Encyclopedia of Arabic Language and Linguistics

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Subject: Language and Linguistics

Managing Editors Online Edition: Lutz Edzard and Rudolf de Jong

The Encyclopedia of Arabic Language and Linguistics Online comprehensively covers all aspects of Arabic languages and linguistics. It is interdisciplinary in scope and represents different schools and approaches in order to be as objective and versatile as possible. The Encyclopedia of Arabic Language and Linguistics Online is cross-searchable and cross-referenced, and is equipped with a browsable index. All relevant fields in Arabic linguistics, both general and language specific are covered and the Encyclopedia of Arabic Language and Linguistics Online includes topics from interdisciplinary fields, such as anthropology, psychology, sociology, philosophy, and computer science.

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(1,218 words)

Author(s): Michael G. Carter
The word sabab literally means ‘a cord or ligature’, often ‘a tent rope’, signifying the tight structural bond between the fabric of the tent and the peg. In the Arab sciences, this concept has been exploited metaphorically in a number of ways, in prosody as the name for part of a metrical unit (another element being the
Date: 2018-04-01


(4 words)

see Thamudic
Date: 2018-04-01


(2,429 words)

Author(s): Gert Borg
1. Introduction …
Date: 2018-04-01

Salt, Dialect of

(7,609 words)

Author(s): Bruno Herin
  1. Introduction The city of Salt is located 25 kilometers northwest of Amman, the capital of Jordan, and has around 71,100 inhabitants. Until recently, it was the biggest town on the eastern bank of the Jordan River; things started to change when Amman became the capital of Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan. Since Amman had no indigenous population, the dialect spoken in Salt can be rightly considered a typical example of sedentary Jordanian. The dialect described here is endangered and is probably sti…
Date: 2018-04-01

Ṣanʿānī Arabic

(5,338 words)

Author(s): Janet Watson
1. General Ṣanʿānī Arabic is the dialect of the original inhabita…
Date: 2018-04-01


(2,696 words)

Author(s): Robert D. Hoberman
The term sandhi
Date: 2018-04-01


(3,028 words)

Author(s): Joyce Åkesson
1. Definition …
Date: 2018-04-01

Saudi Arabia

(4,992 words)

Author(s): Bruce Ingham
1. Introduction …
Date: 2018-04-01

Šāwi Arabic

(6,519 words)

Author(s): Igor Younes | Bruno Herin
  1. Introduction The term Šāwi may refer to various unrelated groups, such as one of the Berber varieties spoken in Algeria, the sheep-breeder Bedouins of inner Oman, as well as the sheep-breeder Bedouins of the Syro-Mesopotamian area. The root š-w-y also appears in the ethnonym Šuwa, which refers to some Arabic-speaking populations around the Lake Chad. The present entry only deals with the sheep-breeder Bedouins of Syro-Mesopotamia. Mostly sedentarized, the Šiwāya
Date: 2018-04-01


(5 words)

see Sound Symbolism
Date: 2018-04-01

Scope and approach of the Encyclopedia of Arabic Language and Linguistics

(1,075 words)

Author(s): Eid, Mushira | Elgibali, Alaa | Versteegh, Kees | Woidich, Manfred | Zaborski, Andrzej
The EALL is a comprehensive encyclopedia covering all relevant aspects of the study of Arabic and dealing with all levels of the language (pre-Classical Arabic, Classical Arabic, Modern Standard Arabic, Arabic vernaculars, mixed varieties of Arabic), both synchronically and diachronically. It has been published in five volumes with a total of two million words, distributed over approximately 500 entries. The treatment includes both the external and the internal history of the language, as well as…
Date: 2018-04-01


(6 words)

see Arabic Alphabet: Origin
Date: 2018-04-01

Script and Art

(4,145 words)

Author(s): Adam Gacek
Date: 2018-04-01

Second Language Acquisition

(5,211 words)

Author(s): Mohammad T. Alhawary
1. Introduction …
Date: 2018-04-01

Second Language Teaching

(6,920 words)

Author(s): Helle Lykke Nielsen
1. Introduction …
Date: 2018-04-01

Secret Languages

(2,996 words)

Author(s): Abderrahim Youssi
1. Definition of secret languages Dissimulation, one of the current functions of language, is the process whereby communicants resort to various stratagems to conceal from outsiders the content of what are intended as private or restricted exchanges (slang; jargon). Effected through the use of secret languages, this function is performed, basically, in one of two ways: i.The use of foreign or minority languages, or the use of metaphorical speech (usually slang, argot, etc.); this type, which consists in referring to things by different names, may be called notional or semantic sec…
Date: 2018-04-01

Sectarian Varieties

(6 words)

see Communal Dialects
Date: 2018-04-01

Semantic Bleaching

(2,615 words)

Author(s): Mohssen Esseesy
The term ‘semantic bleaching’ refers to loss of lexical content or categorial status of a lexical item in the course of diachronic semantic change, typically resulting from a grammaticalization process whereby certain lexical items develop into markers of grammatical relations, thus acquiring grammatical functions. This phenomenon is variously labeled ‘desemanticization’ (Lehmann 1995:127), ‘semantic weakening’ (Guimier 1985:157), ‘abstraction’ (Heine a.o. 1991:41–45; Heine 1991:155–157), ‘seman…
Date: 2018-04-01

Semantic Extension

(3,462 words)

Author(s): Mohssen Esseesy
Semantic extension refers to the process through which one or more semantic senses within the same or another conceptual domain are added to the core semantic sense or focus of a linguistic item. Defined as such, semantic extension has a diachronic dimension, in which a single linguistic form accumulates additional senses over time. These senses are sometimes demonstrably close and are thereby regarded within cognitive semantics as cases of polysemy; other cases in which no apparent set of seman…
Date: 2018-04-01

Semitic Languages

(5,293 words)

Author(s): Rainer Voigt
  1. Arabic as an archaic Semitic language Historically, the core region of the Semitic peoples during the 3rd and 2nd millennia B.C.E. lay in the Fertile Crescent (Palestine – Syria – Mesopotamia). Therefore, their assumed shared original homeland cannot have been situated very far from there. Applying a genetically based distribution model of the individual Semitic peoples, it may be assumed that they emerged from the Syrian desert/steppe and infiltrated the fertile agrarian lands to the east, west, a…
Date: 2018-04-01
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