Encyclopedia of Arabic Language and Linguistics

Get access Subject: Language and Linguistics
Managing Editors Online Edition: Lutz Edzard and Rudolf de Jong

The Encyclopedia of Arabic Language and Linguistics Online comprehensively covers all aspects of Arabic languages and linguistics. It is interdisciplinary in scope and represents different schools and approaches in order to be as objective and versatile as possible. The Encyclopedia of Arabic Language and Linguistics Online is cross-searchable and cross-referenced, and is equipped with a browsable index. All relevant fields in Arabic linguistics, both general and language specific are covered and the Encyclopedia of Arabic Language and Linguistics Online includes topics from interdisciplinary fields, such as anthropology, psychology, sociology, philosophy, and computer science.

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A (ʾa- - Adiabene)

(1,635 words)

ʾa- Energicus, Focus, Fronting, Functional Grammar, Interrogative Sentences /a/, elision of Syria /a/, raising of → ʾimāla Aamer, Mahmoud ʾIʿrāb Aarts, Rian Europe Aartun, Kjell Aspect, Māḍī and Muḍāriʿ, Tense ʿAbābda Educated Arabic Ababneh, Mohammad I. Thamudic, 482 ʾAbādir ʿUmar ar-Riḍā Ethiopia A-bar position Case Theory Abas, Husen Indonesian/Malay ʿAbbād ibn Sulaymān Sound Symbolism abbāla Chad Arabic ʿAbbās, ʾIḥsān ʾIʿjāz Abbasid bookhand Maġribī, Maġribī Abbasid Dynasty Classical Arabic, Translation Literature, Turkish Loanwords Abbasid scripts Arabic Alphab…
Date: 2018-04-01

A (ʿAdiyy ibn Zayd al-ʿIbādī - Alam, Muzaffar)

(1,782 words)

ʿAdiyy ibn Zayd al-ʿIbādī Arabic Alphabet: Origin, Šiʿr adjacency Dissimilation, WH-Movement adjacency of sounds Metathesis adjacency pair Greetings, Greetings adjacent autosegment Root adjective Adjective Phrase, ʿAmal, Construct State, Declension, Deixis, Demonstratives, Determiners, Ḍidd, Government, Ism al-fāʿil, Modern Standard Arabic, Noun, Noun, Number, Ṣifa, X-Bar Syntax adjective agreement Bedouin Arabic adjective in Swahili East Africa adjective noun Adjective Phrase adjective of color and defect Adjective Phrase, Adjectives, Adjectives, Anda…
Date: 2018-04-01

A (Alam, Yahya Mir - anaptyxis)

(1,961 words)

Alam, Yahya Mir Ištiqāq ʿalāma Ḍamīr, Fāʿil, ʾIʿrāb, Tanwīn, Tanwīn ʿalāma li-l-ʾamkan Tanwīn ʿalāmat al-ʾiʿrāb Case Roles ʿalāmat al-istifhām Punctuation ʿalāmat al-istišhād Punctuation ʿalāmat al-muḍmar Ṣifa ʿalāmat al-waqf Punctuation ʿalāmat at-taʿajjub Punctuation ʿalāmat at-taḍbīb Abbreviations ʿalāmat at-tarqīm Punctuation Alami, Yusef Amin el- Morocco Al-Amri, Abd al-Salam Ṣanʿānī Arabic Al-Ani, Salman H. Hamza, Interface Linguistics, Intonation, Language and Gender, Phonetics, Phonology, Prosody, Second Language Acquisition, Stress, …
Date: 2018-04-01

A (ʾAnas, Muḥammad - Arabic, Baghdadi Christian)

(2,091 words)

