Encyclopedia of Arabic Language and Linguistics

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Managing Editors Online Edition: Lutz Edzard and Rudolf de Jong

The Encyclopedia of Arabic Language and Linguistics Online comprehensively covers all aspects of Arabic languages and linguistics. It is interdisciplinary in scope and represents different schools and approaches in order to be as objective and versatile as possible. The Encyclopedia of Arabic Language and Linguistics Online is cross-searchable and cross-referenced, and is equipped with a browsable index. All relevant fields in Arabic linguistics, both general and language specific are covered and the Encyclopedia of Arabic Language and Linguistics Online includes topics from interdisciplinary fields, such as anthropology, psychology, sociology, philosophy, and computer science.

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ʿĀʾid

(1,207 words)

Author(s): Yishai Peled
When dealing with anaphoric reference, the Medieval Arab grammarians normally use the verb ʿāda ( yaʿūdu ʾilā ‘referring to’). The term ʿāʾid (occasionally rābiṭ, rājiʿ) is typically used to denote the resumptive pronoun in either a clausal predicate ( jumla xabar) or a relative clause ( jumla ṣila/ṣifa). The underlying principle in both cases is that the basic form of the predicate and the attribute is a phrase referring back to the mubtadaʾ (the subject in a non-VS sentence, sometimes translated as ‘topic’, a pragmatic term that does not cover all instances of mubtadaʾ) or head ( manʿūt) …
Date: 2018-04-01

ʿAjamī

(4 words)

see Faṣīḥ
Date: 2018-04-01

Aktionsart

(1,559 words)

Author(s): Johannes Reese
The notion of Aktionsart has arisen as a counter-notion to the concept of aspect. Aspect refers to temporal structures. This notion has been developed in studies on Arabic (Maas p.c.), where a dichotomy exists reflecting a boundedness distinction (a state of affairs is considered ‘bounded’ if it is terminated). Structures that are not connected to this distinction are described with the term Aktionsart. However, there has been a lot of confusion about the use of the notion of aspect. Other langu…
Date: 2018-04-01

Algeria

(3,481 words)

Author(s): Jacques Grand'Henry
Research on Algerian Arabic may be divided into two main periods: the first began during the first years of the 20th century and ended some time after Algerian independance (1962), i.e. during the 1970s. The basic research on dialectal geography (Cantineau 1937, 1938, 1940, 1941) and the most comprehensive monographs on Algerian Arabic, particularly on some representative dialects (W. Marçais 1902, 1908; Ph. Marçais 1945, 1956, 1960a, 1960b, 1977; Grand'Henry 1972, 1976a) were produced during th…
Date: 2018-04-01

Algiers Arabic

(5,498 words)

Author(s): Aziza Boucherit
1. Generalities 1.1 Located in the center of the Algerian coast, Algiers, al-Jazāʾir, Algeria's capital, chief town of a wilāya, faces both the sea and its hinterland. It is organized into 15 communes and has 1,483,000 inhabitants. The incorporation of 28 suburban communes into Greater Algiers makes that agglomeration the second in the Maghreb after Casablanca; it is the first city in the country with 2,562,428 inhabitants out of an estimated population of 29,100,867 inhabitants and represents 13.69 percent of the…
Date: 2018-04-01

ʿAmal

(5,809 words)

Author(s): Valeriy Rybalkin
1. Government and governors The syntactic term ʿamal ‘action, performance’ denotes ‘ governance’, i.e. the grammatical effect of one word of a sentence on another. All constituents of a sentence are either ʿawāmil (sg. ʿāmil) ‘governors’ or maʿmūlāt (sg. maʿmūl) ‘governed’. The effect of this government is a case ending ( ʾiʿrab ‘declension’). For the noun these endings are: -u nominative ( rafʿ): rajul-un ‘a man’; -a accusative ( naṣb): rajul-an; -i genitive ( jarr or xafḍ): rajul-in. In the verb only the imperfect has declined forms: -u indicative ( rafʿ): yaḏhab-u ‘he goes’; -a subjunc…
Date: 2018-04-01

Amharic

(4 words)

see Ethiopia
Date: 2018-04-01

Amman Arabic

(7 words)

see Jordanian Arabic (Amman)
Date: 2018-04-01

Āmmiyya

(6 words)

see Diglossia ; Colloquial
Date: 2018-04-01

Analogy

(4,179 words)

Author(s): Robert R. Ratcliffe
1. Analogy in affixational morphology In historical linguistics, analogy is generally defined as a process by which words or morphemes are created or recreated on the model of existing linguistic patterns. Analogy operates independently of sound change and often regularizes irregularities brought about by sound change. The most widely discussed form of analogy is proportional analogy: A is to A' as B is to B'. It has been suggested that analogy operates in the direction of maximizing ‘semantic iconicity’, i.e. the one-to-one matc…
Date: 2018-04-01

