Encyclopedia of Arabic Language and Linguistics

Get access Subject: Language and Linguistics
Managing Editors Online Edition: Lutz Edzard and Rudolf de Jong

The Encyclopedia of Arabic Language and Linguistics Online comprehensively covers all aspects of Arabic languages and linguistics. It is interdisciplinary in scope and represents different schools and approaches in order to be as objective and versatile as possible. The Encyclopedia of Arabic Language and Linguistics Online is cross-searchable and cross-referenced, and is equipped with a browsable index. All relevant fields in Arabic linguistics, both general and language specific are covered and the Encyclopedia of Arabic Language and Linguistics Online includes topics from interdisciplinary fields, such as anthropology, psychology, sociology, philosophy, and computer science.

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Mangkunagara I

(742 words)

Author(s): Ricklefs, M. C.
Prince Mangkunagara I (1726–95), known also as Raden Mas Said, as Suryakusuma and, posthumously, as Pangeran Samber Nyawa (“soul catcher”), was one of the most flamboyant figures of eighteenth-century Java. He was born in the court of Kartasura on 7 April 1726. His father was exiled in 1728, and his mother died before he was two, leaving him orphaned in the court at an early age. Much was expected of him because of his ancestry, and there were prophecies of his future greatness. He proved to be popular and able to gather many followers. In 1740, when Mangkunagara was just fourteen, he le…
Date: 2019-05-08

Manṣub

(4 words)

see ʾIʿrāb
Date: 2018-04-01

Marfūʿ

(4 words)

see ʾIʿrāb
Date: 2018-04-01

Masculine

(4 words)

see Gender
Date: 2018-04-01

Maṣdar

(2,063 words)

Author(s): Everhard Ditters
  1. Introduction One of the first times a comprehensive discussion of the term maṣdar is encountered in the linguistic literature is in Sībawayhi's (d. ca. 177/793) grammatical treatise al-Kitāb ‘the book’. His approach is presented here following Mosel (1974) by describing the category, form, and function of the maṣdar in Classical Arabic. Then, on the basis of Cantarino (1974–1975), the use of the maṣdar in Modern Literary Arabic is analyzed in order to allow for a comparison between past and present. 2. The maṣdar in Classical Arabic In the context of transitive verbs, Sībawayh…
Date: 2018-04-01

Mataram

(294 words)

Author(s): Ricklefs, M. C.
Mataram is a district in south-central Java, bordered on the north by Mount Merapi and on the south by the Indian Ocean. It is a well-watered site with rich volcanic soils that can support heavy concentrations of population and has been the site of much of the imperial history of Java since pre-Islamic days. It is centred on the present-day city of Yogyakarta, located at approximately latitude S 7°47', longitude E 110°22'. The pre-Islamic kingdom of Mataram is notable for many fine Hindu and Buddhist temples built in the eighth and ninth centuries, the most famous o…
Date: 2019-05-08

Mauritania

(5,223 words)

Author(s): Catherine Taine-Cheikh
In 1960, Mauritania, a French colony along the Atlantic Coast in West Africa, achieved independence under the name of the Islamic Republic of Mauritania. The name ‘Mauritania’, once used as the name of the Roman colonies of North Africa ( Mauretania), was reintroduced by the colonial administration to designate this western part of the Saharo-Sahelian zone, which was called in Arabic literature bilād Šinqīṭ ‘country of Šinqīṭ’, trāb al-bīḍān ‘land of the Whites’ (Taine-Cheikh 1990), or bilād as-sayba ‘country of anarchy’. The borders of the country are as arbitrary as its na…
Date: 2018-04-01

Mawḍūʿ

(1,743 words)

Author(s): Miklós Maróth
1. The meaning of the term mawḍūʿ The term mawḍūʿ is used in two senses: i.When derived from waḍʿ, which serves in the literature translated from Greek as the equivalent of the verb títhēmi ‘to place’, mawḍūʿ refers to ‘mutual agreement, convention’ (Pollak 1913:58; Georr 1948:249; Afnan 1969:315–316). Mawḍūʿ is used in this sense by az-Zajjājī (d. 339/949): “A noun is an invented sound with a conventional meaning, not specified by time” ( al-ism ṣawt mawḍūʿ dāll bi-ttifāq ʿalā maʿnan ġayr maqrūn bi-zamān; Versteegh 1995:58). This term refers to the prevailing view in Arabic …
Date: 2018-04-01