ʾAnas, Muḥammad Braille anʾAsǝr Arabic Educated Arabic Anatolia Anatolian Arabic, Aramaic/Syriac Loanwords, Iraq, Turkish, Turkish Anatolian Arabic Analytic Genitive, Anatolian Arabic, Cypriot Maronite Arabic, Dialect Geography, Dialects: Classification, Dialects: Classification, ʾImāla, Iraq, Iraq, Syria, Topic and Comment, Transitivity, Turkish Loanwords, Word Order, Word Order, Word Order ʿAnaze Najdi Arabic, Saudi Arabia, Syria ʿAnaze Arabic Bedouin Arabic, Dialects: Classification, Dialects: Classification, Gahawa-Syndrome, Najdi Arabic, Pro-drop ʿAnaze…
Date: 2018-04-01

A (Arabic, Baghdadi Jewish - Arabic, Kuwaiti)

(2,664 words)

Arabic, Baghdadi Jewish Case Theory, Cypriot Maronite Arabic, Dialects: Classification, Dialects: Classification, Diathesis, Iraq, Hypercorrection, ʾImāla, Judaeo-Arabic, Verbal Clause Arabic, Baghdadi Muslim Bedouinization, Dialects: Classification, Diathesis, Diphthongs, Hypercorrection, Kuwaiti Arabic, Kuwaiti Arabic, Optimality Theory, Personal Pronoun (Arabic Dialects), Saudi Arabia, Variation Arabic, Bagirmi West Sudanic Arabic, West Sudanic Arabic Arabic, Baḥariyya Bedouinization, Dialect Geography, Dialects: Classification, Educated Ar…
Date: 2018-04-01

A (Arabic, Lahej - Arabic, Tourkou)

(2,579 words)

Arabic, Lahej Yemen, Yemen, Yemen Arabic, Lake Chad Dialects: Classification Arabic, Latakia Dialects: Classification Arabic, Late Christian Middle Christian Middle Arabic, Christian Middle Arabic Arabic, Lawdar Yemen Arabic, Lebanese Beirut Arabic, Beirut Arabic, Binding, Clitic, Cohesion, Connectives, Cypriot Maronite Arabic, Cypriot Maronite Arabic, Damascus Arabic, Deixis, Determiners, Dialect Literature, Diphthongs, Educated Arabic, Gender, Hamza, ʾImāla, Interface Linguistics, Interface Linguistics, Intonation, Jord…
Date: 2018-04-01

A (Arabic, Trans-Jordanian - Assyrian)

(2,395 words)

Arabic, Trans-Jordanian Jordan Arabic, Tripoli Judaeo-Arabic, Judaeo-Arabic, Libya, Libya, Phonology, Political Discourse and Language, Tripoli Arabic Arabic, Tripoli Jewish Tripoli Arabic Arabic, Tripolitanian Libya Arabic, Tunis Bedouin Arabic, Communal Dialects, Communal Dialects, Dialect Koine, Dialects: Classification, Diphthongs, Judaeo-Arabic, Leveling, Locatives, Phonology, Pseudodual, Pseudoverb, Tunis Arabic, Variation Arabic, Tunis Jewish Dialects: Classification, Hypercorrection, Numerals, Tunis Arabic Arabic, Tunisian Cognitive Linguist…
Date: 2018-04-01

A (Assyrian, Modern - Azzoune, Hamid)

(947 words)

Assyrian, Modern Ethnicity and Language Assyro-Babylonian Pseudodual ʾAstarābāḏī, Raḍī d-Dīn al- ʾAṣl, , Fāʿil, Fiʿl, Glide, Grammatical Tradition: Approach, Grammatical Tradition: History, Ibtidāʾ, ʾIdġām, ʾInšāʾ, Ištiqāq, Ištiqāq, Middle Verbs, Parts of Speech, Ṣarf, Taltala, Tamyīz, Tanwīn Asterix Sound Symbolism astronyms English, Ibero-Romance, Italian ʿAšūr, Nuʿmān Dialect Literature ʾAswad ibn Yaʿfur, al- Šiʿr Aswan Educated Arabic, Nubian Aswan Arabic Educated Arabic, Educated Arabic aswan arti Educated Arabic Aswan High Dam Lingua Franca Asymmetric Rhythmi…
Date: 2018-04-01


(3,342 words)

