Encyclopedia of Arabic Language and Linguistics

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Managing Editors Online Edition: Lutz Edzard and Rudolf de Jong

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The Encyclopedia of Arabic Language and Linguistics Online comprehensively covers all aspects of Arabic languages and linguistics. It is interdisciplinary in scope and represents different schools and approaches in order to be as objective and versatile as possible. The Encyclopedia of Arabic Language and Linguistics Online is cross-searchable and cross-referenced, and is equipped with a browsable index. All relevant fields in Arabic linguistics, both general and language specific are covered and the Encyclopedia of Arabic Language and Linguistics Online includes topics from interdisciplinary fields, such as anthropology, psychology, sociology, philosophy, and computer science.

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Cairo Arabic

(6,134 words)

Author(s): Manfred Woidich
1. General Cairo Arabic, often simply called Egyptian Arabic, is the main linguistic vehicle used all over Egypt. Originally the dialect of the capital Cairo, it is being adopted by millions of speakers all over Egypt, in particular in urban areas, as a language of daily life. The number of native speakers is also several millions. The variety described here is spoken by the middle class as it is also commonly heard in the media (radio, television, movies). Owing to the cultural export of Egypt to other Arab countries, Cairo Arabic is widely understood in the whole Arab world. Cairo Arabic is…
Date: 2018-04-01


(6 words)

see Script and Art
Date: 2018-04-01

Cameroon Arabic

(4,147 words)

Author(s): George Echu
Literature on the state of Arabic in Cameroon is almost unavailable, if not non-existent. Several works that dwell on the description of Cameroonian languages have little or nothing to offer in this domain, not even the most recently published directory of Cameroonian languages by Bitjaʾa Kody (2003). Yet the presence of Arabic on Cameroonian soil as an indigenous, vehicular, and foreign language makes this language too important to be overlooked. This entry is therefore an attempt to present a linguistic picture of Arabic as it is known and used in Cameroon. 1. Language situation in Came…
Date: 2018-09-15

Caretaker Talk

(2,897 words)

Author(s): Khawla Aljenaie
1. Definition The term ‘caretaker talk’ is used in the areas of developmental psycholinguistics and first language acquisition to describe the language adults use to address young children, and sometimes that of an older to a younger child. It is a register distinct from adult-adult speech (Snow 1986) and describes the modifications found in adult-child speech. It is also known as ‘child directed speech’ and as ‘caregiver’ or ‘caretaker language’. Some researchers have used ‘ motherese’ to refer to the language used by mothers, as if only mothers use a special way of a…
Date: 2018-04-01

Case Roles

(2,803 words)

Author(s): Hussein Abdul-Raof
Case roles represent deep structure relations between noun phrases and the verb in a given proposition. Case roles, therefore, are not concerned with the traditional grammatical case that is related to inflectional forms designating the nominative, accusative, genitive, etc. While inflections ( ʿalāmāt al-ʾiʿrāb) express surface cases, are related to surface structure, and are grammatical in nature, case roles express semantic relations or functions, are deep structure relations, and are semantic in nature. In other words, lexical relati…
Date: 2018-04-01

Case Theory

(3,839 words)

Author(s): Mark S. LeTourneau
Case is a concept with deep historical roots in Western and indigenous Arabic grammatical theory. In modern linguistics, case refers not only to the morphological shape of nominals and their modifiers but also to their syntactic and semantic roles within a sentence (Ura 2003:334), for example subject and object or agent and theme (case roles; theta roles). Arabic grammar, medieval and modern, recognizes three cases of nouns: nominative ( rafʿ ‘promotion’), accusative ( naṣb ‘demotion’), and genitive ( jarr ‘abatement’), realized as the suffixes -u, -a, and -i respectively (Gaballa…
Date: 2018-09-15


(1,019 words)