Analytic Genitive

(2,244 words)

Author(s): Kerstin Eksell
In the analytic or periphrastic genitive, the genitive relation is expressed by means of a particular genitive exponent placed between the noun and its genitival modifier, e.g. d-dukkān tabaʿ t-tājir (cf. English ‘the shop of the merchant’). The analytic genitive is a dialectal innovation. In fuṣḥā, the genitive is of a synthetic kind, hereafter called the synthetic genitive (construct state), formed by the juxtaposing of the two terms (and by inflecting the second term in the genitive case), e.g. dukkānu t-tājiri (cf. English ‘the merchant's shop’). Although the synthetic …
Date: 2018-04-01

Anaphora

(6 words)

see Pronominalization ; Deixis
Date: 2018-04-01

Anaptyxis

(967 words)

Author(s): Petr Zemánek
Anaptyxis is defined as the insertion of a short/extra short (non-etymological) vowel between consonants in order to make a word more easily pronounceable. In Arabic, it is also employed to resolve consonantal clusters prohibited by the syllable structure rules, which generally leads to a creation of a new syllable. It is also called epenthesis; a similar phenomenon in nouns may be called ‘nomina segolata’ (especially employed with regard to Hebrew). This phenomenon takes place in various positions; at the beginning of a word, it is usually called prothesis. It ma…
Date: 2018-04-01

Anatolian Arabic

(5,536 words)

Author(s): Otto O. Jastrow
1. General There are three distinct areas in Turkey where Arabic dialects are spoken: i.The coastal region of the Eastern Mediterranean from Hatay (Antakya) to Mersin and Adana; all the Arabic dialects spoken in this region are linguistically part of the Syrian Arabic dialect area (Cilician Arabic). ii.Parts of Urfa province which are close to the Syrian border; the dialects spoken in this region are a continuation of the Bedouin dialects of the Syrian desert. iii.Eastern Anatolia, an area comprising the Turkish provinces of Mardin, Siirt, and Diyarbakır. Only the dialects spoken …
Date: 2018-04-01

Andalus

(4,151 words)

Author(s): Otto Zwartjes
1. Introduction After the initial conquest of al-Andalus by the Muslim armies, a process of Arabization both linguistic and cultural started (Andalusi Arabic). Arabic culture remained a crucial factor on the Iberian Peninsula in the period between the invasion of the Muslims in 711 and the expulsion of the Moriscos at the beginning of the 17th century. The fundamental question is to what degree Arabic was used, or not used, among the inhabitants of the Iberian Peninsula (Christians, Jews, and Muslims), in different periods and different regions. Sources are relatively spa…
Date: 2018-04-01

Andalusi Arabic

(6,672 words)

Author(s): Federico Corriente
1. Andalusi Arabic Andalusi Arabic is a dialect bundle, constituted by scarcely differentiated members and generated by the occupation of the Iberian Peninsula at the beginning of the 8th century by armies of Muslim Arabs and (partially) Arabicized Berbers. It appears to have spread rapidly and been in general oral use in most parts of the geopolitical entity resulting from those events, called al-Andalus by its native population, between the 9th and 15th centuries. It reached its highest peak of users, which can be roughly estimate…
Date: 2018-04-01

Annexation

(2,604 words)

Author(s): Lutz Edzard
  1. Definition and overview In Semitic studies, the combination of a first constituent ( nomen regens) in the Construct State and a second constituent ( nomen rectum) overtly or structurally in the genitive counts as “annexation”. While the first constituent in a genitive construction often corresponds to the “possessed” and the second constituent to the “possessor” (e.g., baytu r-rajuli ‘the house of the man’), this equation does not hold across the board semantically (cf. the opposite scheme in, e.g., ṣāḥibu l-bayti ‘the owner of the house’) and therefore is avoided here…
Date: 2018-04-01

Antiochia Arabic

(4,968 words)

Author(s): Werner Arnold
1. General 1.1 Geographical area Arabic in Antiochia is spoken by Sunnis, Alawis ( Nuṣayris), Christians, and by the Jewish community of the city of Antakya. Until 1999 a small Arabic-speaking community also existed in the city of Iskenderun. In the second half of the 20th century, many Arabs left Antiochia and settled in Europe, so that, for example, the Christian community of Yayladağ no longer exists. All of the Alawites live in the Western part of the province of Antioch, west of a line from Iskenderun to Kılıçtutan. The Sunnis live east of this line except for the Arabic-speak…
Date: 2018-09-15