Author(s): Adam Gacek
Just as in the Western tradition, so also in the Arabic context, frequent repetition of the same word or phrase in the text leads the writer or scribe to use abbreviations, acronyms, and initialisms. The difference between acronyms and initialisms is that the former are pronounced as words while the latter are spelled out letter by letter. As far as is known, initialisms were not used in the manuscript age but became a common feature in modern Arabic. Abbreviations are usually designated in various sources as: ʿalāmāt, rumūz, muṣṭalaḥāt ( iṣṭilāḥāt), and muxtaṣarāt. Although two import…
Date: 2018-04-01


(4 words)

see Apophony
Date: 2018-04-01


(5 words)

see Language Academies
Date: 2018-04-01


(5 words)

see Speech Accommodation
Date: 2018-04-01


(4,777 words)

Author(s): Edwin Wieringa
  1. Acehnese as an Islamic language The population of the Indonesian province of Aceh, located on the northernmost tip of the island of Sumatra, is estimated at 4.7 million (2005). Aceh was one of the first areas in Indonesia to become converted to Islam. By the end of the 13th century, Islam was established in North Sumatra, gradually spreading to other parts of Aceh. The first Sultan of Aceh appeared in the 16th century, and in the early 17th century Aceh was unified by Sultan Iskandar Muda (r. 1607–1636), inaugurating Aceh's golden age, which spanned almost the entire 17th c…
Date: 2018-04-01


(375 words)

Author(s): Eid, Mushira | Elgibali, Alaa | Versteegh, Kees | Woidich, Manfred | Zaborski, Andrzej
The idea for an encyclopedia of Arabic was first suggested to Brill by Andrzej Zaborski in the early 1990s, and was later developed by a group of linguists during a meeting of the Association Internationale de Dialectologie Arabe in Cambridge in 1995. After the initial stages, Brill enthusiastically accepted the idea, under the responsibility first of Albert Hoffstädt, then of Olaf Köndgen. In the final stages of Volume I, the project was taken over by Joed Elich. The editorial committee convene…
Date: 2018-04-01


(4 words)

see Abbreviations
Date: 2018-04-01

Address, Terms of

(8 words)

see Terms of Address
Date: 2018-04-01

Adjective Phrase

(2,671 words)

Author(s): Alain Kihm
1. Definition In contrast with nouns and verbs, adjectives are a disputed category. Arabic has figured prominently in discussions about whether they constitute a special word class, or just special cases of nouns or verbs (see, e.g., Hengeveld 1992; Bhat 1994; Baker 2003). Here, we adopt the minimal theoretical requisite in the matter of word classes, to be found in the so-called ‘functionalist’ perspective of Croft (1991) or in the ‘paraminimalist’ approach of Baker (2003): the unmarked function of nouns is reference; the unmarked function of verbs is predication; a third function is p…
Date: 2018-04-01


(3,069 words)

Author(s): Wolfdietrich Fischer
1. General definitions Adjectives refer to a noun (substantive) which they qualify. They may take the position of an attribute, a predicate, or a predicative ( circumstantial predicative). Usually attributes, predicates, and circumstantial predicatives come after the reference noun (Fassi Fehri 1999:107–112). Their reference to the noun is marked by agreement in gender and number and also, if they function as an attribute, in case and definiteness/indefiniteness. There are no special morphological signs to mark a noun as an adjective because, i…
Date: 2018-04-01


(5 words)

see X-Bar Syntax
Date: 2018-04-01

Adverbial Clause

(9 words)

see Mafʿūl fīhi ; X-Bar Syntax
Date: 2018-04-01


(3,060 words)

Author(s): Janet Watson
Classical Arabic has few words that function solely as adverbs. More often, a word with a basic nominal or adjectival function may be used as an adverbial in certain syntactic contexts. Prepositional phrases typically function as adverbials. The accusative is the fundamental marker of adverbiality in Classical Arabic. (The few exceptions to this rule will be dealt with below in sections 1.1 and 1.2.) This general pattern is most obviously apparent in forms such as dāʾim-an ‘always’ derived from the adjective dāʾim ‘lasting’ or dawām-an ‘permanently’ derived from the noun dawām ‘perma…
Date: 2018-04-01


