Encyclopedia of Arabic Language and Linguistics

Get access Subject: Language and Linguistics
Managing Editors Online Edition: Lutz Edzard and Rudolf de Jong

The Encyclopedia of Arabic Language and Linguistics Online comprehensively covers all aspects of Arabic languages and linguistics. It is interdisciplinary in scope and represents different schools and approaches in order to be as objective and versatile as possible. The Encyclopedia of Arabic Language and Linguistics Online is cross-searchable and cross-referenced, and is equipped with a browsable index. All relevant fields in Arabic linguistics, both general and language specific are covered and the Encyclopedia of Arabic Language and Linguistics Online includes topics from interdisciplinary fields, such as anthropology, psychology, sociology, philosophy, and computer science.

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Adverbs

(3,060 words)

Author(s): Janet Watson
Classical Arabic has few words that function solely as adverbs. More often, a word with a basic nominal or adjectival function may be used as an adverbial in certain syntactic contexts. Prepositional phrases typically function as adverbials. The accusative is the fundamental marker of adverbiality in Classical Arabic. (The few exceptions to this rule will be dealt with below in sections 1.1 and 1.2.) This general pattern is most obviously apparent in forms such as dāʾim-an ‘always’ derived from the adjective dāʾim ‘lasting’ or dawām-an ‘permanently’ derived from the noun dawām ‘perma…
Date: 2018-04-01

Affixation

(3,172 words)

Author(s): Lutz Edzard
  Definition Affixation refers to the adding of morphemes – prefixes, infixes, and suffixes – to a nominal or verbal stem, usually with the specification that these morphemes do not occur as independent units. This stipulation accounts for the crucial difference between affixation and compounding, even though a strict separation between these two concepts is not always possible. As all Semitic languages typologically belong to the inflecting type, Arabic only exhibits a moderate degree of affixati…
Date: 2018-09-15

Affrication

(1,461 words)

Author(s): Chakir Zeroual
1. Introduction Affrication is a process creating what are commonly called affricated stops or affricates. These sounds consist phonetically of a cluster formed by a plosive + homorganic fricative, but behave phonologically as one segment (Jakobson a.o. 1952; Sagey 1986; Rubach 1994; Clements 1999). They frequently arise as allophonic variants of non-affricated stops before high vowels and glides (e.g. [t] > [ts, t∫] / __ [i]/[j], [t] > [ts] / __ [u]/[w] in Korean, Japanese, Danish, Romance [Clements 1999]; and /k/ > [t∫] in Slavic, Arabic), but constitute contrastive phoneme…
Date: 2018-04-01

Afghanistan Arabic

(4,534 words)

Author(s): Bruce Ingham
1. General 1.1 Area The Arabic dialect of Afghanistan is an offshoot of the better described dialects of Central Asia, which became known initially through the work of Ceret'eli (1956). The tradition of the speakers is that they arrived in the area in the time of Tamerlane, Amīr Taymūr Kūraghān as they called him, i.e. in the 14th century C.E. There may be some truth in this as Tamerlane is known to have deported Arab populations from Syria to Central Asia. They also claim to be of the Qurayš coming from Yaman. This is less easy to substantiate. However, linguistic evidence suggest…
Date: 2018-04-01

Afro-Asiatic Languages

(3,427 words)

Author(s): Andrzej Zaborski
Together with other Semitic languages, Arabic belongs to the greater language family (or ‘phylum’, as some linguists prefer) called Afro-Asiatic (some scholars prefer the spelling Afroasiatic, since Semitic languages are spoken both in Africa and in Asia; ‘Afro-Asiatic’ was contracted by Diakonoff to ‘Afrasian’). This name has largely, although not completely, supplanted the older Hamito-Semitic (with variants Hamitosemitic and Semitohamitic/Semito-Hamitic), which has been criticized for its ina…
Date: 2018-04-01

Agent

(2,230 words)

Author(s): Hussein Abdul-Raof
There has been a terminological mix-up and indeterminacy over the syntactic and the semantic notion of fāʿil by Arab grammarians, who distinguished between transitive and intransitive verbs, but did not focus on inherent componential features of the verb or the noun (phrase) when investigating the semantic role of fāʿil in a given proposition. Arab grammarians did not provide clear-cut semantic criteria for the potentially agentive nominal. Their characterization, therefore, was syntactic, rather than semantic. Arab grammarians assigned the role of Agent ( fāʿil) to post-verb…
Date: 2018-04-01

Agreement

(3,039 words)

Author(s): Maher Bahloul
Agreement is a relational feature obtaining between members of different phrases and clauses. Within the Standard Arabic verbal paradigm, for example, verbs agree with subjects in three features: gender, person, and number. This is illustrated in sentences (1), (2), and (3). (1) a. nām-a al-walad-u slept-3.s.m the-boy-nom ‘The boy slept’ b. nām-at al-bint-u slept-3.s.f the-girl-nom ‘The girl slept’ (2) a. ʾana nim-tu I.s.m/f slept-1s.m/f ‘I slept’ b. ʾanta nim-ta you.s.m slept-2.s.m ‘You slept’ c. huwa nām-a he.s.m slept-3s.m ‘He slept’ (3) a. ʾanta nim-ta you.s.m slept-2.s.m ‘Yo…
Date: 2018-04-01
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