 869/1465, Zarrūq opposed a revolution against the last Marīnid sultan, ʿAbd al-Ḥāqq II (r. 823–69/1420–65). Zarrūq left Fes after breaking with his first Ṣūfī master, Muḥammad al-Zaytūnī (died circa 910–20/1504–14) who supported the revolution. Zarrūq reco…
Date: 2021-07-19