Author(s): Yishai Peled
The term ‘cataphora’ designates anticipatory pronouns and other forward-referring proforms. In this entry, however, the focus is on cataphoric pronouns occurring prior to the nominals they refer to, as opposed to anaphoric pronouns referring back to their antecedents. Compared to European languages, the use of cataphora in Arabic, especially in written Arabic, appears to be uncommon if not rare. Yet, in modern written Arabic, highly influenced as it is by such languages as English and French, ca…
Date: 2018-04-01

Causal Clause

(5 words)

see Subordination
Date: 2018-04-01


(3,057 words)

Author(s): Adrian Macelaru
1. Defining the causative construction The causative construction is a linguistic structure rendering an event viewed by the speaker as being causally dependent on some other event, although not overtly specified (Kemmer and Verhagen 1994:117). Accordingly, the following Literary Arabic sentences express causative constructions: (1) jaʿala zaydun hindan taktubu ‘Zayd made Hind write’ (2) ʾajlastu-hu ‘I made him sit down’ (3) kasarta l-ġuṣna ‘you broke the branch’ All of these sentences involve events (Hind's writing, his sitting down, the branch breaking) broug…
Date: 2018-04-01

C (Cachia, Pierre J.E. - Christie, W.)

(2,012 words)

Cachia, Pierre J.E. Ḥāl, Interjection, Istiṯnāʾ, Majāz Cadora, Frederic J. Bedouinization, Hamza caesura Rhyme Caetani, Leone Nisba, Proper Names, Proper Names Čagatay → Chagatay Cairene Arabic Adverbs, Argument, Article, Indefinite, Bedouinization, Beirut Arabic, Bʿēri Arabic, Bʿēri Arabic, Bʿēri Arabic, Binding, Cairo Arabic, Classicism, Colloquial, Colloquial, Communal Dialects, Convergence, Demonstratives, Dialect Geography, Dialect Koine, Dialects: Classification, Dialects: Classification, Diathesis, Educated Arab…
Date: 2018-04-01

C (Christmann, Jakob - compound, verbal)

(1,803 words)

Christmann, Jakob Arabic Studies in Europe Chtatou, Mohamed Berber Loanwords Chugtai, Shaheen Language Policies and Language Planning, Language Policies and Language Planning Church Slavonic, Old Slavonic Languages church, Latin Sicily Churchyard, Henry Mechanisms of Linguistic Change Chuvash Slavonic Languages Chyet, Michael Kurdish Cifoletti, Guido Italian, Tunisia Cigal Cameroon Arabic Cilicia Cilician Arabic, Syria, Turkey Cilician Arabic Anatolian Arabic, Cilician Arabic, Gender, Possession, Prepositions, Syria, Turkish Loanwords, cinema Convergence, Dama…
Date: 2018-04-01

C (comprehensibility, mutual - Corriente, Federico C.)

(1,576 words)

comprehensibility, mutual Speech Accommodation, Speech Accommodation comprehension First Language Acquisition computational Computational Linguistics computational system Minimalism Comrie, Bernard Argument, Linguistics and Arabic, Locatives, Locatives, Maltese, Possession, Pseudoverb, Relative Clause, Tense, Tense, Transformational Grammar, Word Order conative Indonesian/Malay concatenation Automatic Language Processing, Automatic Language Processing, Automatic Language Processing, Epenthesis concatenation, morpheme Epenthesis, Phonology concate…
Date: 2018-04-01

C (corroboration - Czech, Arabic loanwords in)

(558 words)

corroboration Collocation corroborative Apposition, Tamyīz corruption of speech Grammatical Tradition: History, Lingua Franca corvee-texts Thamudic Corvetto, Ines Intonation Coseriu, Eugenio Dialects: Genesis Côte française des Somalis Djibouti/Eritrea Couba Djibouti/Eritrea Coulmas, Florian Indirect Speech Council of Florence Arabic Studies in Europe counterfactual Cairo Arabic, Creole Arabic, Damascus Arabic, Negev Arabic, Palestinian Arabic counterfactual conditional Meccan Arabic counterintuitive Asseverative Particle counting unit Tunis Arabic Couper-…
Date: 2018-04-01