Encyclopedia of Arabic Language and Linguistics

Get access Subject: Language and Linguistics
Managing Editors Online Edition: Lutz Edzard and Rudolf de Jong

The Encyclopedia of Arabic Language and Linguistics Online comprehensively covers all aspects of Arabic languages and linguistics. It is interdisciplinary in scope and represents different schools and approaches in order to be as objective and versatile as possible. The Encyclopedia of Arabic Language and Linguistics Online is cross-searchable and cross-referenced, and is equipped with a browsable index. All relevant fields in Arabic linguistics, both general and language specific are covered and the Encyclopedia of Arabic Language and Linguistics Online includes topics from interdisciplinary fields, such as anthropology, psychology, sociology, philosophy, and computer science.

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(2,462 words)

Author(s): Samira Farwaneh
Date: 2018-04-01

Epigraphy (Islamic)

(5,690 words)

Author(s): Sheila S. Blair
Epigraphy (from the Greek epigráphein ‘to write on’) is the science or study of inscriptions. It is distinguished from calligraphy (lit. ‘beautiful writing’ Script and art) by the nature of the physical support on which the writing is inscribed. Epigraphy is executed on durable materials. In the Islamic lands these include buildings made of stone or brick, where the epigraphy is often carved in relief form, and portable objects made of wood, metal, ceramics, or glass and the like. Calligraphy, in co…
Date: 2018-04-01

Equative Clause

(5 words)

see Copula
Date: 2018-04-01


(4 words)

see Djibouti/Eritrea
Date: 2018-04-01


(3,609 words)

Author(s): Andreas Wetter
  1. Arabic in Ethiopia Since ancient times Arabic has played an important role in the social and literary life of Ethiopia. The geographic proximity between the Horn of Africa and the Arabian Peninsula has encouraged cultural and linguistic contacts between the two sides of the Red Sea. As a result, the Arabic language has had a considerable influence on the languages and literature of Ethiopia. Until now, though, only a limited amount of the available data has been studied. Although Ethiopia …
Date: 2018-04-01

Ethiopic Loanwords

(936 words)

Author(s): Stefan Weninger
Ethiopic loanwords in Arab…
Date: 2018-04-01

Ethnicity and Language

(5,902 words)

Author(s): Humphrey T. Davies
Among the various identifying characteristics of ethnic groups, such as ancestry, religion, and territory, language is often considered the most prominent. This entry focuses on the extent to which Arabic itself serves as a unifying identity symbol, and then looks at the significance of language variation for some of the minority ethnic groups within the Arab world. Such groups may relate to language in a variety of ways, and distinctions based on language do not always correlate with those based on other criteria. Before the movement of the Arabs out of Arabia and across the Levant, Mesopotamia, and North Africa, the area now called the Arab world had hosted many other cultures, including the Sumerians, Babylonians, Assyrians, Phoenicians, Ancient Egyptians, Persians, Greeks, and Romans. Before the arrival of Islam, it had seen the birth of Judaism and Christianity. The legacies of these pre-Islamic peoples and cultures did not all simply disappear with the advent of the M…
Date: 2018-04-01


(2,322 words)

Author(s): Václav Blažek
Etymology is a linguistic discipline dating from Ancient Greece. Plato, for instance, devoted his dialogue Kratylos to the explanation of various Greek words. The word etumología ‘the analysis of a word so as to find its origin’ was first used at the end of the 1st century B.C.E. by Strabo (784) and Dionysius Halicarnassensis ( De compositione verborum 16); the verb étumologeō ‘I analyze a word and find its origin’ is us…
Date: 2018-04-01


(2,015 words)

Author(s): Mohammed Farghal
1. Definition Euphemism is a lexical resource in language, whereby an offensive or hurtful word/phrase is replaced with one that represents a less direct expression or carries a positive attitude. It is an important vehicle for creating cognitive synonyms in language: the original expression and its euphemistic counterpart come to share denotative meaning but differ in their attitudinal parameter. The two terms zabbāl ‘garbage man’ and ʿāmil naḏ̣āfa ‘a cleanliness worker’, for example, denote the same occupation in Arabic but the second reflects a positive soci…
Date: 2018-04-01


(5,060 words)

Author(s): Jan Jaap de Ruiter
The influx to European countries of (mainly) labor migrants from countries where Arabic is the language of daily communication started in the early 1950s. The present description of the status and development of the varieties of Arabic in Europe is based on studies carried out in the various European countries where Arabic-speaking immigrant groups live. Most relevant studies come from France, Germany, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, Belgium, and Spain. These studies focus on Arabic as it i…
Date: 2018-04-01