(3,172 words)

Author(s): Lutz Edzard
  Definition Affixation refers to the adding of morphemes – prefixes, infixes, and suffixes – to a nominal or verbal stem, usually with the specification that these morphemes do not occur as independent units. This stipulation accounts for the crucial difference between affixation and compounding, even though a strict separation between these two concepts is not always possible. As all Semitic languages typologically belong to the inflecting type, Arabic only exhibits a moderate degree of affixati…
Date: 2018-09-15


(1,461 words)

Author(s): Chakir Zeroual
1. Introduction Affrication is a process creating what are commonly called affricated stops or affricates. These sounds consist phonetically of a cluster formed by a plosive + homorganic fricative, but behave phonologically as one segment (Jakobson a.o. 1952; Sagey 1986; Rubach 1994; Clements 1999). They frequently arise as allophonic variants of non-affricated stops before high vowels and glides (e.g. [t] > [ts, t∫] / __ [i]/[j], [t] > [ts] / __ [u]/[w] in Korean, Japanese, Danish, Romance [Clements 1999]; and /k/ > [t∫] in Slavic, Arabic), but constitute contrastive phoneme…
Date: 2018-04-01

Afghanistan Arabic

(4,534 words)

Author(s): Bruce Ingham
1. General 1.1 Area The Arabic dialect of Afghanistan is an offshoot of the better described dialects of Central Asia, which became known initially through the work of Ceret'eli (1956). The tradition of the speakers is that they arrived in the area in the time of Tamerlane, Amīr Taymūr Kūraghān as they called him, i.e. in the 14th century C.E. There may be some truth in this as Tamerlane is known to have deported Arab populations from Syria to Central Asia. They also claim to be of the Qurayš coming from Yaman. This is less easy to substantiate. However, linguistic evidence suggest…
Date: 2018-04-01

Afro-Asiatic Languages

(3,427 words)

Author(s): Andrzej Zaborski
Together with other Semitic languages, Arabic belongs to the greater language family (or ‘phylum’, as some linguists prefer) called Afro-Asiatic (some scholars prefer the spelling Afroasiatic, since Semitic languages are spoken both in Africa and in Asia; ‘Afro-Asiatic’ was contracted by Diakonoff to ‘Afrasian’). This name has largely, although not completely, supplanted the older Hamito-Semitic (with variants Hamitosemitic and Semitohamitic/Semito-Hamitic), which has been criticized for its ina…
Date: 2018-04-01


(2,230 words)

Author(s): Hussein Abdul-Raof
There has been a terminological mix-up and indeterminacy over the syntactic and the semantic notion of fāʿil by Arab grammarians, who distinguished between transitive and intransitive verbs, but did not focus on inherent componential features of the verb or the noun (phrase) when investigating the semantic role of fāʿil in a given proposition. Arab grammarians did not provide clear-cut semantic criteria for the potentially agentive nominal. Their characterization, therefore, was syntactic, rather than semantic. Arab grammarians assigned the role of Agent ( fāʿil) to post-verb…
Date: 2018-04-01


(3,039 words)

Author(s): Maher Bahloul
Agreement is a relational feature obtaining between members of different phrases and clauses. Within the Standard Arabic verbal paradigm, for example, verbs agree with subjects in three features: gender, person, and number. This is illustrated in sentences (1), (2), and (3). (1) a. nām-a al-walad-u slept-3.s.m the-boy-nom ‘The boy slept’ b. nām-at al-bint-u slept-3.s.f the-girl-nom ‘The girl slept’ (2) a. ʾana nim-tu I.s.m/f slept-1s.m/f ‘I slept’ b. ʾanta nim-ta you.s.m slept-2.s.m ‘You slept’ c. huwa nām-a he.s.m slept-3s.m ‘He slept’ (3) a. ʾanta nim-ta you.s.m slept-2.s.m ‘Yo…
Date: 2018-04-01
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