Meccan Arabic

(5,088 words)

Author(s): Mahasen Abu Mansour
1. General Meccan Arabic refers to the variety of Arabic spoken mainly in the holy city of Mecca, Saudi Arabia. In addition, it is widely used and understood in both Jeddah and Madinah, and less so in Taʾif. While the majority of the native speakers of the dialect live in Mecca and its suburbs, it is difficult to arrive at an accurate number of the speakers due to the extremely cosmopolitan nature of the population of Mecca and its constant settlement by speakers of other dialects. The annual pilgrimage season and the continuous religious visits paid by Muslims bring different cult…
Date: 2018-04-01

Mechanisms of Linguistic Change

(3,568 words)

Author(s): Reinhard Stempel
1. Introduction Language change is a process at work in any language at any time, affecting all parts of its grammatical system. In an immediately perceptible way, the lexicon especially undergoes changes, either by introducing loanwords from other languages or by creating new words from material already existing in the language. The latter process, as well as phonological and morphological changes, takes place within the language system and, therefore, follows some generally valid lines of development, owing to the fact that, as shown by F. de Saussure in his Cours de linguistique …
Date: 2018-04-01

Media

(4,483 words)

Author(s): Ragia M. Effat
‘Media’ (Arabic wasāʾil al-ʾiʿlām, pl. of wasīlat al-ʾiʿlām) is a term for vehicles for the widespread communication to and entertainment of an audience, including printed and electronic means. It is widely agreed that the media are not neutral impassive agencies that transmit news and views, but are themselves influential selectors, shapers, manufacturers, and even, on occasion, fabricators of news and views (McArthur 1998). The topic of this entry is the development of Arabic language media, specific…
Date: 2018-04-01

Media Arabic

(3,236 words)

Author(s): Ragia M. Effat
One of the most important aspects of Arab press and radio broadcasting is the Arabic language itself. The growth of Arab mass media since the 1950s has greatly enhanced the wider use of Modern Standard Arabic. This is the language of the newspapers and the electronic media, which is generally understood by the population of the Arab world. Arabic itself is viewed as an important element in the effectiveness of a propaganda effort. The Arabic language, creatively employed and strongly delivered, will produce the intended reaction among listeners. Arabic…
Date: 2018-04-01

Mehri

(6 words)

see South Arabian, Modern
Date: 2018-04-01

Merger

(5 words)

see Phonological Merger
Date: 2018-04-01

Mesopotamian Arabic

(5 words)

see Iraq
Date: 2018-04-01

Metaphor

(6 words)

see Istiʿāra ; Majāz
Date: 2018-04-01

Metathesis

(2,374 words)

Author(s): Elizabeth Hume
1. Introduction ‘Metathesis’ is a term used to describe a language sound pattern in which a sequence of sounds appears in one order in one context but in the opposite order in a related context. The transposition of sounds of this type is commonly observed in Arabic languages, as can be seen in Maltese, for example, by comparing verb forms such as [yokrob] and [yokorbu] ‘to groan [3rd pers. sg./pl. imperf.]’; the sequence [ro] occurs in the singular form of the word while the reverse order [or] is found in the plural. In addition to the use of metathesis as a descriptive term, in generative …
Date: 2019-03-26

Meter

(5,200 words)

Author(s): Dmitry Frolov
1. The theory of meter Arabic versification ( ʿarūḍ) is quantitative, a unique phenomenon among the Semitic languages, where accent verse systems dominate. Its theory was developed by al-Xalīl ibn ʾAḥmad (d. 175/791 or 170/786 or 160/776), who was also a prominent figure in the genesis of Arabic linguistic science. The classical theory postulates sixteen meters, although the number of meters used in poetic practice does not exceed a dozen. The pioneers of the study of ʿarūḍ in Europe, such as William Jones (1777), Georg Wilhelm Freytag (1830), and Georg Ewald (1825–1854…
Date: 2019-03-23
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